## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|ECE2544

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写数字硬件系统Digital hardware systems方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写数字硬件系统Digital hardware systems代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写数字硬件系统Digital hardware systems相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|Routing Architecture

The routing architecture of an FPLD determines a way in which the programmable switches and wiring segments are positioned to allow the programmable interconnection of logic cells. A routing architecture for an FPLD must meet two criteria: routability and speed. Routability refers to the capability of an FPLD to accommodate all the nets of a typical application, despite the fact that the wiring segments must be defined at the time the blank FPLD is made. Only switches connecting wiring segments can be programmed (customized) for a specific application, not the numbers, lengths or locations of the wiring segments themselves. The goal is to provide a sufficient number of wiring segments while not wasting chip area. It is also important that the routing of an application can be determined by an automated algorithm with minimal intervention.

Propagation delay through the routing is a major factor in FPLD performance. After routing an FPLD, the exact segments and switches used to establish the net are known and the delay from the driving output to each input can be computed. Any programmable switch (EPROM, pass-transistor, or antifuse) has a significant resistance and capacitance. Each time a signal passes through a programmable switch, another RC stage is added to the propagation delay. For a fixed R and C, the propagation delay mounts quadratically with the number of series RC stages. The use of a low resistance switch, such as antifuse, keeps the delay low and its distribution tight. Of equal significance is optimization of the routing architecture. Routing architectures of some commercial FPLD families are presented in this section.

In order to present commercial routing architectures, we will use the routing architecture model shown in Figure 1.17. First, a few definitions are introduced in order to form a unified viewpoint when considering routing architectures.

A wire segment is a wire unbroken by programmable switches. One or more switches may attach to a wire segment. Typically, one switch is attached to the each end of a wire segment. A track is a sequence of one or more wire segments in a line. A routing channel is a group of parallel tracks.

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|FPLD Applications

FPLDs have been used in a large number of applications, ranging from the simple ones replacing glue logic to those implementing new computing paradigms, that are not possible using other technologies. In this section we will list some of them, as to make a classification into some typical groups, and emphasize most important features of each group.

CPLDs are used in applications that can efficiently use wide fan-in of AND/OR gates and do not need a large number of flip-flops. Examples of such circuits are various kinds of finite state machines. On the other hand, FPGAs with a large number of flip-flops are better suited for the applications that need memory functions and complex data paths. Also, due to their easy reprogrammability they become an important element of prototyping digital systems designs. As such they enable emulation of entire complex systems, and in many cases also their final implementation. Finally, all FPGAs as the static RAM based circuits allow at least a minimum level of dynamic reconfigurability. While all of them allow full device reconfiguration by downloading another bitstream (configuration file), some of them also allow partial reconfiguration. The partial reconfiguration provides change of the function of a part of the device, while the remaining part operates without disruption of the system function.

In order to visualize the range of current and potential applications, we have to mention typical features of FPLDs in terms of their capacity and speed. Today the leading suppliers of FPLDs offer devices containing up to 500,000 equivalent (twoinput NAND) gates, with a perspective to quadruple this figure in the next two to three years. These devices are delivered in a number of configurations so that application designers have the choice to fit their designs into a device with minimal capacity. They also come in a range of speed grades and different packages with different number of input/output pins. The number of pins sometimes exceeds 600 . The speed of circuits implemented in FPLDs varies depending primarily on application and design approach. As an illustration, all major manufacturers offer devices that provide full compliance with 64-bit $66 \mathrm{MHz}$ PCI-bus requirements.

# 数字硬件系统代考

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|Routing Architecture

FPLD 的路由架构决定了可编程开关和布线段的定位方式，以实现逻辑单元的可编程互连。FPLD 的布线架构必须满足两个标准：可布线性和速度。可布线性是指 FPLD 适应典型应用的所有网络的能力，尽管必须在制作空白 FPLD 时定义布线段。只有连接接线段的开关才能针对特定应用进行编程（定制），而不是接线段本身的数量、长度或位置。目标是在不浪费芯片面积的情况下提供足够数量的布线段。同样重要的是，应用程序的路由可以由自动化算法以最少的干预来确定。

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|FPLD Applications

FPLD 已用于大量应用，从替换胶合逻辑的简单应用到实现新计算范例的应用，这些都是使用其他技术无法实现的。在本节中，我们将列出其中的一些，以将其分类为一些典型的组，并强调每个组的最重要特征。

CPLD 用于可有效使用宽扇入 AND/OR 门且不需要大量触发器的应用。这种电路的例子是各种有限状态机。另一方面，具有大量触发器的 FPGA 更适合需要存储功能和复杂数据路径的应用。此外，由于它们易于重新编程，它们成为数字系统设计原型设计的重要元素。因此，它们可以模拟整个复杂系统，在许多情况下还可以模拟它们的最终实施。最后，作为基于静态 RAM 的电路的所有 FPGA 至少允许最低水平的动态可重构性。虽然它们都允许通过下载另一个比特流（配置文件）进行完整的设备重新配置，但其中一些还允许部分重新配置。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|CSE320

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写数字硬件系统Digital hardware systems方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写数字硬件系统Digital hardware systems代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写数字硬件系统Digital hardware systems相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|Antifuse Programming Technology

An antifuse is an electrically programmable two-terminal device. It irreversibly changes from high resistance to low resistance when a programming voltage (in excess of normal signal levels) is applied across its terminals. Antifuses offer several unique features for FPGAs, most notably a relatively low on-resistance of 100-600 Ohms and a small size. The layout area of an antifuse cell is generally smaller than the pitch of the metal lines it connects; it is about the same size as a via connecting metal lines in an MPLD. When high voltage (11 to 20 Volts) is applied across its terminals, the antifuse will “blow” and create a low resistance link. This link is permanent. Antifuses are built either using an Oxygen-Nitrogen-Oxygen (ONO) dielectric between an $\mathrm{N}+$ diffusion and polysilicon, or amorphous silicon between metal layers or between polysilicon and the first layer of metal.

Programming an antifuse requires extra circuitry to deliver the high programming voltage and a relatively high current of $5 \mathrm{~mA}$ or more. This is done through large transistors to provide addressing to each antifuse.

Antifuses are normally “off” devices. Only a small fraction of the total that need to be turned on must be programmed (about $2 \%$ for a typical application). So, other things being equal, programming is faster with antifuses than with “normally on” devices.

Antifuse reliability must be considered for both the unprogrammed and programmed states. Time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) reliability over 40 years is an important consideration. It is equally important that the resistance of a programmed antifuse remains low during the life of the part. Analysis of ONO dielectrics shows that they do not increase the resistance with time. Additionally, the parasitic capacitance of an unprogrammed amorphous antifuse is significantly lower than for other programming technologies.

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|Logic Cell Architecture

In this section we present a survey of commercial FPLD logic cell architectures in use today, including their combinational and sequential portions. FPLD logic cells differ both in size and implementation capability. A two transistor logic cell can only implement a small size inverter, while the look-up table logic cells can implement any logic function of several input variables and is significantly larger. To capture these differences we usually classify logic blocks by their granularity.

Since granularity can be defined in various ways (as the number of Boolean functions that the logic block can implement, the number of two-input AND gates, total number of transistors, etc.), we choose to classify commercial blocks into just two categories: fine-grain and coarse-grain.

Fine-grain logic cells resemble MPLD basic cells. The most fine grain logic cell would be identical to a basic cell of an MPLD and would consist of few transistors that can be programmably interconnected.

The FPGA from Crosspoint Solutions uses a single transistor pair in the logic cell. In addition to the transistor pair tiles, as depicted in Figure 1.9, the cross-point FPGA has a second type of logic cell, called a RAM logic tile, that is tuned for the implementation of random access memory, but can also be used to build other logic functions.

A second example of a fine-grain FPGA architecture is the FPGA from Plessey. Here the basic cell is a two-input NAND gate as illustrated in Figure 1.10. Logic is formed in the usual way by connecting the NAND gates to implement the desired function. If the latch is not needed, then the configuration memory is set to make the latch permanently transparent.

Several other commercial FPGAs employ fine-grain logic cells. The main advantage of using fine-grain logic cells is that the usable cells are fully utilized. This is because it is easier to use small logic gates efficiently and the logic synthesis techniques for such cells are very similar to those for conventional MPGAs (MaskProgrammable Gate Arrays) and standard cells.

# 数字硬件系统代考

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|Logic Cell Architecture

Crosspoint Solutions 的 FPGA 在逻辑单元中使用单个晶体管对。除了晶体管对块外，如图 1.9 所示，交叉点 FPGA 还有第二种类型的逻辑单元，称为 RAM 逻辑块，它针对随机存取存储器的实现进行了调整，但也可用于构建其他逻辑函数。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|ECE327

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写数字硬件系统Digital hardware systems方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写数字硬件系统Digital hardware systems代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写数字硬件系统Digital hardware systems相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|Static RAM FPGAs

In SRAM FPGAs, static memory cells hold the program that represents the user design. SRAM FPGAs implement logic as lookup tables (LUTs) made from memory cells with function inputs controlling the address lines. Each LUT of $\mathbf{2}^{\mathbf{n}}$ memory cells implements any function of $\mathrm{n}$ inputs. One or more LUTs, combined with flip-flops, form a logic block (LB). LBs are arranged in a two-dimensional array with interconnect segments in channels as shown in Figure 1.4.

Interconnect segments connect to LB pins in the channels and to the other segments in the switch boxes through pass transistors controlled by configuration memory cells. The switch boxes, because of their high complexity, are not full crossbar switches.

An SRAM FPGA program consists of a single long program word. On-chip circuitry loads this word, reading it serially out of an external memory every time power is applied to the chip. The program bits set the values of all configuration memory cells on the chip, thus setting the lookup table values and selecting which segments connect each to the other. SRAM FPGAs are inherently reprogrammable. They can be easily updated providing designers with new capabilities such as reconfigurability.

An antifuse is a two-terminal device that, when exposed to a very high voltage, forms a permanent short circuit (opposite to a fuse) between the nodes on either side. Individual antifuses are small, enabling an antifuse-based architecture to have thousands or millions of antifuses. Antifuse FPGA, as illustrated in Figure 1.5, usually consists of rows of configurable logic elements with interconnect channels between them, much like traditional gate arrays.

The pins on logic blocks (LBs) extend into the channel. An LB is usually a simple gate-level network, which the user programs by connecting its input pins to fixed values or to intereonnect nets. There are antifuses at every wirc-to-pin intersection point in the channel and at all wire-to-wire intersection points where channels intersect.

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|SRAM Programming Technology

SRAM programming technology uses static RAM cells to configure logic and control intersections and paths for signal routing. The configuration is done by controlling pass gates or multiplexers as it is illustrated in Figure 1.6. When a “1” is stored in the SRAM cell in Figure 1.6(a), the pass gate acts as a closed switch and can be used to make a connection between two wire segments. For the multiplexer, the state of the SRAM cells connected to the select lines controls which one of the multiplexers inputs are connected to the output, as shown in Figure 1.6(b). Reprogrammability allows the circuit manufacturer to test all paths in the FPGA by reprogramming it on the tester. The users get well tested parts and $100 \%$ “programming yield” with no design specific test patterns and no “design for testability.” Since on-chip programming is done with memory cells, the programming of the part can be done an unlimited number of times. This allows prototyping to proceed iteratively, re-using the same chip for new design iterations. Reprogrammability has advantages in systems as well. In cases where parts of the logic in a system are not needed simultaneously, they can be implemented in the same reprogrammable FPGA and FPGA logic can be switched between applications.

Besides volatility, a major disadvantage of SRAM programming technology is its large area. At least five transistors are needed to implement an SRAM cell, plus at least one transistor to implement a programmable switch. A typical five-transistor memory cell is illustrated in Figure 1.7. There is no separate RAM area on the chip. The memory cells are distributed among the logic elements they control. Since FPGA memories do not change during normal operation, they are built for stability and density rather than speed. However, SRAM programming technology has two further major advantages; fast-reprogrammability and that it requires only standard integrated circuit process technology.

# 数字硬件系统代考

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|Static RAM FPGAs

SRAM FPGA 程序由一个长程序字组成。片上电路加载这个字，每次给芯片加电时从外部存储器中串行读取它。程序位设置芯片上所有配置存储单元的值，从而设置查找表值并选择哪些段相互连接。SRAM FPGA 本质上是可重新编程的。它们可以轻松更新，为设计人员提供新功能，例如可重新配置。

## 计算机代写|数字硬件系统代写Digital hardware systems代考|SRAM Programming Technology

SRAM 编程技术使用静态 RAM 单元来配置逻辑并控制信号路由的交叉点和路径。配置是通过控制传输门或多路复用器完成的，如图 1.6 所示。当“1”存储在图 1.6(a) 中的 SRAM 单元中时，传输门充当闭合开关，可用于在两个线段之间建立连接。对于多路复用器，连接到选择线的 SRAM 单元的状态控制多路复用器输入中的哪一个连接到输出，如图 1.6(b) 所示。可重编程性允许电路制造商通过在测试仪上重新编程来测试 FPGA 中的所有路径。用户得到经过良好测试的零件和100%“编程产量”没有设计特定的测试模式，也没有“可测试性设计”。由于片上编程是通过存储单元完成的，因此可以无限次地对部件进行编程。这允许原型设计迭代地进行，为新的设计迭代重复使用相同的芯片。可重编程性在系统中也有优势。在系统中不同时需要部分逻辑的情况下，它们可以在同一个可重新编程的 FPGA 中实现，并且 FPGA 逻辑可以在应用程序之间切换。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。