## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|CE321

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写环境设计Environmental Design方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写环境设计Environmental Design代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写环境设计Environmental Design相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|The Chicago alternative

What the program conjured up was a world of buildings complemented by parks, yards, gardens, trees, flowers, sunlight and air-a world without tenements crowding out the landscape. The program also provided a literature list with 16 titles, topped by Unwin’s Nothing Gained by Overcrowding!. The City Club offered to distribute the readings, which it characterized as “describing the progress of the garden city and garden suburb movement, especially in Great Britain and Germany.” ${ }^{29}$ The program also capped the number of residences in the subdivision designs at 1,280 units. This density was comparable to the number of houses found in a typical neighborhood of Chicago bungalows. It was as if the City Club reformers had taken to heart Henry Vivian’s insistence on the “individual home” as the focus on housing reform. George Hooker later declared that garden cities represented “the finest thing done on the face of the earth in respect to housing for the ordinary man.,” ${ }^{30}$

The City Club competition program was silent on the “land capitalization” question that had troubled its housing reformers from the start. Club members clearly aimed to promote models that could be easily replicated and, perhaps, even codified by public planning regulations and building codes. However, they did not suggest whether their earlier search for philanthropic support for model tenement designs would now extend to the more ambitious plans for an entire subdivision. This question of how land was held and developed is key to understanding the somewhat awkward and largely unsuccessful migration of European garden cities models into Chicago. It is notable that the only example of garden city planning idea in the United States that was cited in the competition program was Forest Hill Gardens, the development undertaken in Queens, New York with the philanthropic support of the Russell Sage Foundation. The European garden cities required landed estates, co-partnership arrangements, and support from the state. What emerges clearly from the competition entries is that by drawing on European models, the majority established a level of civic, cultural, park, recreation, and even commercial amenities that would not, and likely could not, be supported by private developers constructing a community limited to 1,280 residences on the edge of Chicago in the $1910 \mathrm{~s}$ and $1920 \mathrm{~s}$. This model only became more broadly relevant in the context of relatively limited, federally supported public housing and community development programs during World War I, the New Deal, and after World War II.

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Daniel Bluestone

In 1892 , Anthony Schmitt, the wealthy president of Schneider \& Company, a candle manufacturer, developed the 55-unit Arizona apartment building, one of Chicago’s earliest apartments that incorporated a courtyard. Designed by Treat \& Foltz, the Arizona was notable for its 70 -foot by 70 -foot landscaped court, with its lawn, fountain, and carriage drive. The Chicago Tribune reported that “this court is to be arranged as a miniature park.” 38

It is not clear whether the idea for the Arizona’s unusual courtyard plan came from Anthony Schmitt or from his architects, Samuel Atwater Treat and Fritz Foltz. Schmitt was known as “an extensive traveler” and in 1891 , he spent months traveling in Europe seeing “all of the principal countries, cities and points of interest.” ${ }^{39}$ In 1891, Schmitt would likely have seen European monastic and collegiate ensembles, as well as tenements and apartments that provided residential quarters arrayed around landscaped courts. Such buildings nearly always included enclosed interior courtyards, as opposed to what became the common pattern in Chicago-a courtyard opening directly onto a public street. Closer to home, the Mecca apartment building constructed in 1891-1892, Chicago’s first apartment building with a court open to the street, might have inspired the Arizona design. As one of the largest Chicago apartment buildings of its time, the U-shaped, 96-unit Mecca, designed by Willoughby J. Edbrooke and Franklin Pierce Burnham, included a court that measured 66 feet by 152 feet, opening south towards 34th Street ${ }^{40}$ (Figure 2.3).
In the Mecca, the building’s two major wings each included an enclosed atrium with a skylight that introduced light from the roof all the way to the ground floor. Access to the apartments was provided along open galleries that entirely encircled the atriums. The Mecca’s introduction of both an external court and interior atriums energetically engaged the tenement reform concern for light and ventilation in multiple-family buildings. The apartments received light from exterior windows and from windows and door transoms overlooking the atriums. This novel design concentrated building tenants and visitors around the interior atriums and thus worked in a direction contrary to the Arizona and most subsequent courtyard apartments, which diffused density into separate entries. The Mecca accommodated a highly visible and gregarious massing of residents and visitors around the interior atriums; ${ }^{41}$ however, the Arizona, with its seven separate entries, provided for the diffusion of residents that became the norm (Figure 2.4).

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Daniel Bluestone

1892 年，蜡烛制造商施耐德公司的富有总裁安东尼施密特开发了拥有 55 个单元的亚利桑那公寓楼，这是芝加哥最早的带有庭院的公寓之一。由 Treat \& Foltz 设计，亚利桑那州以其 70 英尺乘 70 英尺的景观球场而闻名，拥有草坪、喷泉和马车车道。《芝加哥论坛报》报道说，“这个球场将被布置成一个微型公园。” 38

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|IS-253

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写环境设计Environmental Design方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写环境设计Environmental Design代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写环境设计Environmental Design相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|“Human, all too human, geography”

Granted, the Vidalian alternative that followed from Sauer’s critique was atypical for its time. Berkeley offered “a genre of geography available nowhere else in North America,” Geoffrey Martin has written, and determinism would not go quietly. ${ }^{29}$ Moreover, even if Sauer’s insistence on buildings as evidence of the culturing of landscape won adherents, until World War II there was little “urban geography,” by that name anyhow, to speak of. “It is not [a] specialization at all,” Marcel Aurousseau could write in 199.4, prefacing a synoptic article in the Geographical Review, a journal which Sauerians would dominate for the next generation or two. ${ }^{30}$ And to the extent that a discrete urban subfield did exist, it paid remarkably little attention to dwellings as anything more than backdrop. ${ }^{31}$

Still, “Sauerian urbanism” is not the paradox it may appear to be. In 1931, Sauer petitioned cultural geographers to carry out studies in the “anatomy and phylogeny of the town.” ${ }^{32}$ He never truly acted on this sentiment, but a subset of his advisees ended up pursuing research on urban and architectural topics, much of it collected in the in-house series University of California Publications in Geography, which launched in the 1920s. It is through this empirical work on regional housing vernaculars, rather than the more ex cathedra moments of the “Morphology,” that we can assess the reach and significance of Sauerian writing on cities, both as scholarship and as moral dissent. Through his many students-most of whom applied his morphological methods to the letter-Sauer informed immanent critiques of industrial modernity, and its architectures, that would achieve highest pitch at midcentury.

The students’ work amounts to a diffuse legacy, suggestive but notably equivocal in its commitment to ever sorting out how urban dwellings live and are lived in-and, again, how to characterize that copula with any theoretical precision. Two early studies by John Leighly, for instance, who joined the Berkeley faculty in the 1920s, assess the “form-qualities” of baroque Swedish urbanism and the towns of the Hanseatic League without seemingly ever going inside a house. Leighly inventories architectural “tradition and style” and maps certain dwellings’ “location and plan,” but there his analysis stops. ${ }^{33}$ Hallock Raup’s work on the initial German settlement of Anaheim, California, skirts architectural questions in favor of a series of thematic maps; what Anaheim’s landscape looks or feels like at ground level remains unexplored. ${ }^{34}$ Wilbur Zelinsky, who became a synthetic cultural geographer of some renown at Penn State, published in 1953 on “The Log Houses of Georgia” (Figure 1.1) and found the occupancy of those houses to be only “incidental to our purpose,” albeit “of some intrinsic interest.”35 It was theoretically possible to engage housing from within, seeking clues to circulation and use at the scale of the room, wrote Joseph E. Spencer, the University of California, Los Angeles’s resident Sauerian, but floor plans were merely the “occasional” province of sociologists, not of geographers. ${ }^{36}$ In this way, admitted Fred Kniffen, who would know, Sauerians could be distant, extramural, strikingly “façadist” in their approach to housing. ${ }^{37}$

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|THE CHICAGO ALTERNATIVE

Chicago’s meteoric nineteenth-century growth brought extraordinary human density and congestion to the land. A diverse range of buildings went up that impinged upon, or eliminated entirely, sunlight, air circulation, and the natural landscape. City builders undertook a series of initiatives to counter this tendency. Even as Chicago and other major cities grew larger and more dense, major urban parks, the “lungs of the city,” preserved and created open landscapes with trees, lawns, and vegetation. In individual neighborhoods, small parks and playgrounds and school yards kept land open that provided a counterpoint to the crowding on surrounding city blocks. On the blocks themselves, novel building forms and regulations tempered efforts to fill private lots with buildings and people from side to side and from street to alley. New buildings and new regulations aimed to both build density and seemingly do the opposite – to preserve and cultivate nature or, at least, landscaped evocations of nature within the bounds of building lots. Nowhere did these efforts seem more urgent than in the poorest and densest residential neighborhoods. In the late nineteenth century, housing reformers and public health officials mapped urban mortality and quickly realized that human density, crowded building lots, and poor sanitation correlated closely with increased levels of urban mortality. To mitigate these conditions, reformers advocated for more open and natural landscape, more light, and more sunshine within neighborhoods, but more importantly, within the bounds of residential lots. They began to rethink and reimagine landscape from within the context of their own cosmopolitan urbanity and density. They focused on the importance of dwelling not only in buildings but also in landscape.

Even as Chicago assumed the idyllic motto Urbs in Horto in 1837, it proceeded to grow at a rate that rivaled all other cities in the United States. In the course of half a century, Chicago developed from a remote frontier outpost to one of the most prominent cities in the world. By 1890 , booming population growth had made Chicago the second-largest city in the United States, only the third city in the nation to reach a population of one million residents. The density created as people piled into Chicago dramatically framed the issue of dwelling in landscape. When the City Homes Association surveyors and Hull House reformers looked closely at tenement house conditions, they actually counted trees and gardens in the tenement districts. They believed that reformers needed to grapple with issues beyond “mere tenement-house conditions and management” and address the pervasive lack of parks, playgrounds, “open air-spaces,” and “breathing spaces in the heart of the congested districts.” Chicago housing reformers confronted “large areas where crowded blocks are covered with frame and brick tenements … which were built for years with little regard to the privileges of light and air”2 (Figure 2.1).

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Course790

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写环境设计Environmental Design方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写环境设计Environmental Design代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写环境设计Environmental Design相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Sauer and the ambivalent life of landscape

The “Morphology” was not the first time Sauer had registered discontent with determinist orthodoxy. “At best,” Sauer had noted in an otherwise anodyne 1924 article on the methodology of field surveys, such causal schemes are “likely to throw only a half-light on the human scene.” ${ }^{\prime 8}$ Nor was Sauer alone in his unease about unidirectional “geographic explanation”: Michigan’s Mark Jefferson, Chicago’s Charles Colby and Harlan Barrows, and outsiders including the anti-Spencerian sociologist Lester Ward had been grasping for alternatives well before $1925 .{ }^9$ And although some scholars continue to insist that Sauer meant the “Morphology” as a one-time-only statement of methods and principles, clearing the air and inaugurating the long-term “hiatus” from theoretical debate he had always desired, his post-1925 pedagogy, correspondence, and empirical sorties do not square with this contention. ${ }^{10}$ Sauer continued to theorize, and his questions on culture, matter, and life remain unresolved.

Sauer never truly bore out his sense of housing’s centrality as index of and participant in human life. We are left only with traces. In his Outline for Field Work in Geography (1915), coauthored with Wellington D. Jones and essentially a checklist for researchers, buildings scarcely figure as objects of geographic interest. Ninth on the list of “Characteristics of the people,” lodged without further comment alongside “Physique, health, traits,” one finds “Buildings-architecture, materials used, furnishings, conditions in which kept.” “11 Sauer’s earliest regional surveys of the Midwest and Middle Border states, which he prosecuted before his move west of the Sierra Nevada, glimpse the built environment but just barely. In good Vidalian fashion, questions of “settlement and development” come last in the work’s order of exposition, admissible topics only once a layered picture of geology, soils, vegetation, and all the rest has been patiently built up as precondition. His Geography of the Upper Illinois Valley (1916) embeds 50 pages on the scarred landscapes of mining, manufacturing, and transport, including some memorable meditations on “relic” canals of the antebellum period, but dwellings, much less the acts of dwelling therein, escape from view. ${ }^{12}$ His Geography of the Ozark Highland of Missouri $(1915 / 1920)$, on the region he called home, also closes with some fragmentary inventory of buildings-the “wretched sheds” of the hill country, the “semitropical” porches appended to houses by the French settlers of St. Charles and Cape Girardeau-but Sauer expends his analytical energy elsewhere. ${ }^{13}$ In Geography of the Pennyroyal (1927), commissioned by the State of Kentucky, Sauer lists and depicts the region’s characteristic house forms, a subset of “Rural Cultural Patterns,” but his analysis remains at the level of ideal types, with none of the anthropological weave that would become his métier in studies of the Spanish Main.

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Friedrich Ratzel’s energetics of urban America

“The Morphology of Landscape” is a work of synthesis, a digest and reinterpretation of Western geography’s entire intellectual history in which some traditions gain Sauer’s approval and some come in for withering rebuke. To make sense of its predicates for the study and design of urban built environments, one cannot but scour Sauer’s own sources for clues. In the event, the most suggestive forebear proves to be neither Vidal de la Blache, whose posthumous Principles of Human Geography had appeared in 1922 and greatly excited Sauer; nor Goethe, whose stylized studies of plant life had supplied the American with “morphology” as keyword and ethos. Instead, it is necessary to reconsider the urban writings of Friedrich Ratzel (b. 1844), by the fin-de-sièle an overpowering figure in the German academy and, unusually among Sauer’s pantheon, the one who is to this day routinely tarred as an arch-determinist. From the 1920s, Sauer had cultivated Berkeley’s geography department as a kind of “institute for European geographers,” most of them German, who would pass through seasonally to teach. ${ }^{19}$ Sauer was convinced that Ratzel’s reception in the Anglosphere had been off kilter: relying on Ellen Churchill Semple’s bowdlerized Influences of Geographic Environment on the Basis of Ratzel’s System of Anthropo-Geography (1911), a popular book in its day, American readers had been blinded to the second volume of his Anthropogeographie (1883), still untranslated today, in which environment “conditions” but simply does not “determine” behavior. ${ }^{20}$ (Ratzel had died in 1904.) Through Semple, and through the aggressive geopolitics advanced in Ratzel’s “Laws of the Spatial Growth of States” (1896), later embraced by National Socialism via the work of Karl Haushofer-states are organisms, organisms want to grow, restless territorial boundaries themselves push outwards, conquest of neighboring states is only natural-Ratzel’s resources for a humane cultural geography seemed meager if not outright dangerous. ${ }^{21}$ His reputation was also as someone antipathetic to cities: overseas colonization, where his politics eventually led, seemed logical primarily as a way of securing more agricultural land. ${ }^{22}$

Yet there is also an urbanist Ratzel to reckon with. When still young and a “vaguely liberal” journalist, he spent 1873 and 1874 riding the American railroad-a transcontinental system as of 1869-gazing out on urban scenes, stopping off to explore their crevices, and wondering about the pacing and spacing of the industrializing United States. ${ }^{23}$ His Sketches of Urban and Cultural Life in America (1876), untranslated into English until 1988, reveal a man ceaselessly fascinated by the physical dimensions of cities, which, as Sauer noted in one of his last publications, Ratzel deemed the “best and highest” expression of national character. ${ }^{24}$ These urban travelogues prove crucial to Ratzel’s own intellectual formation, and they are laden with clues to what Sauer’s unfulfilled urbanism, keyed to lively environments built, might have become.

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Sauer and the ambivalent life of landscape

“形态学”并不是绍尔第一次对决定论的正统观念表示不满。“充其量，”绍尔在 1924 年一篇关于实地调查方法论的文章中指出，这样的因果关系“可能只会对人类场景产生一半的影响”。′8对单向“地理解释”感到不安的不仅仅是绍尔：密歇根的马克杰斐逊、芝加哥的查尔斯科尔比和哈伦巴罗斯，以及包括反斯宾塞社会学家莱斯特沃德在内的局外人早就在寻找替代方案1925.9尽管一些学者继续坚持认为 Sauer 的意思是“形态学”是对方法和原则的一次性陈述，为他一直渴望的理论辩论扫清了空气并开启了长期的“中断”，但他的后- 1925 年的教学法、通信和实证研究并不符合这一论点。10绍尔继续理论化，他关于文化、物质和生活的问题仍未解决。

Sauer 从来没有真正证明他认为住房作为人类生活的指标和参与者的中心地位。我们只剩下痕迹。在他与 Wellington D. Jones 合着的《地理学野外工作大纲》（1915 年）中，基本上是研究人员的清单，建筑物几乎不被视为具有地理意义的对象。在“人的特征”列表中排名第九，在“体格、健康、特征”旁边没有进一步评论，人们发现“建筑物-建筑、使用的材料、家具、保存条件”。“11 Sauer 最早对中西部和中部边境各州进行的区域调查是他在移居内华达山脉以西之前进行的，这些调查只是瞥见了建筑环境，但几乎没有。在良好的维达利亚风格中，“定居和发展”的问题在作品的阐述顺序中排在最后，只有当地质、土壤、植被和所有其他方面的分层图景被耐心地建立起来作为前提条件时，才可以接受的主题。他的《上伊利诺伊河谷地理学》（1916 年）在采矿、制造和运输的伤痕累累的景观中嵌入了 50 页，其中包括对战前时期“遗迹”运河的一些令人难忘的沉思，但住宅，更不用说居住在其中的行为，逃离视线。12他的密苏里州欧扎克高地地理(1915/1920)，在他称之为家的地区，也以一些零碎的建筑物清单结束——山区的“可怜的棚屋”，圣查尔斯和开普吉拉多的法国定居者附在房屋上的“亚热带”门廊——但绍尔花费了他在别处的分析能量。13在肯塔基州委托的《Pennyroyal 地理》（1927 年）中，Sauer 列出并描绘了该地区的特色房屋形式，这是“农村文化模式”的一个子集，但他的分析仍然停留在理想类型的水平，没有任何人类学编织将成为他在西班牙主要研究中的专长。

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Friedrich Ratzel’s energetics of urban America

《景观形态学》是一部综合作品，是对西方地理学整个思想史的消化和重新诠释，其中一些传统得到了绍尔的认可，而另一些则受到了严厉的谴责。为了理解其对城市建筑环境的研究和设计的谓词，我们不得不从 Sauer 自己的资源中寻找线索。事实证明，最具启发性的前辈既不是维达尔·德拉布拉什，他的遗作《人文地理学原理》于 1922 年问世，令绍尔大为兴奋。歌德也没有，他对植物生命的程式化研究为美国人提供了“形态学”作为关键词和精神。相反，有必要重新考虑弗里德里希·拉策尔（Friedrich Ratzel，生于 1844 年）的城市著作，他是德国学院中一个压倒性的人物，而且在绍尔的万神殿中不寻常，时至今日，他经常被冠以大决定论者的身份。从 1920 年代开始，绍尔就将伯克利的地理系培养成一种“欧洲地理学家学院”，其中大多数是德国人，他们会季节性地通过这里教学。19Sauer 确信 Ratzel 在盎格鲁圈的接受度已经不平衡：依靠 Ellen Churchill Semple 在 Ratzel 的《人类地理学系统》（1911 年）基础上的地理环境影响，美国读者被蒙蔽了双眼到他的《人类地理》第二卷（1883 年），今天仍未翻译，环境“条件”，但根本不“决定”行为。20（Ratzel 于 1904 年去世。）通过 Semple，以及 Ratzel 的“国家空间增长法则”（1896 年）中所提出的侵略性地缘政治，后来通过 Karl Haushofer 的工作被国家社会主义所接受——国家是有机体，有机体想要为了发展，不安定的领土边界本身向外扩展，征服邻国是自然而然的——拉策尔的人文文化地理资源似乎微不足道，如果不是完全危险的话。21他的名声也被认为是一个对城市反感的人：他的政治最终导致了海外殖民化，这似乎主要是为了获得更多的农业用地。22

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。