物理代写|计算物理代写Computational Physics代考|PHY4151

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写计算物理Computational Physics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写计算物理Computational Physics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写计算物理Computational Physics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

物理代写|计算物理代写Computational Physics代考|WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW

Computers are machines that help solve complex or tedious numerical problems. To make the hardware perform such tasks it must be programmed; in other words, told what to do. Remember a computer program cannot think by itself and is only as clever as the programmer who wrote the code. Understanding the underlying structure of a computer can help the programmer write smart code that takes advantage of that structure. For a comparison think about driving a car. You do not need to know how the car works at a component level to drive one. However, should you wish to improve the performance of the car, for racing, or rallying, or off-roading say, then you will have to know about the engine, the suspension, gearing, different types of tires and fuels, streamlining the bodywork, and so forth. This is no different for computers. Anyone can use a computer, but you really need to understand the details in order to get the most out of it.

物理代写|计算物理代写Computational Physics代考|Hardware

Due to the rapid advancements in computer technology, quantifying statements made in this section may well be out-of-date.

However, the general qualifying remarks should still hold true (unless some paradigm-shifting technology has been invented since).
The physical elements that make up your computer is called hardware and consists of several components. The motherboard is the large, printed circuit board that contains all the ports, plugs, and electronics required to make the required components talk to each other. The central processing unit (CPU) handles most tasks in the computer. The speed at which the CPU handles these tasks is dependent on its clock frequency measured in Hertz. A $2 \mathrm{GHz}$ single-core processor can handle at most 2 billion operations per second; operations may include additions, logic comparisons, and memory calls among others. Before 2004, clock frequencies were roughly doubling every 18 months. This followed the prediction made by Moore in the 1960 s that the transistor density on silicon chips would double every 18 months. However, as the power consumed by the CPU goes up as the clock frequency squared, and with global concerns over energy usage, the frequency of the CPU is now capped at or around $4 \mathrm{GHz}$. The performance of computers has continued to increase according to Moore’s prediction using multiple core machines. At the date of writing the current commercially available state-of-the-art is 16 cores, with most “standard” computers having 4 cores, though that is rapidly changing to 8 cores. Multiple cores allow for parallel operation, whereby tasks can be handled simultaneously rather than having to be performed serially. For an introduction to parallel programming see Chapter 12 in this book.

.

.硬件

有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

物理代写|计算物理代写Computational Physics代考|PHY494

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写计算物理Computational Physics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写计算物理Computational Physics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写计算物理Computational Physics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

物理代写|计算物理代写Computational Physics代考|BONJOUR TOUT LE MONDE

This section explains the basics of $\mathrm{C}++$ syntax and structure. If you are already familiar with the $\mathrm{C}++$ language, then please skip this section. A more in-depth introduction to the $\mathrm{C}++$ language can be found in the Appendix.

The Hello World program is typically the first one that anyone learning a programming language gets to write. It gives us the basic syntax of a particular language and how to output something to the terminal or console. To begin let us first create a suitable directory structure to hold our code. Start by creating a “root” directory for our project called CompPhys in your home directory. Change into our newly created directory and create a subdirectory called HelloWorld. Change into that directory and create the file helloworld.cpp. We now want to edit that file to fill it with the ground-breaking code for our hello world program.

Let us examine this line-by-line. At the very top, we have a comment line. These are either started using a double forward slash for a single-line comment or for a multiline (block) comment anything between ” $/ *$ ” and $” *$ ” is treated as a comment. Comments are important. They should be used to explain the intention of code where this is not obviously apparent from the code itself. I urge you to use comments liberally; can you remember what you were doing yesterday, last week, last month, last year?

The next line down is how we include header files in source files. The hash symbol “#” is used to send instructions or directives to the pre-processor that is run before the compiler. In this case,we are using the directive include to insert the contents of the file iostream.h at this point in the source file, and that’s all it does. Note that iostream. $h$ is a standard library header and as such we can drop the dot ” $h$ ” extension from the filename when including it in source code. The angled brackets tell the preprocessor to look for the file in the standard external locations and implementation specified include directories only. A pair of double quotes around an included file tells the pre-processor to check the local directory of the source code first before checking the other locations. Generally, angled brackets are used for standard and system headers, and double quotes are used for programmer-defined headers.

White space is typically ignored by the compiler but is useful to humans by writing code that is easier to read. Having at least one blank line between the header include statement(s) and the start of the main function definition nicely separates the different parts of the source code.

物理代写|计算物理代写Computational Physics代考|THE REST OF THE BOOK

Each chapter describes an individual topic within the general subject area of computational physics. Where there is a cross over between topics this has been explicitly referred to in the text. Throughout the remaining chapters, there are frequent references to $\mathrm{C}++$ files that contain example programs for your study and use. These can be found on GitHub, an online repository for all sorts of different coding projects and applications, at the following URL: github.com/DJWalker42/laserRacoon.

These source code files come with GNU Makefiles such that compiling the code can be done by just typing “make” in the appropriate directory. These were developed on Mac OSX so contain variables specific to that operating system. You will have to modify some of the variables if you have a different OS. For more information on the GNU Makefile framework go to: gnu.org/software/make/ manual/make.html.

The laserRacoon library makes use of OpenCV for a “visualization” module. If you do not have OpenCV installed on your system you can either use your install manager to get a copy (the library has been tested with OpenCV3) or visit their official site, opencv.org, for more options. If you cannot get OpenCV or would prefer not to use the visualization module then you will have to remove the related header and source files from the library (Visualise. $h$ and Visualise. $c p p)$ and remove any use of that module from the programs provided (anything using namespace phys::visual). Note that OpenCV is not really plotting software; OpenCV is an open-source library that performs image processing, video analysis, object and feature detection, camera calibration, 3D reconstruction, among other functions. At the time of writing the laserRacoon library, I needed a built-in way of visualizing the data being produced by the $\mathrm{C}++$ programs. I had some experience of using OpenCV so challenged myself to make it able to plot data. The Viewer class does just that but know that it is not a fully optimized class and may contain bugs that have yet to be discovered (but that’s part of the fun of coding, right?).

物理代写|计算物理代写Computational Physics代考|BONJOUR TOUT LE MONDE

Hello World程序通常是任何学习编程语言的人编写的第一个程序。它为我们提供了一种特定语言的基本语法，以及如何向终端或控制台输出内容。首先，让我们创建一个合适的目录结构来保存我们的代码。首先在您的主目录中为我们的项目创建一个名为CompPhys的“根”目录。切换到我们新创建的目录，并创建名为HelloWorld的子目录。切换到该目录并创建文件helloworld.cpp。现在我们要编辑该文件，用hello world程序的突破性代码填充它

物理代写|计算物理代写Computational Physics代考|THE REST OF THE BOOK

.

laserRacoon库使用OpenCV作为“可视化”模块。如果您的系统上没有安装OpenCV，您可以使用您的安装管理器来获得一个副本(该库已在OpenCV3中测试过)，或者访问他们的官方网站opencv.org，以获取更多选项。如果你不能获得OpenCV或者不喜欢使用可视化模块，那么你将不得不从库中删除相关的头文件和源文件。$h$和可视化。$c p p)$，并从所提供的程序中删除对该模块的任何使用(使用名称空间phys::visual的任何使用)。请注意OpenCV并不是真正的绘图软件;OpenCV是一个开源库，可以执行图像处理、视频分析、物体和特征检测、摄像机校准、3D重建等功能。在编写laserRacoon库时，我需要一种内置的方式来可视化$\mathrm{C}++$程序生成的数据。我有一些使用OpenCV的经验，所以我挑战了自己，让它能够绘制数据。Viewer类就是这样做的，但知道它不是一个完全优化的类，可能包含尚未发现的bug(但这是编码的一部分乐趣，对吗?)

有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

物理代写|计算物理代写Computational Physics代考|PHYS232

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写计算物理Computational Physics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写计算物理Computational Physics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写计算物理Computational Physics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

物理代写|计算物理代写Computational Physics代考|GETTING STARTED WITH CODING

There are two methods by which you can write computer programs. The first method is via command-line control whereby you explicitly type in commands to compile a source code file written in a text editor. The second method uses what is called an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) that is essentially a compiler and text editor wrapped up into one neat application, for example, Microsoft’s Visual Studio. I would suggest trying out different text editors and IDEs to discover what suits you best. If your university uses Unix-based operating systems and you find it easier to code on those machines but do not want to splash out either on a Unix based machine (though the Raspberry $\mathrm{Pi}$ is reasonably priced) at home or make your Windows PC dual-booting (it can rụ either a Unix OS or Windows OS on one machine) an alternative is Cygwin. Cygwin creates a Unix type feel on a Windows PC and it’s free to download and install. Cygwin also comes with many different optional libraries and programs that are extremely useful to scientific programming, including the linear algebra package (LAPACK) library and Octave, a free alternative to MATLAB. If you can get your hands on a student version of MATLAB, I recommend you use it as it is a powerful programming tool and can be used to find quick programming alternative is to use a Virtual Machine.

For a list of freely available text editors just use your favorite search engine. Emacs is a popular programming text editor and is the default editor on most Unix-based machines; Cygwin also contains the CNU version of Emacs. On Windows you could use Notepad, however, it does not have any of the functionality of text editors specifically designed for coding. For example, programming languages have certain keywords reserved that have special meaning, for example, if, for, and while to name but a few. Once written these keywords are automatically distinguished from the rest of the text in some way, different color, different font, bolded, and so on. In Notepad all you will get is the same black text on a white background, which is not useful for reading and debugging the code you have written. Notepad++ is a good (and free) programming text editor for Windows that supports multiple languages.

物理代写|计算物理代写Computational Physics代考|GETTING TO KNOW THE LINUX COMMAND LINE

On modern operating systems a terminal emulator is a program that allows the use of the terminal in a graphical interface. In a Linux system, the shell is a command-line interface that interprets the user’s commands and passes them on to the underlying operating system. There are several shells in current use, such as the BourneAgain shell (bash) or The C shell (tcsh), and each has its own set of features and operations, but all provide a means to interact with the machine.

When you open a new terminal emulator window the command prompt will be at the home directory (synonymous with “Folder” on Windows) of the current user. The information displayed in the command prompt is customizable by the user but typically consist of the user’s username, the host machine name, the current directory, and is ended by the prompt symbol. For an example of what this looks like please see Figure $1.1$ that shows a macOS terminal.

Commands can be issued after the command prompt by typing the name of an executable file, which can be a binary program or a script. There are many standard commands that are installed as default with the operating system that allows for system configuration, file system navigation, creation of new directories and files, installing third party programs, among other operations.

A useful command to start off with is pud. It displays the full path to the current, working directory and can be useful if we ever get lost in the directory structure. The $l s$ command will list, on the terminal, all the files and subdirectories of the current directory. Commands can also take arguments and options (or flags) that can affect their behavior. For instance, $l s-l$ will nicely format the files and subdirectories with additional information such as attributes, permissions, sizes, and modification dates. The $c d$ command is typically passed an argument of the directory to which we would like to navigate. For example, $c d$ foo/bar will navigate to the subdirectory bar of the directory foo, assuming foo is a subdirectory of the current directory. The command $c d$ alone will navigate us back to the user’s home directory.

有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。