## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|FNS50217

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|The parent’s financial statements

In many countries (e.g. most European countries) IFRS is only required for consolidated financial statements, and in some cases (e.g. France or Spain) IFRS is only allowed for consolidated statements. Therefore, it is common for parent statements to be prepared under national accounting rules. This might suit a country’s system of calculating taxable income and distributable income, which are issues for individual entities not groups. Given that investors are usually only interested in consolidated statements, it makes sense to concentrate on harmonizing these by adopting IFRS.

In the parent’s financial statements, the practice is to account for the direct legal arrangements. In the above case of Figure 14.6 , the parent company owns and controls its investments in the other seven entities. Consequently, in the parent’s balance sheet the investments would be shown as non-current investments rather than showing all the individual assets and liabilities that the parent controls through its control of some of the other entities. Also, in the parent’s income statement, accountants show just a single line of ‘income from investments’ rather than the sales, wages, interest, etc. of the investees.

Generally, in the parent’s balance sheet, the valuation of the controlled and significantly influenced investments is at cost (less any impairment; see Chapters 9 and 11) and the income is measured at the level of dividends flowing from the investments. This is also allowed under IFRS (by IAS 27), although it is also possible to show these investments at fair value as financial assets (see Chapter 11).

However, under the national basis of a few countries, such as Denmark, the Netherlands and Norway, the influence of the parent over the other entities is seen as sufficient to justify taking credit for its share of profit, not just for the dividends received. In a balance sheet, the parent then includes the excess of profit over dividends as an increase in value of the investment. This is called the equity method. It is also important to learn about it for consolidated accounting, not just in these few countries but under IFRS and more generally (see Section 14.5 , where a fuller explanation is given).

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Consolidated balance sheets

In addition to the eight legal entities in Figure 14.6 , there is also the economic entity of the group as a whole. For reasons mentioned in Section 14.1, it is now thought to be essential to show the position for the whole group as a single entity. This idea is taken to an extreme in the United States because that country has the clearest view that investors are the users of financial statements. In the United States, it is normal to present financial statements for the group only and not to bother about publishing the statements of the parent and the other legal entities. An element of this can be found in some continental European countries, which exempt a subsidiary from having to publish financial statements if the parent company guarantees all the subsidiary’s debts. Similarly, under UK law, parent companies are exempted from various aspects of reporting, e.g. the cash flow statement.

In Big’s balance sheet, the shareholding in Little will normally appear as an investment at historical cost. However, as with any other asset in a balance sheet, the use of historical cost would not normally give the shareholders of Big a good indication of the value of the subsidiary or of the underlying assets. In Big’s income statement, the only reference to the subsidiary would be ‘dividends received from Little’ (assuming there were any) and, of course, this would give no clear indication of the subsidiary’s profit. The holding company’s financial statements would give no meaningful information about the whole group’s activities.

Because of the conclusion in the Feedback to Activity 14.C, group statements are prepared by adding together (consolidating) the position and results for all the components of the group. The basic process of consolidation takes the balance sheet of Big Co. as the starting point. In order to show the group as a single entity, the “Investment in Little’ entry must be removed and replaced by the assets and liabilities of Little that it represents, with any remaining excess shown as ‘Goodwill on consolidation’. So, the goodwill is what Big paid, less the identifiable (net) items which it bought. This procedure means that the resulting group balance sheet does not show an ‘Investment in Little’, because a group cannot own an investment in itself.

The above procedure leaves a crucial question unresolved, because two alternative values are available for the net assets (i.e. assets – liabilities) of Little Co.: (a) the figures taken from Little’s own accounting records as shown in its balance sheet (largely based on historical cost) or (b) the current market values or ‘fair values’ of Little’s assets and liabilities. It is clearly arithmetically possible to use either set of figures, as the goodwill arising on consolidation is simply a balancing number.

# 财务会计代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|ACCT2110

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Reporting cash flows from operating activities

Entities are allowed to use either of two methods to analyse and report cash flows from operating activities. These are:
(a) the direct method, whereby major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments are disclosed; or
(b) the indirect method, whereby net profit or loss is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, for any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and for items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows.

IAS 7 encourages entities to report cash flows from operating activities using the direct method, but this is not a requirement. The indirect method takes reported net profit and removes non-cash items included in the calculation of that profit figure. The indirect method thus undoes the effects of the accrual basis, but adds no new information beyond that already inherent in the income statement and balance sheet. The direct method, in contrast, amounts to an analysis of the cash records. Therefore, the direct method provides information that may be useful in estimating future cash flows and is not available under the indirect method.

The differences between the methods are best shown by example. Table 13.2 shows the typical headings that might be seen in a direct calculation of operating cash flows. Table 13.3 shows the headings for an indirect calculation.

A comparison of the two tables makes it clear that the indirect method is at the same time more complicated for the reader and less informative in terms of actual cash flows than the direct method. As noted above, IAS 7 encourages – but does not require – the use of the direct method and the same applies in US GAAP. In practice, the indirect method is generally widely used in IFRS or US practice (perhaps because it is easier to prepare and gives less information) and the next section examines this method in more detail. An exception is that most Australian companies use the direct method under the Australian version of IFRS.

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|The preparation of cash flow statements

A cash flow statement prepared by the indirect method is in essence a reconciliation between the opening and closing cash and cash equivalents of the accounting period. A convenient way to begin is to determine the differences between opening and closing balance sheets. These differences can then be analysed and presented in the desired format, segregating the inflows from the outflows.

Table 13.4 shows summarised balance sheets for the years $\mathrm{X} 1$ and $\mathrm{X} 2$ and columns for difference, outflow and inflow.

It is important that the logic of Table 13.5 is fully understood. Non-current assets have increased, i.e. money has been spent on buying new ones. This clearly represents a cash outflow. The argument concerning depreciation is rather more complicated. Depreciation is merely the allocation of cost over different accounting periods and, of itself, involves no cash flows at all. However, the depreciation charge for the year (of 8 in our example) will have been deducted from the profit for the year and, unless this is corrected for, the net cash inflow from operating would be understated by this non-cash charge. In this sense, correcting for the depreciation charge for the year, though not of itself causing any cash movement, has the effect of increasing the calculated cash inflows from operations.

As regards the inventory difference, the money tied up in closing inventory has increased by 4 , so an outflow of 4 has been necessary to finance this extra amount. With receivables, the entity is owed 22 more than before, i.e. it has received 22 less than a constant receivables figure would indicate – again having the effect of an outflow (strictly, perhaps, a negative inflow). The reduction in the cash balance of 6 is the balancing number.

The remaining items are fairly straightforward. Share capital has increased by the sale of shares, creating a cash inflow. Annual profits will in principle cause net cash inflows. The issue of debentures clearly creates a cash inflow of the amount borrowed. An increase in creditors, of 26 , is equivalent to borrowing money of this amount, so it represents a cause of cash increase.

Several simplifying assumptions have been made in this example. It is assumed that non-current assets have been sold and there are no dividends or taxation paid. However, such issues could be dealt with using the logic of the previous paragraphs (see Activity 13.G later).

# 财务会计代考

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Reporting cash flows from operating activities

(a) 直接法，披露主要类别的现金收入总额和现金支付总额；(
b) 间接方法，即根据非现金性质交易的影响、过去或未来经营现金收支的任何递延或应计费用以及与投资或筹资现金流量。

IAS 7 鼓励主体使用直接法报告经营活动产生的现金流量，但这不是一项要求。间接方法采用报告的净利润，并删除计算该利润数字时包含的非现金项目。因此，间接方法消除了权责发生制的影响，但除了损益表和资产负债表中已经固有的信息外，没有增加新的信息。相反，直接法相当于对现金记录的分析。因此，直接法提供的信息可能对估计未来现金流量有用，而间接法无法提供。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|TACC203

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|International influences

As noted at the beginning of this chapter, many nations have contributed to the development of accounting. In the case of some countries, ideas have been transferred wholesale from another country, such as the following:

Several African countries that are members of the (British) Commonwealth have accounting systems closely based on that of the British Companies Acts of 1929 or 1948.

• The French plan comptable général was introduced into France in the 1940s, based closely on a German precedent, and later into several former French colonies in Africa.
• The Japanese accounting system consists largely of a commercial code borrowed from Germany in the late nineteenth century, overlaid with US-style securities laws imposed in the late 1940 s.

By the end of the twentieth century, international influences had begun to affect accounting in all countries, sometimes overwhelmingly. The globalisation of markets had led to an increased need for internationally comparable accounting information. Where several large multinational companies are based in comparatively small countries (e.g. Hong Kong, Singapore, the Netherlands and Sweden), international influences are likely to be particularly great.

Many large European companies responded to internationalisation by volunteering to use one of two sets of internationally recognised rules: the United States’ generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the international standards of the IASB. In general – in Europe at least – this usage has been mostly restricted to the consolidated financial statements prepared for groups headed by listed companies. As noted in Chapter 4 , there are EU requirements in this area from 2005.

Another effect has been that national rule-makers have been trying to reduce differences between their national rules and the above international norms. At the extreme, certain countries (e.g. South Africa) have directly adopted IFRS as part of their national rules. These issues were noted in Chapter 4 and are taken up again in Section 5.5.

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Introduction to harmonisation

So far, this chapter has made it clear that there are major differences in the financial reporting practices of companies in different countries. This leads to great complications for those preparing, consolidating, auditing and interpreting published financial statements. Since the preparation of internal financial information often overlaps with the preparation of published information, the complications spread into management accounting. To combat these problems, several organisations throughout the world are involved in attempts to harmonise or standardise accounting.
‘Harmonisation’ is a process of increasing the compatibility of accounting practices by setting bounds to their degree of variation. ‘Standardisation’ appears to imply the imposition of a more rigid and narrow set of rules. However, within accounting these two words have almost become technical terms, so one cannot rely upon the normal difference in their meanings. Harmonisation is a word that tends to be associated with the supranational legislation promulgated in the European Union, while standardisation is a word often associated with the International Accounting Standards Board. In practice, the words are often used interchangeably. Convergence is a newer word, in this context, and means the gradual aligning of IFRS and US GA $A P$, followed by other jurisdictions aligning with the result of that.

It is necessary to distinguish between de jure harmonisation (that of rules, standards, etc.) and de facto harmonisation (that of corporate financial reporting practices). For any particular topic or set of countries, it is possible to have one of these two forms of harmonisation without the other. For example, countries or companies may ignore the harmonised rules of standard setters or even law-makers. By contrast, in the $1980 \mathrm{~s}$, market forces persuaded many listed companies in France and Switzerland to volunteer to produce English-language financial reports that approximately followed Anglo-American practice. Even among a large set of companies using IFRS (i.e. with de jure identity), there may be differences in policy choice because IFRS allows many areas of choice (i.e. de facto variety). However, there might then be gradual harmonisation within an industry as companies seek to be more comparable.

The EU achieves its harmonising objectives mainly through Directives (which must be incorporated into the laws of member states) and Regulations (which have direct effect). In the 1970 s and 1980 s attention was given to harmonising national laws through Directives (see Sections 5.4.2 and 5.4.3 below). During the 1990 s, the EU began to take more notice of international standards, leading to a Regulation of 2002 requiring IFRS for the consolidated statements of listed companies (see Section 5.4.4).

# 财务会计代考

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|International influences

• 法国 plan comptable général 在 1940 年代被引入法国，严格遵循德国的先例，后来又被引入非洲的几个前法国殖民地。
• 日本的会计制度主要由 19 世纪末从德国借来的商业法典组成，外加 1940 年代末实施的美国式证券法。

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Introduction to harmonisation

“协调”是通过设定差异程度的界限来增加会计实践的兼容性的过程。“标准化”似乎意味着强加一套更加严格和狭隘的规则。然而，在会计中，这两个词几乎已成为专业术语，因此不能依赖它们在含义上的正常差异。协调这个词往往与欧盟颁布的超国家立法相关联，而标准化这个词通常与国际会计准则委员会相关联。在实践中，这些词经常互换使用。趋同是一个较新的词，在这种情况下，意味着 IFRS 和 US GA 的逐渐统一一个P，其次是与该结果一致的其他司法管辖区。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|MGB001

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|An updated classification

The above classifications were drawn up before the EU harmonisation programme and before extensive globalisation of capital markets. The fall of communism also means that many more countries, such as China and Russia, have financial reporting systems that could be added to the 1983 classification. Some countries, such as Sweden have moved to the left of the chart since the early 1980s, as has Norway, which was not in the chart.

A further complication is that, particularly from the middle 1990 s and in certain countries, large companies chose to follow internationally recognised practices rather than domestic practices. For example, by 2000 most of the 50 largest German companies were using US GAAP or IFRS for their group accounting statements. In a sense, then, several ‘systems’ were being used in Germany. In 1998, Nobes published a revised classification to try to take account of some of these problems. An adapted version of this is shown as Figure 5.2. To repeat a point from earlier, the fact that the United Kingdom and the United States are both on the left of Table $5.3$ and Figure $5.2$ does not imply that they are the same. For example, their regulatory systems are noticeably different. However, when compared to French or German accounting practices, UK and US practices look relatively similar.

The use of two systems within a country has increased greatly since IFRS was required in the EU for the consolidated reporting of listed companies. This is a major example of the fact that practices vary between companies within a country. It is also clear that different national versions of IFRS practice have emerged. In 2011, Nobes published a paper which used a survey of IFRS policy choices to show that the classification of 1983 was largely still in place after nearly 30 years of attempts at harmonisation in Europe.

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Providers of finance

In some countries, a major source of corporate finance for two centuries has been the share capital and loan capital provided by large numbers of private investors. This has been the predominant mode of raising finance for large companies in the Netherlands, the United States and the United Kingdom. Although it is increasingly the case that shares in these countries are held by institutional investors, such as pension funds, rather than by individual shareholders, this still contrasts with state, bank or family holdings (see below). Indeed, the increased importance of institutional investors is perhaps a reinforcement for the following hypothesis: ‘In countries with a widespread ownership of companies by shareholders who do not have access to internal information, there will be a pressure for disclosure, audit and decision-useful information’. Institutional investors hold larger blocks of shares and may be better organised than private shareholders, so they should increase this pressure.

By contrast, in France and Italy, capital provided by the state or by banks is very significant, as are family businesses. In Germany, the banks, in particular, are important owners of shares in companies as well as providers of debt finance. A majority of shares in some German public companies are owned directly by banks or controlled through proxies by them. In such countries the banks or the state will, in many cases, nominate directors and thus be able to obtain non-public information and to affect decisions. If many companies in continental countries are dominated by banks, governments or families, the need for published information is much smaller because of this access to private information. This also applies to the need for audit, because this is designed to check up on the managers in cases where the owners are ‘outsiders’.

Evidence of the two-way characterisation of countries may be found by looking at their numbers of listed companies. Table $5.4$ shows the numbers, in late 2018, of domestic listed companies on selected stock exchanges. Table $5.5$ shows figures for four major countries in 2012, putting the size of the equity market in the context of the size of the economy and the number of domestic listed companies in the context of the population. The comparison between the United Kingdom and the United States (with large equity markets) and Germany and Italy (with much smaller equity markets) is instructive.

# 财务会计代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|FNS50217

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Introduction: the international nature

Different countries have contributed to the development of accounting over the centuries. When archaeologists uncover ancient remains in the Middle East, almost anything with writing or numbers on it is a form of accounting: expenses of wars, feasts or constructions; or lists of taxes due or paid. It is now fairly well documented that the origins of written numbers and written words are closely associated with the need to keep account and to render account.

The Romans developed sophisticated forms of single-entry accounting from which, for example, farm profits could be calculated. Later, India and the Arab world had sophisticated accounting, but it is probably in northern Italy in the thirteenth century that the double-entry system was invented, driven by the increasing complexity of business. Later still, in seventeenth-century Holland, the existence of a wealthy merchant class and the need for large investment for major projects led to public subscription of share capital. Next, the growing separation of ownership from management raised the need for audits in nineteenth-century Britain. Many European countries have contributed to the development of accounting: France led in legal control over accounting; Scotland pioneered the accountancy profession; Germany gave us standardised formats for financial statements.

From the late nineteenth century onwards, the United States has given us consolidation of financial statements (see Chapter 14), management accounting, capitalisation of leases (see Chapter 9) and deferred tax accounting (see Chapter 12). The United Kingdom contributed the ‘true and fair view’ (see Section 5.4), which has been rounded out with the US ‘substance over form’. In the late twentieth century, Japan contributed greatly to managerial accounting and control.

The common feature of all these international influences on accounting is that commercial developments led to accounting advances. Not surprisingly, leading commercial nations in any period are the innovators in accounting. However, although international influences and similarities are clear, there are also great international differences, particularly within Europe. An indication of the scale of international difference can be seen in those cases where companies publish two sets of accounting figures based on different rules. Comparisons of accounting under domestic rules with that under US rules were commonly published until 2006 by foreign companies that were listed on US stock exchanges. Table $5.1$ shows some interesting examples for earnings. Daimler-Benz was the first German company to provide this data, in 1993 . The large differences (and the variation from year to year) between German and US profit figures were a surprise to many accountants and users of financial statements.

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Nobes’ classification

It would be possible to criticise the classifications discussed above for:
(a) lack of precision in the definition of what is to be classified;
(b) lack of a model with which to compare the statistical results;
(c) lack of hierarchy that would add more subtlety to the portrayal of the size of differences between countries;
(d) lack of judgement in the choice of ‘important’ discriminating features.
Can these problems be remedied? One of the authors of this book attempted to solve them in the following ways (see Nobes, 1983). The scope of the exercise was defined as the classification of some Western countries by the financial reporting practices of their listed companies and it was carried out in the early 1980s. The reporting practices were those concerned with measurement and valuation. It is listed companies whose financial statements are generally available and whose practices can most easily be discovered. It is the international differences in reporting between such companies that are of main interest to shareholders, creditors, auditing firms, taxation authorities, management and harmonising agencies. Measurement and valuation practices were chosen because these determine the size of the figures for profit, capital, total assets, liquidity and so on.

Nobes (1983) suggested that there were two main types of financial reporting ‘system’ in Europe at the time: the micro/professional and the macro/uniform. The first of these involved accountants in individual companies striving to present tair information to outside users, without detailed constraint of law or tax rules but with standards written by accountants. The macro/uniform type had accounting mainly as a servant of the state, particularly for taxation purposes.

The micro/professional side contained the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark, the United States, Australla, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa. The Netherlands had (and has) fewer rules than the other countries, and another distinguishing feature is that the influence of microeconomic theory led to the use of replacement cost information to varying degrees. Denmark rearranged its accounting system after the Second World War and it now looks somewhat like the United Kingdom’s or the United States’.

The macro/uniform side contained all other sample European countries and Japan. However, they were divided into subgroups. For example, accounting plans were (and are) the predominant source of detailed rules in France, Belgium, Spain and Greece. In Germany the commercial code was (and is) the major authority and there was (and is) much stricter observance of historical cost values. In Sweden, the predominant influence seems to have been the government as economic planner and tax collector.

Table $5.3$ summarises some of the typical differences between countries on a two-group basis. A number of the ‘specific accounting features’ are examined in Part 2.

# 财务会计代考

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Nobes’ classification

(a) 对要分类的内容的定义不够精确；
(b) 缺乏用于比较统计结果的模型；
(c) 缺乏等级制度，这会使对国家间差异规模的描述更加微妙；
(d) 在选择“重要”区别特征时缺乏判断力。

Nobes (1983) 建议当时欧洲有两种主要类型的财务报告“系统”：微观/专业和宏观/统一。其中第一个涉及个别公司的会计师，他们努力向外部用户提供公平信息，不受法律或税收规则的详细限制，但遵循会计师编写的标准。宏观/统一类型的会计主要作为国家的仆人，特别是出于税收目的。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|ACX5903

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|Relevance

Relevance is a hallmark of good evidence; it means the information directly relates to the facts you’re trying to evaluate or understand. The inclusion or absence of relevant information has a definite effect on a user’s decision-making process.
Relevant information has predictive value, which means it helps a user look into the future. By understanding and evaluating the information, the user can form an opinion as to how future company events may play out. For example, comparing financial results from prior years, which are gleaned from the financial statements, can give investors an idea as to the future value of a company’s stock. If assets and revenue are decreasing while liabilities are increasing, you have a pretty good indicator that investing in this company may not be such a hot idea.
Relevant information also has feedback value, which means that new relevant information either confirms or rebuts the user’s prior expectations. For example, you review a company’s financial statements for 2021, and your analysis indicates that the company’s sales should increase two-fold in the subsequent year. When you later check out the 2022 income statement, the company’s gross receipts have, indeed, doubled. Woohoo! With the relevant information in hand, you see that your prediction came true.

Timeliness goes hand in hand with relevance. The best and most accurate information in the world is of no use if it’s no longer applicable because so such time has elapsed that facts and circumstances have changed. Look at it this way: If you were in the market to replace your flat-screen TV, and you found out about a killer sale at the local electronics store the day after the sale ended, this information is utterly useless to you. The same thing is true with financial information. That’s why the SEC requires publicly traded companies to issue certain reports as soon as 60 days after the end of the financial period. (See Chapter 16 for more about this reporting requirement.)

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|COST/BENEFIT LOST IN THE WOODS

Years ago, the bookkeeper at one of my client companies spent five hours tracking down the reason why the company bank reconciliation was off by $\$ 2$to make sure the bank hadn’t made a mistake. (Preparing a bank reconciliotion means you take the balance in the bank account per the bank as of a certain date, add in any deposits that got to the bank too late to hit the statement, and subtract any checks the company has written that have not yet cleared.) Yikes! Now, was this an effective and efficient use of that bookkeeper’s time and salary expense? No, of course not. Say she was paid$\$10$ per hour. It cost the company $\$ 50$for her to confirm that the operating account bank balance was indeed off by$\$2$, and it wasn’t just an inadvertent mistake on the part of the bank.

For example, an expense totaling $\$ 10,000$would be material if the total expense amount is$\$50,000$ but would likely be immaterial if the total expense was $\$ 500,000$. But the nature of the transaction may make the difference material even if the comparative size is immaterial. For example,$\$10,000$ that is deliberately – not accidentally – excluded from income may be material even if the amount is a small percentage of overall income. That’s because the deliberate exclusion may be an attempt by the owner of the company to avoid paying taxes on the income.

Conservatism is very important in financial accounting. It means that when in doubt, the financial accountant should choose the financial accounting treatment that will cause the least favorable effect on revenue or expenses.

Every professional – and, frankly, every individual – should operate using a code of conduct. This means you should always attempt to act in an ethical manner and do the right thing, regardless of whether doing the right thing is the best choice for you personally.

In this section, I give you the nuts and bolts of the code of conduct that financial accountants must follow. Plus, you find out about the goals toward which financial accountants strive: integrity, objectivity, and independence.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|ACF5956

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|Identifying the most likely users

Financial statement users fall into three categories:

Existing or potential investors in the company’s stocks or bonds.
$\boldsymbol{>}$ Individuals or businesses thinking about extending credit terms to the company. Examples of creditors include banks, automobile financing companies, and the vendors from which a company purchases its inventory or office supplies.
Governmental agencies, such as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which want to make sure the company is fairly presenting its financial position. (I discuss the history and role of the SEC in Chapter 4.)
And what other governmental agency is particularly interested in whether a company employs any hocus pocus when preparing its financial statements? The Internal Revenue Service (IRS), of course, because financial statements are the starting point for reporting taxable income.

All three categories of financial statement users share a common need: They require assurance that the information they are looking at is both materially correct and useful. Materially correct means the financial statements don’t contain any serious or substantial misstatements. In order to be useful, the information has to be understandable to anyone not privy to the day-to-day activities of the company.
Investors and creditors, though sitting at different ends of the table, have something else in common: They are looking for a financial return in exchange for allowing the business to use their cash. Governmental agencies, on the other hand, don’t have a profit motive for reviewing the financial statements; they just want to make sure the company is abiding by all tax codes, regulations, or generally accepted accounting principles.

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|Providing information for decision-making

The onus is on financial accountants to make sure a company’s financial statements are materially correct. Important life decisions may hang in the balance based on an individual investing in one stock versus another. Don’t believe me? Talk to any individual close to retirement age who lost his or her whole nest egg in the Enron debacle.

Two of the three groups of financial statement users are making decisions based on those statements: investors and creditors.

Creditors look to the financial statements to make sure a potential debtor has the cash flow and potential future earnings to pay back both principal and interest according to the terms of the loan.
Investors fall into two groups:
» Those looking for growth: These investors want the value of a stock to increase over time. Here’s an example of growth at work: You do some research about a little-known company that is poised to introduce a hot new computer product into the market. You have $\$ 1,000$sitting in a checking account that bears no interest. You believe, based on your research, that if you purchase some stock in this company now, you’ll be able to sell the stock for$\$2,000$ shortly after the company releases the computer product.

Those looking for income: These investors are satisfied with a steady stock that weathers ebbs and flows in the market. The stock neither increases nor decreases in value per share by an enormous amount, but it pays a consistent, reasonable dividend. (Keep in mind that reasonableness varies for each person and his or her investment income goals.)
You can make money in two ways: the active way (you work to earn money) and the passive way (you invest money to make more money). Passive is better, no? The wise use of investing allows individuals to make housing choices, educate their children, and provide for their retirement. And wise investment decisions can be made only when potential investors have materially correct financial statements for the businesses in which they’re considering investing.

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|Identifying the most likely users

>考虑向公司提供信贷条款的个人或企业。债权人的例子包括银行、汽车金融公司以及公司购买库存或办公用品的供应商。

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|Providing information for decision-making

» 寻求增长的人：这些投资者希望股票的价值随着时间的推移而增加。下面是一个工作增长的例子：你对一家鲜为人知的公司进行了一些研究，该公司准备将一种热门的新计算机产品推向市场。你有$1,000坐在没有利息的支票账户里。您相信，根据您的研究，如果您现在购买该公司的一些股票，您将能够以$2,000在公司发布计算机产品后不久。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|DPBS1140

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|Preparing financial statements

If you’re taking a financial accounting class, your entire course is centered on the proper preparation of financial statements: the income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows. Financial accountants can’t just stick accounting transaction data on the statements wherever they feel like. Many, many rules exist that dictate how financial accountants must organize the information on the statements; these rules are called generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), and I discuss them in Chapter 4 . The rules pertain to both how the financial accountant shows the accounting transactions and on which financial statements the information relating to the transactions appears.

Curious about the purpose of each financial statement? (I know the mystery is eating at you!) Here’s the scoop on each:

Income statement: This financial statement shows the results of business operations consisting of revenue, expenses, gains, and losses. The end product is net income or net loss. I talk about the income statement in Chapter 2, and then I cover it from soup to nuts in Chapter 10. For now (because I know the excitement is too much for you!), here are the basic facts on the four different income statement components:

• Revenue: Gross receipts earned by the company selling its goods or services.
• Expenses: The costs to the company to earn the revenue.
• Gains: Income from non-operating-related transactions, such as selling a company asset.
• Losses: The flip side of gains, such as losing money when selling the company car.
A lot of non-accountants call the income statement a statement of profit or loss or simply a P\&L. These terms are fine to use because they address the spirit of the statement.
Balance sheet: This statement has three sections: assets, liabilities, and equity. Standing on their own, these sections contain valuable information about a company. However, a user has to see all three interacting together on the balance sheet to form an opinion approaching reliability about the company.
Part 3 of this book is all about the balance sheet, but for now here are the basics about each balance sheet component:
• Assets: Resources owned by a company, such as cash, equipment, and buildings.
• Liabilities: Debt the business incurs for operating and expansion purposes.
• Equity: The amount of ownership left in the business after deducting total liabilities from total assets.
ß Statement of cash flows: This statement contains certain components of both the income statement and the balance sheet. The purpose of the statement of cash flows is to show cash sources and uses during a specific period of time – in other words, how a company brings in cash and for what costs the cash goes back out the door.

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|Showing historic performance

The information reflected on the financial statements allows its users to evaluate whether they want to become financially involved with the company. But the financial statement users cannot make educated decisions based solely on one set of financial statements. Here’s why:

The income statement is finite in what it reflects. For example, it may report net income for the 12-month period ending December 31, 2021. This means any accounting transactions taking place prior to or after this 12-month window do not show up on the report.
The statement of cash flows is also finite in nature, showing cash ins and outs only for the reporting period.
While the balance sheet shows results from the first day the company opens to the date on the balance sheet, it doesn’t provide a complete picture of the company’s operations. All three financial statements are needed to paint that picture.

Savvy financial statement users know that they need to compare several years’ worth of financial statements to get a true sense of business performance. Users employ tools such as ratios and measurements involving financial statement data (a topic I cover in Chapter 14) to evaluate the relative merit of one company over another by analyzing each company’s historic performance.

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|Preparing financial statements

• 收入：公司销售其商品或服务所赚取的总收入。
• 费用：公司赚取收入的成本。
• 收益：非经营相关交易的收入，例如出售公司资产。
• 损失：收益的另一面，例如出售公司汽车时赔钱。
许多非会计师称损益表为损益表或简称为损益表。这些术语很好用，因为它们表达了声明的精神。
资产负债表：该报表包含三个部分：资产、负债和权益。这些部分独立存在，包含有关公司的有价值信息。但是，用户必须在资产负债表上看到这三个方面相互作用，才能形成接近公司可靠性的意见。
本书的第 3 部分都是关于资产负债表的，但现在这里是关于每个资产负债表组成部分的基础知识：
• 资产：公司拥有的资源，例如现金、设备和建筑物。
• 负债：企业因经营和扩张而产生的债务。
• 权益：从总资产中扣除总负债后剩余的企业所有权金额。
ß 现金流量表：该表包含损益表和资产负债表的某些部分。现金流量表的目的是显示特定时期内的现金来源和用途——换句话说，公司如何带来现金以及现金以什么成本流出。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|DPBS1140

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|The Historical Cost Principle

The historical cost principle states that assets should be recorded at their actual cost, measured on the date of purchase as the amount of cash paid plus noncash types of compensation given in exchange. For example, suppose The Walt Disney Company wants to purchase a building for a new Disney Store. The building’s current owner is asking $\$ 6,000,000$for the building. Disney’s managers believe the building is worth$\$5,850,000$ and offer that amount. Two real estate professionals appraise the building at $\$ 6,100,000$. The buyer and seller then compromise and agree on a price of$\$5,900,000$. The historical cost principle requires Disney to initially record the building at its actual cost of $\$ 5,900,000$-not at$\$5,850,000, \$ 6,000,000$, or$\$6,100,000$, even though those amounts were what some people believed the building was worth. The $\$ 5,900,000$cost is both the relevant amount of the building’s worth and the amount that faithfully represents a reliable figure for the price the company paid for it. Based on the historical cost principle and the continuity assumption, The Walt Disney Company should continue to use historical cost to value the asset for as long as the business owns it. Why? Because cost is a verifiable measure that is relatively free from bias. Suppose that after the company has owned the building for six years, it can be sold for$\$6,500,000$ because real estate prices have gone up. Should Disney increase the value of the building on the company’s books to $\$ 6,500,000$at this point? No. According to the historical cost principle, the building remains on The Walt Disney Company’s books at its historical cost of$\$5,900,000$, less accumulated depreciation. According to the continuity assumption, Disney intends to stay in business and use the building-not sell it—so its historical cost is the most relevant and the most faithful representation of its value. It is also the most easily verifiable amount. Should the company decide to sell the building later at a price above or below its value, it will record the cash received, remove the value of the building from the books, and record a gain or a loss for the difference at that time.

Although the historical cost principle is used widely in the United States to value assets, accounting is moving in the direction of reporting more assets and liabilities at their fair values. Fair value is the amount that the business could sell the asset for, or the amount that the business could pay to settle the liability. The FASB has issued guidance for companies to report many assets and liabilities at fair values. ‘ Moreover, in recent years, the FASB has agreed to “harmonize” U.S. GAAP with IFRS. IFRS generally allow more types of assets to be periodically adjusted to their fair values than U.S. GAAP. We will discuss the trend toward globalization of accounting standards in the following Global View feature, and we will illustrate it in later chapters throughout the book.

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|The Stable-Monetary-Unit Assumption

In the United States, we record transactions in dollars because that is our medium of exchange. British accountants record transactions in pounds sterling, Japanese in yen, and some continental Europeans in euros.

Unlike a liter or a mile, the value of a dollar changes over time. A rise in the general price level is called inflation. Inflation results in a dollar purchasing less food, less toothpaste, and less of other goods and services. When prices are stable-there is little inflation-a dollar’s purchasing power is also stable.

Under the stable-monetary-unit assumption, accountants assume that the dollar’s purchasing power is stable over time. We ignore inflation, and this allows us to add and subtract dollar amounts as though the dollar’s purchasing power hasn’t changed. This is important because businesses that report their financial information publicly usually report comparative financial information (that is, the current year along with one or more prior years). If we could not assume a stable monetary unit, assets and liabilities denominated in prior years’ dollars would have to be adjusted to current-year price levels. In developed countries like the United States, inflation levels have been at very low levels for several decades and are expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. As a result, adjusting accounting information for inflation to make the information comparable over time isn’t considered necessary.

The financial statements are based on the accounting equation. This equation presents the resources of a company and the claims to those resources.

• Assets are economic resources that are expected to produce a benefit in the future. The Walt Disney Company’s cash, receivables, inventory, attractions, buildings, and equipment are examples of assets.
Claims on assets come from two sources:
• Liabilities are “outsider claims.” They are debts owed to people and organizations outside of the business (creditors). For example, a creditor who has loaned money to The Walt Disney Company has a claim-a legal right-to a part of the company’s assets until the company repays the debt.
• Equity (also called capital, owners’ equity, or stockholders’ equity for a corporation) represents the “insider claims” of a business. Equity means ownership, so The Walt Disney Company’s equity is the stockholders’ interest in the assets of the corporation. Throughout most of this book we will be discussing corporations, so the term stockholders’ equity is most likely to be used.

. The . The

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|ACX5903

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写中级财务会计Intermediate Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|EXPLAIN AND APPLY UNDERLYING ACCOUNTING CONCEPTS

Accountants follow professional standards for measuring and disclosing financial information. The most common set of standards are called Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). In the United States, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) formulates the standards for U.S. GAAP. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) sets International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as discussed later in this section.

Exhibit 1-3 gives an overview of the joint conceptual framework of accounting developed by the FASB and the IASB. Financial reporting standards (whether U.S. or international), at the bottom, follow this conceptual framework. The top frame shows that the overall objective of accounting is to provide financial information about the reporting entity that existing and potential investors, lenders, and other creditors can use to make decisions. The second level in the exhibit indicates that to be useful, the information must have two fundamental qualitative characteristics:

• relevance, and
• faithful representation.

To be relevant, the information must be useful to decision makers in terms of helping them predict or confirm an organization’s value. In addition, the information must be material, which means it must be important enough that, if it were omitted or incorrect, it would affect a user’s decision. Only information that is material needs to be separately disclosed (listed or discussed) in financial statements. If it’s not material, it can be combined with other information and not separately disclosed. To make a faithful representation, the information must be complete, neutral (free from bias), and free from error (accurate). Faithful representation makes the information reliable to users.

The third level in the exhibit indicates that accounting information must also have a number of enhancing qualitative characteristics. These include

• comparability,
• verifiability,
• timeliness, and
• understandability.
Comparability means that accounting information must be prepared in a way that allows it to be compared with information from other companies in the same period; the information should also be consistent with similar information for that company in previous periods. For example, the methods used to compute sales revenue should be consistent for each year presented in financial statements. Verifiability means that it must be possible to check the information for accuracy, completeness, and reliability. Verifiability enhances the reliability of information and thus makes the information more representative of economic reality. Timeliness means that the information must be made available to users early enough to help them make decisions. Understandability means the information must be transparent, or clear, enough so that it makes sense to reasonably informed users of the information (investors, creditors, regulatory agencies, and managers).

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写Intermediate Financial Accounting代考|The Entity Assumption

The most basic accounting assumption (underlying idea) is the entity, which is any organization (or person) that stands apart as a separate economic unit. Sharp boundaries are drawn around each entity so as not to confuse its affairs with those of others.

Consider Robert A. Iger, Chairman and CEO of The Walt Disney Company. Iger likely owns several homes, automobiles, and other personal assets. In addition, he may owe money on some personal loans. All these assets and liabilities belong to Iger and have nothing to do with The Walt Disney Company. Likewise, Disney’s cash, computers, and inventories belong to the company and not to Iger. Why? The entity assumption draws a sharp boundary around each entity. In this case, The Walt Disney Company is one entity, and Robert Iger is a second, separate entity.

Let’s consider the various types of businesses that make up The Walt Disney Company. The company operates five types of businesses, called segments: media networks, parks and resorts, studio entertainment, consumer products, and interactive media (games and online services). Top managers evaluate the results of the parks and resorts businesses separately from those of media networks. If theme park revenues were falling, the company should identify the reason. But if revenue figures from all the businesses were combined in a single total, managers couldn’t tell how differently each business segment was performing. To correct the problem, managers need accounting information for each business segment (entity) in the company. They also need separate information for each geographic region (such as country). To accomplish this, each type of business and each region keeps its own records so it can be evaluated separately.

When measuring and reporting accounting information, we assume that the entity will continue to operate long enough to sell its inventories, convert any receivables to cash, use other existing assets (such as land, buildings, equipment, and supplies) for their intended purposes, and settle its obligations in the normal course of business. This is called the continuity (or going-concern) assumption.

Consider the alternative to the going-concern assumption: the quitting concern, or going out of business assumption. An entity going out of business would have to sell all of its assets in the process. In that case, the most relevant measure of the value of the assets would be their liquidating values (or the amount the company can receive for the assets when sold in order to go out of business). But going out of business is the exception rather than the rule. Therefore, the continuity assumption says that a business should stay in business long enough to convert its inventories and receivables to cash and pay off its obligations in the ordinary course of business, and to continue this process of operating into the future.

## 会计代写|中级财务会计代写中级财务会计代考|解释和应用基础会计概念

• 相关性，
• 忠实表示，

• 可比性，
• 可验证性，
• 时效性，
• 可理解性。
可比性意味着会计信息必须以一种能够与同期其他公司的信息相比较的方式编制;该信息还应与该公司以往时期的类似信息一致。例如，用于计算销售收入的方法应该与财务报表中的每一年一致。可验证性意味着必须能够检查信息的准确性、完整性和可靠性。可核查性提高了信息的可靠性，从而使信息更能代表经济现实。及时性意味着信息必须尽早提供给用户，以帮助他们做出决策。可理解性意味着信息必须是透明的，或足够清晰，以便合理地了解信息的用户(投资者、债权人、监管机构和管理者)能够理解。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。