## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|CSE435

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写超大规模集成电路系统Introduction to VLSI Systems方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写超大规模集成电路系统Introduction to VLSI Systems方面经验极为丰富，各种代写超大规模集成电路系统Introduction to VLSI Systems相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|CMOS Transmission Gates

Since a voltage of magnitude $V_{T n}$ between the gate and source of an nMOS transistor is required to turn on the transistor, the maximum output voltage of an $n M O S$ switch is equal to $V_{D D}-V_{T n}$, provided that $V_{D D}$ is applied to both gate and drain electrodes. Similarly, the minimum output voltage of a pMOS switch is equal to $\left|V_{T p}\right|$, provided that $0 \mathrm{~V}$ is applied to both gate and drain electrodes. The above two statements can be restated in terms of information transfer by letting $0 \mathrm{~V}$ represent logic 0 and $V_{D D}$ denote logic 1 as follows. The nMOS transistor can pass 0 perfectly but cannot pass 1 without degradation; the pMOS transistor can pass 1 perfectly but cannot pass 0 without degradation.

The aforementioned shortcomings of nMOS and pMOS transistors may be overcome by combining an nMOS transistor with a pMOS transistor as a parallel-connected switch, referred to as a transmission gate (TG) or a CMOS switch, as shown in Figure 1.9. Since both nMOS and pMOS transistors are connected in parallel, the imperfect feature of one transistor will be made up by the other. Figure $1.9(\mathrm{a})$ shows the circuit structure of a TG switch and Figure 1.9(b) shows the logic symbol often used in logic diagrams.

Even though using TG switches may overcome the degradation of information passing through them, each TG switch needs two transistors, one nMOS and one pMOS. This means that the use of TG switches needs more area than the use of nMOS switches or pMOS switches alone. In practice, for area-limited applications the use of nMOS transistors is much more prefcrable to pMOS transistors since the clectron mobility is much greater than hole mohility. Hence, nMOS transistors perform much hetter than pMOS transistors.

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|Simple Switch Logic Design

As introduced, any of three switches, nMOS, pMOS, and TG, may be used as a switch to control the close (on) or open (off) status of two points. Based on a proper combination of these switches, a switch logic circuit can be constructed. In the following, we begin with the discussion of compound switches and then introduce a systematic design methodology for constructing a switch logic circuit from a given switching function.
For many applications, we often combine two or more switches in a serial, parallel, or combined fashion to form a compound switch. For instance, the case of two switches being connected in series to form a compound switch is shown in Figure 1.10. The operation of the resulting switch is controlled by two control signals: $S 1$ and $S 2$. The compound switch is turned on only when both control signals $S 1$ and $S 2$ are asserted and remains in an off state otherwise.

Recall that to activate an nMOS switch we need to apply a high-level voltage to its gate and to activate a pMOS switch we need to apply a low-level voltage to its gate. As a result, the compound nMOS switch shown in Figure 1.10(a) is turned on only when both control signals $S 1$ and $S 2$ are at high-level voltages (usually $V_{D D}$ ) and remains in an off state in all other combinations of control signals. The compound pMOS switch depicted in Figure $1.10$ (b) is turned on only when both control signals $S 1$ and $S 2$ are at low-level voltages (usually at the ground level) and remains in an off state in all other combinations of control signals.

Figure $1.11$ shows the case of two switches being connected in parallel to form a compound switch. The operation of the resulting switch is controlled by two control signals: $S 1$ and $S 2$. The compound switch is turned on whenever either switch is on. Therefore, the compound switch is turned off only if both control signals $S 1$ and $S 2$ are deasserted and remains in an on state otherwise.

In Figure 1.11(a), the compound nMOS switch is turned on whenever one control signal of $S 1$ and $S 2$ is at a high-level voltage (usually $V_{D D}$ ) and remains in an off state only when both control signals are at the ground level. In Figure 1.11(b), the compound pMOS switch is turned on whenever one control signal of $S 1$ and $S 2$ is at the ground level and remains in an off state only when both control signals $S 1$ and $S 2$ are at high-level voltages.

## 广义线性模型代考

statistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|ECE5745

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写超大规模集成电路系统Introduction to VLSI Systems方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写超大规模集成电路系统Introduction to VLSI Systems方面经验极为丰富，各种代写超大规模集成电路系统Introduction to VLSI Systems相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|nMOS Transistors

The physical structure of an nMOS transistor is basically composed of a metal-oxidesilicon (MOS) system and two $n^{+}$regions on the surface of a p-type silicon substrate, as depicted in Figure 1.7(a). The MOS system is a sandwich structure where a dielectric (an insulator) is inserted between a metal or a polysilicon and a p-type substrate. The metal or polysilicon is called the gate. The two $n^{+}$regions on the surface of the substrate are referred to as drain and source, respectively.

The operation of an nMOS transistor can hee illustrated by Figure $1.7(\mathrm{a})$. When a large enough positive voltage $V_{G S}$ is applied to the gate (electrode), electrons are attracted toward the silicon surface from the $p$-type substrate due to a positive electric field being built on the silicon surface by the gate voltage. These electrons form a channel between the drain and source. The minimum voltage $V_{G S}$ inducing the channel is defined as the threshold voltage, denoted $V_{T n}$, of the nMOS transistor. The value of $V_{T n}$ ranges from $0.3 \mathrm{~V}$ to $0.7 \mathrm{~V}$ for the present submicron and deep-submicron processes, depending on a particular process of interest.

For digital applications, an nMOS transistor can be thought of as a simple switch element. The switch is turned on when the gate voltage is greater than or equal to its threshold voltage and turned off otherwise. Due to the symmetric structure of an nMOS transistor, either of $n^{+}$regions can be used as the source or drain, depending on how the operating voltage is applied. One with more positive voltage is the drain and the other is the source because the carriers on the nMOS transistor are electrons.
Figure $1.7$ (b) shows the circuit symbols that are often used in circuit designs. The one with an explicit arrow associated with the source electrode is often used in analog applications, where the roles of source and drain are fixed. The other without an explicit arrow is often used in digital applications because the roles of the drain and source will be dynamically determined by the actual operating conditions of the circuit. The switch circuit model is depicted in Figure $1.7(\mathrm{c})$.

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|pMOS Transistors

Likewise, the physical structure of a pMOS transistor comprises a MOS system and two $p^{+}$regions on the surface of an $n$-type silicon substrate, as depicted in Figure $1.8(\mathrm{a})$. The MOS system is a sandwich structure where a dielectric (an insulator) is inserted between a metal or polysilicon and an $n$-type substrate. The metal or polysilicon is called a gate. The two $p^{+}$regions on the surface of substrate are referred to as the drain and source, respectively.

The operation of a pMOS transistor can be illustrated by Figure 1.8(a). When a large negative voltage $V_{G S}$ is applied to the gate (electrode), holes are attracted toward the silicon surface from the $n$-type substrate due to a negative electric field being built on the silicon surface by the gate voltage. These holes form a channel between the drain and source. The minimum voltage $\left|V_{G S}\right|$ inducing the channel is defined as the threshold vollage, denoted $V_{T p}$, of the pMOS Lransistor. The value of $V_{T p}$ ranges from $-0.3 \mathrm{~V}$ to $-0.7 \mathrm{~V}$ for the present submicron and deep-submicron processes, depending on a particular process of interest.

Like an nMOS transistor, a pMOS transistor can be regarded as a simple switch element for digital applications. The switch is turned on when the gate voltage is less than or equal to its threshold voltage and turned off otherwise. Due to the symmetric structure of a pMOS transistor, either of $p^{+}$regions can be used as the source or drain, depending on how the operating voltage is applied. One with more positive voltage is the source and the other is the drain since the carriers on the pMOS transistor are holes.

Figure 1.8(b) shows the circuit symbols that are often used in circuit designs. The symbol convention of pMOS transistors is exactly the same as that of nMOS transistors. The one with an explicit arrow associated with the source electrode is often used in analog applications in which the roles of source and drain are fixed. The other without an explicit arrow but with a circle at the gate is often used in digital applications because the roles of drain and source will be dynamically determined by the actual operating conditions of the circuit. The circle is used to distinguish it from the nMOS transistor and to indicate that the pMOS transistor is at active-low cnable. The switch circuit model is depicted in Figure $1.8(\mathrm{c})$.

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|nMOS Transistors

nMOS晶体管的物理结构基本上由一个金属氧化物硅（MOS）系统和两个n+p 型硅衬底表面上的区域，如图 1.7(a) 所示。MOS系统是一种夹层结构，其中在金属或多晶硅和p型衬底之间插入了电介质（绝缘体）。金属或多晶硅称为栅极。他们俩n+衬底表面上的区域分别称为漏极和源极。

nMOS晶体管的操作可以用图来说明1.7(一个). 当足够大的正电压在G小号施加到栅极（电极），电子从硅表面被吸引p型衬底由于栅极电压在硅表面上建立了正电场。这些电子在漏极和源极之间形成通道。最低电压在G小号诱导通道被定义为阈值电压，表示在吨n, nMOS 晶体管。的价值在吨n范围从0.3 在至0.7 在对于目前的亚微米和深亚微米工艺，取决于感兴趣的特定工艺。

## 广义线性模型代考

statistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|ECE1192

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写超大规模集成电路系统Introduction to VLSI Systems方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写超大规模集成电路系统Introduction to VLSI Systems方面经验极为丰富，各种代写超大规模集成电路系统Introduction to VLSI Systems相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|Design Issues of VLSI Circuits

A VLSI manufacturing process is called a submicron $(\mathrm{SM})$ process when the feature size is below $1 \mu \mathrm{m}$, and a deep submicron (DSM) process when the feature size is roughly below $0.25 \mu \mathrm{m}^{2}$ The corresponding devices made by these two processes are denoted SM devices and DSM devices, respectively. At present, DSM devices are popular in the design of a large-scale system because they provide a more economical way to integrate a much more complicated system into a single chip. The resulting chip is often referred to as a system-on-a-chip (SoC) device.

Even though DSM processes allow us to design a very complicated large-scale system, many design challenges indeed exist, in particular, when the feature sizes are beyond $0.13 \mu \mathrm{m}$. The associated design issues can be subdivided into two main classes: DSM devices and DSM interconnect. ${ }^{3}$ In the following, we address each of these briefly.

The design issues of DSM devices include thin-oxide (gate-oxide) tunneling/breakdown, gate leakage current, subthreshold current, velocity saturation, short-channel effects on $V_{T}$, hot-carrier effects, and draininduced barrier lowering (DIBL) effect.

The device features of typical DSM processes are summarized in Table $1.1$. From the table, we can see that the thin-oxide (gate-oxide, i.e., silicon dioxide, $\mathrm{SiO}_{2}$ ) thickness is reduced from $5.7 \mathrm{~nm}$ in a $0.25-\mu \mathrm{m}$ process down to $1.65 \mathrm{~nm}$ in a $32-\mathrm{nm}$ process. The side effects of this reduction are thin-oxide tunneling and breakdown. The thin-oxide tunneling may cause an extra gate leakage current. To avoid thin-oxide breakdown, the operating voltage applied to the gate has to be lowered. This means that the noise margins are reduced accordingly and the subthreshold current may no longer be ignored. To reduce the gate leakage current, high- $k$ MOS transistors are widely employed starting from a $45-\mathrm{nm}$ process. In high- $k$ MOS transistors, a high- $k$ dielectric is used to replace the gate oxide. Hence, the gate-dielectric thickness may be increased significantly, thereby reducing the gate leakage current dramatically. The actual gatedielectric thickness depends on the relative permittivity of gate-dielectric material, referring to Section 3.4.1.2 for more details.

In addition, as the channel length of a device is reduced, velocity saturation, shortchannel effects on $V_{T}$, and hot-carrier effects may no longer be ignored as in the case of a long-channel device. The electron and hole velocities in the channel or silicon bulk is proportional to the applied electric field when the electric field is below a critical value. However, these velocities will saturate at a value of about $8 \times 10^{6} \mathrm{~cm} / \mathrm{sec}$ at 400 $\mathrm{K}$, which is independent of the doping level and corresponds to an electric field with the strength of $6 \times 10^{4} \mathrm{~V} / \mathrm{cm}$ for electrons and $2.4 \times 10^{5} \mathrm{~V} / \mathrm{cm}$ for holes, respectively. When velocity saturation happens, the drain current of a MOS transistor will follow a linear rather than a quadratical relationship with applied gate-to-source voltage.

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|Economics of VLSI

The cost of an IC is roughly composed of two major factors: fixed cost and variable cost. The fixed cost, also referred to as the nonrecurring engineering (NRE) cost, is independent of the sales volume. It is mainly contributed by the cost from that a project is started until the first successful prototype is obtained. More precisely, the fixed cost covers direct and indirect costs. The direct cost includes the research and design (R\&D) cost, manufacturing mask cost, as well as marketing and sales cost; the indirect cost comprises the investment of manufacturing equipments, the investment of CAD tools, building infrastructure cost, and so on. The variable cost is proportional to the product volume and is mainly the cost of manufacturing wafers, namely, wafer price, which is roughly in the range between 1,200 and 1,600 USD for a 300 -mm wafer.

From the above discussion, the cost per IC can be expressed as follows.
Cost per $\mathrm{IC}=$ Variable cost of $\mathrm{IC}+\frac{\text { Fixed cost }}{\text { Volume }}$
The variable cost per IC can be formulated as the following equation.
Variable cost of $\mathrm{IC}=$
Cost of die $+$ Cost of testing die $+$ Cost of packaging and final test
Final test yield $\times$ Dies per wafer
The cost of a die is the wafer price divided by the number of good dies and can be represented as the following formula.
$$\text { Cost of die }=\frac{\text { Wafer price }}{\text { Dies per wafer } \times \text { Die yield }}$$
The number of dies in a wafer, excluding fragmented dies on the boundary, can be approximated by the following equation.
Dies per wafer $=\frac{3}{4} \frac{d^{2}}{A}-\frac{1}{2 \sqrt{A}} d$
where $d$ is the diameter of the wafer and $A$ is the area of square dies. The derivation of this equation is left to the reader as an exercise.
The die yield can be estimated by the following widely used function.
Die yield $=\left(1+\frac{D_{0} A}{\alpha}\right)^{-\alpha}$
where $D_{0}$ is the defect density, i.e., the defects per unit area, in defects $/ \mathrm{cm}^{2}$, and $\alpha$ is a measure of manufacturing complexity. The typical values of $D_{0}$ and $\alpha$ are $0.3$ to $1.3$ and $4.0$, respectively. From this equation, it is clear that the die yield is inversely proportional to the die area.

The following two examples exemplify the above concepts about the cost of an IC. In these two examples, we intend to ignore the fixed cost and only take into account the wafer price when calculating die cost.

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|Design Issues of VLSI Circuits

DSM 器件的设计问题包括薄氧化物 (gate-oxide) 隧穿/击穿、栅极漏电流、亚阈值电流、速度饱和、在吨，热载流子效应和漏极降低势垒（DIBL）效应。

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|Economics of VLSI

$I C$ 的成本大致由两个主要因素组成：固定成本和可变成本。固定成本，也称为非经常性工程 (NRE) 成本，与销量无 关。它主要来自从项目启动到获得第一个成功原型的成本。更准确地说，固定成本包括直接成本和间接成本。直接 成本包括研究和设计 (RI\&D) 成本、制造掩模成本，以及营销和销售成本；间接成本包括制造设备投资、CAD工 具投资、基础设施建设成本等。可变成本与产品数量成正比，主要是制造晶圆的成本，即晶圆价格， 300 毫米晶圆 大致在1200-1600美元之间。

$$\text { Cost of die }=\frac{\text { Wafer price }}{\text { Dies per wafer } \times \text { Die yield }}$$

## 广义线性模型代考

statistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。