## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|ACC337

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写金融会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写金融会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写金融会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Re-measurements and other comprehensive income

As noted earlier, if a company owns listed equities that rise in value, it seems relevant and verifiable to record the assets in the balance sheet at the higher values. Are such gains to be treated as income? The IASB concludes that they should indeed be. They meet the definition of income (see Section 8.4.1). As noted in Chapter 6 , two income statements are now to be found under the rules of the IASB, the United Kingdom and the United States. The gains or losses on any revaluations of some financial assets (see Chapter 11) are shown in the first income statement, i.e. treated as profit or loss. The same applies to gains or losses on investment properties (see Chapter 9).

However, if a company’s other land and buildings are revalued (see Chapter 9), the resulting gains are not treated as ‘profit or loss’ but go to the second income statement (called ‘other comprehensive income’). An example of 2018 is shown as Figure 8.7, which relates again to the BASF Group. Some of the issues raised by this are too complex to consider at this stage, and you should not try to understand all the detail. We show extracts relating to both 2017 and 2018 . All companies will have their own individual characteristics, and no example should be regarded as ‘typical’. But, in relation to this particular illustration, you should note several conclusions. As presented here, the figure starts with the end result of ‘profit or loss’, called ‘Income after taxes’ by BASF. A number of adjustments are shown, all of which increase or decrease the closing net assets and therefore the closing net equity, but none of which, according to the ‘theory’, relate to the operating activities or to the interest costs of the business during the year. Secondly, the numbers involved may be significant, so an understanding of ‘performance’ over the year is seriously affected. Thirdly, the changes over time are often unpredictable. This example illustrates this particularly well. Note that the effect of the ‘remeasurement of defined benefit (pension) plans’ moves from a gain of over $€ 1$ billion in 2017 to a loss of almost $€ 1$ billion in 2018, a change over the two years of over $€ 2$ billion in apparent performance. Conversely the ‘unrealised gains/losses from currency translation’ move from a loss of over $€ 2$ billion in 2017 to a small gain of almost $€ 200,000$ in 2018, again a net movement of over $€ 2$ billion, but in the opposite direction to the pension-related movement. So what should an investor predict for 2019 ?

Unfortunately, there is no clear rationale for the distinction between the gains in one statement and those in the other. For example, most of the items in Figure $8.7$ are unrealised, in the sense that no sale has yet occurred. At first sight, the opening ‘income after taxes’ figure is concerned with operations. However, if the head office were sold after 50 years, any gains would be recorded in profit or loss even though they are not to do with operations. The 2018 framework (Chapter 7) briefly deals with this issue, suggesting that ‘profit or loss’ relates to performance of the period, but this does not solve these problems.

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Capital maintenance

One of the functions served by accounting for centuries is the calculation of distributable profit. A sole trader likes to calculate how much cash can reasonably be taken from the business as a result of a year’s successful operations. This becomes a vital issue when there are several owners. In the context of companies, the issue becomes one of determining the size of dividend payments.

A long-standing tradition of accountants is that dividends should only be paid to the extent that profit has been made. Otherwise, the business will be run down. This principle can be found in the laws of many countries, including EU laws based on the Second company law Directive. Adherence to the principle is said to protect the creditors of a company by restraining the cash outflows to shareholders.

From the accounting equation introduced in Chapter 2 and discussed again in Section 8.2, it is clear that an increase in equity is caused by an increase in net assets. For example, suppose that a retail company buys inventory for $€ 10 \mathrm{~m}$ cash and sells it for $€ 12 \mathrm{~m}$ cash in the same year. The net assets rise by $€ 2 \mathrm{~m}$, and the corresponding increase in equity appears to suggest that a dividend payment of $€ 2 \mathrm{~m}$ would be reasonable. However, the retailer perhaps used shops and delivery vans as part of the process of making the profit, so some account should be taken of the need to preserve those assets before any ‘profit’ is identified. This leads to the recognition of the expense called depreciation, as discussed in Chapter 9.
Further, suppose that the retailer’s shop has nearly doubled in market value from $€ 80 \mathrm{~m}$ to $€ 150 \mathrm{~m}$. The shop had been bought many years ago with cash contributed by the shareholders. If the retailer sells the shop for $€ 150 \mathrm{~m}$ cash, is the profit sensibly available for distribution as dividends? The company has cash and profit. However, in order to stay in business at the same level of operations, it will probably need to buy a new shop for at least $€ 150 \mathrm{~m}$. If the capital of the company is viewed as including one shop, then the gain cannot be paid out without drastically reducing the company’s capital. Taking account of this can be called ‘physical, or operating, capital maintenance’. On the other hand, if the capital is seen as the original money amount of $€ 80 \mathrm{~m}$ contributed by the shareholders, then the excess could be regarded as distributable (called ‘financial capital maintenance’), as the full amount of $€ 80 \mathrm{~m}$ would still remain within the company.

# 金融会计代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|ACC415

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写金融会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写金融会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写金融会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Revenue from simple sales

It has been agreed, in nearly all countries, that the recognition of revenue does not always need to await the receipt of cash. For example, receivables instead of cash might be acceptable, and the accruals convention might be used if work is done for a customer over a period. Consequently, the determination of the exact moment when revenue should be recognised becomes a major practical problem. Under EU laws, for example, the answer is expressed in terms of ‘realisation’: income should be recognised in the income statement when it is realised. In practice, this does not help much because there is no clear way to define what is realised, if it does not strictly mean ‘received in cash’. One possibility is to define realised as having received either cash or a contractual right to cash.

IFRS 15 requires that revenue should be measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. If a customer pays $€ 1,000$ cash at the time of sale, then the revenue is obviously $€ 1,000$. However, if the customer pays in barrels of oil or promises to pay cash in one year’s time, the fair value of the consideration must be estimated. In the second case, this is done by discounting.

Sometimes the sale involves foreign currency. Suppose that a Dutch company has delivered goods to a US customer who will later pay an agreed amount of US dollars. If the US dollar rises by the balance sheet date, so that the Dutch company now has a contractual right to receive an amount worth more than the original value in euros, has the company made a further gain? It seems obvious that the company is better off, but is the gain realised and should it be shown in profit or loss? Under IFRS, the gain is shown in profit or loss, but these apparently simple questions are contentious and are addressed further in Chapter 15.

Sometimes, the contract between the supplier and the customer involves the delivery of several things for a single price. In such cases, the supplier should split the price on the basis of the fair values of the components, and take revenue as the various parts of the contract are fulfilled. This idea applies widely, for example:
A manufacturer of electrical goods might include a three-year warranty with the sale of a particular refrigerator. There is a single price. The revenue allocated to the refrigerator is taken on delivery. The revenue allocated to the warranty is taken over the three years.

• Lufthansa gives ‘air miles’ to customers when they buy flight tickets. The part of the ticket price allocated to the flight is recognised as revenue on the day of the flight. The part allocated to the air miles is taken as revenue later.

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Revenue on contracts over time

Some construction or service contracts last a long time – often over more than one accounting period. The issue of determining the total revenue on such a contract raises no accounting problems beyond those discussed above in relation to simple sales of inventory. However, there is one important and difficult additional issue: the allocation of the total revenue over the various accounting periods during which the construction or service takes place.

If a profitable contract extends over, say, three years, should the contribution to profits be 0 per cent, 0 per cent and 100 per cent respectively for the three years? Can an entity make profits on something before it has finished making it? In old-fashioned terms, the prudence convention would certainly argue against that. Furthermore, unless something has been delivered to the customer, the basic principle of revenue recognition would not allow it. However, the various users want regular information on business progress. Can we not argue that revenue should be recorded as the contractor gradually makes a product under a contract if it can be ‘reasonably certain’ of making at least some profit before the contract has finished? Two alternative approaches emerged over the years. These are sometimes called ‘the completed contract method’, which delays revenue recognition (and therefore profit) until the end, and ‘the percentage-of-completion method’, which allocates revenue over the accounting periods concerned. The effects of these two methods are best shown by a comparative example.

The EU Directive does not deal with revenue under long-term contracts. So, presumably, it allows both the completed contract method and the percentageof-completion method. Different countries have used this flexibility in particular ways. In Europe, under national accounting rules, the completed contract method tended to dominate in more prudent Germany, whereas the percentageof-completion method was normal in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (see FEE, 1991).

Under IFRS, until 2018, the former IAS 11 required the percentage-of-completion method, when the outcome of a contract could be ‘estimated reliably’. However, IFRS 15 , specifically referring to both goods and services, restricts the use of the percentage basis (now called ‘revenue over time’) to cases where control passes to the customer as production proceeds, e.g. because the customer must always pay for sobligation’ needs to have been met. This would seem to mean that a boat-builder could not take revenue over a period on a contract under which a boat is built in the builder’s shipyard and a substantial amount of the price is not due until delivery of the completed boat.

However, other contracts will continue to have revenue recognised over time, such as:

• constructing a building on a customer’s land;
delivering audit services;
delivering electricity for a year.

# 金融会计代考

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Revenue from simple sales

IFRS 15 要求收入应按已收或应收对价的公允价值计量。如果客户付款€€1,000销售时现金，那么收入显然是€€1,000. 但是，如果客户以桶装石油支付或承诺在一年后支付现金，则必须估计对价的公允价值。在第二种情况下，这是通过贴现来完成的。

• 购买机票时，汉莎航空会向客户提供“飞行里程”。分配给航班的票价部分在航班起飞当天确认为收入。分配给航空里程的部分稍后作为收入。

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Revenue on contracts over time

• 在客户的土地上建造建筑物；
提供审计服务；
供电一年。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|ACCT4201

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写金融会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写金融会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写金融会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Initial measurement

Once it has been decided that an asset or liability should be recognised in the balance sheet, it is then necessary to measure its value before it can be shown. Under most systems of accounting that have been used in practice, initial recognition of nearly all assets takes place at cost rather than at ‘fair value’. If this were not the case, much effort would have to be put into estimating and auditing the fair value of any purchased asset. Also, the very act of purchasing an asset would often lead to the recognition of a loss because ‘cost’ includes not only the invoice price of the asset but also all costs involved in getting the asset into a location and condition where it can be productive. So, this will include delivery charges, sales taxes and installation charges in the case of plant and machinery. For land and buildings, cost will include legal fees. If a company arranges to have its own building constructed, the ‘cost’ will also include architect’s fees, clearing the land and so on, as well as the builder’s bill and the cost of the land. If a company uses its own labour or materials to construct an asset, these should also increase the cost of the asset rather than being treated as current expenses; that is, the costs are capitalised. IFRS and US GAAP also require a company to capitalise the interest cost on money borrowed specifically to create non-current assets. Where labour or material is capitalised, certain formats of the income statement (described as ‘by nature’ in Chapter 6) show this item as a type of income. This is because all the labour and materials used have been charged elsewhere in the income statement. However, the items capitalised do not relate to current operations, so they are added back as though they were income (see Section 8.4), although they could more logically be seen as reductions in expenses. In the example of Figure $8.5$ (CEPSA of Spain), the 4,079 million of capitalised expenses are a partial credit for the expenses shown on the debit side.

Expenditure on an asset after its initial recognition should sometimes also be added in as part of the asset’s cost. This includes inevitable future costs of dismantling or cleaning up. Any payments that make the asset better than it was initially are capitalised (added) to the asset. Any other payments are expenses. The principle in Figure $8.1$ is being maintained here.

In general, repairs and maintenance are treated as current expenses, whereas improvements are capitalised. So, a new engine for a company vehicle will usually be treated as an expense, since it keeps the vehicle in running order rather than improving it, unless the engine is recorded as a separate asset. In the case of an aeroplane, the engines are very valuable and have different useful lives from the rest of the plane, so they are treated as separate assets. Even painting new advertising signs on the company’s fleet of vans could be treated as a capital item, if material in size. However, repainting the signs would be an expense.

Obviously, the accountant needs to consider whether the amounts relating to the improvements are material enough to capitalise them. He or she tends to treat as much as possible as expense, since this is administratively more convenient. If the inspector of taxes can be convinced that items are expenses, this will also speed up their tax deductibility, although this ought not to influence the accounting.

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Subsequent measurement

We now need to consider whether an entity should take account of subsequent changes in the value of an asset or liability. For assets that are to be sold, the issue really becomes not whether, but when, to take account of changes in value, because eventually any previously ignored change in value is recognised at the point of sale. Accounting in most countries continues to use cost as the basis for valuing most assets until the point of sale. The arguments in favour of this approach are substantial: cheapness and greater verifiability.

Historical cost is an easier and cheaper method of valuation than most methods, because it uses information already recorded and does not require expensive estimations and the auditing of them. The Framework (paragraphs $2.39-2.43$ ) suggests that regulators should be aware of the cost of doing the accounting, to ensure that it does not exceed the benefits to the users. In addition, for most assets the cost is more reliably determined than the fair value or other current valuation could be. It will be remembered that one of the characteristics for external reporting, as examined in the IASB’s Framework, is verifiability. However, one should not exaggerate the verifiability of historical cost. The cost basis involves estimating depreciation and impairment (see Chapter 9 for more coverage).

However, the Framework’s key characteristic is relevance for economic decisions, and it is difficult to see how the historical cost could be the most relevant information for making decisions – which involves thinking about the future, particularly the prediction of cash flows.

It seems that the $€ 800$ cost is not a very useful predictor of cash flows at 31 December $20 \times 1$, particularly if the asset had been held for a longer period. Also, if only cost is recorded until sale, then a gain of $€ 150$ will be shown in $20 \times 2$ even though the asset has fallen in value in $20 \times 2$. The result of management’s decision not to sell the asset early in $20 \times 2$ is not reflected in the $20 \times 2$ statements.
The main asset valuation bases that could be used instead of cost are:
fair value (as defined above), which assumes that the business is not necessarily selling, because the selling costs are not deducted.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|АCCT150

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写金融会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写金融会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写金融会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Fundamental Qualitative Characteristics

To be useful, information must have two fundamental qualitative characteristics:

• relevance and
• faithful representation.
To be relevant, information must have predictive value, confirmatory value, or both. Information has predictive value if it can be employed by users to predict an entity’s future business or financial outcomes. For example, if the amount of money a company earns in the current year can be used to predict how much it will earn next
• year, then the current-year amount has predictive value. It has confirmatory value if it confirms or changes prior evaluations of an entity. Therefore, if the amount of money a company earns this year can be used to confirm or update prior predictions about the company’s growth prospects, then this amount would have confirmatory value. In addition, the information must be material, which means that it is significant enough in nature or magnitude that omitting or misstating it could affect the decisions of an informed user. In the Canadian Tire income statement at the beginning of this chapter, we noted that the company sold over $\$ 12$billion worth of goods and services in 2014 , so a user of the company’s financial statements would not be influenced by an error of$\$1,000$ that occurred when determining the company’s total revenues for the year. In other words, an error that small would be immaterial to the user’s decisions about Canadian Tire. All material information must be recorded or disclosed (listed or discussed) in the financial statements.
• For accounting information to provide a faithful representation to users, it must reflect the economic substance of a transaction or event, which may not be the same as its legal form. The information must also be complete, neutral (free of bias), and accurate (free of material error). When accounting information possesses these facets of faithful representation, it is reliable to users so they can have faith that the information can be relied upon to make decisions about the company and its management.

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Assumptions Underlying the Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework has only one explicit underlying assumption: the goingconcern assumption. There are, however, three other assumptions that are implicit in the framework, so we present them here as well. They are the separate-entity, historical-cost, and stable-monetary-unit assumptions.

GOING-CONCERN ASSUMPTION. We typically prepare financial information under the assumption that the reporting entity is a going concern, which means that we expect it to continue operating normally for the foreseeable future. A company that is not a going concern is at risk of going bankrupt or closing down, so it may need to significantly scale down its operations or sell some of its assets at heavily discounted rates. When this risk is present, the financial statements are typically prepared on a basis that differs from the usual standards in IFRS or ASPE. If a different basis is used in such circumstances, it must be clearly disclosed to the users of the financial statements.

SEPARATE-ENTITY ASSUMPTION. We also prepare financial statements under the assumption that the business activities of the reporting entity are separate from the activities of its owners, so we do not mix the assets, liabilities, income, or expenses of the entity with those of its owners when reporting the entitys operating performance and financial position. Consider Gerald Schwartz, the chairman, president, chief executive officer, and major shareholder of ONEX Corporation, a large Canadian public company. Mr. Schwartz personally owns a house, automobiles, and investments in various companies. His personal assets, however, would not be included among the land, buildings, vehicles, and investments reported on ONEX’s financial statements because his assets are separate from those of the entity he owns and operates. The separate-entity assumption draws a clear boundary around the business activities of the reporting entity, and only the activities within this boundary are reported in the entity’s financial statements.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|ACCT4100

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写金融会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写金融会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写金融会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|The Statement of Retained Earnings Reports

A company’s retained earnings represent the accumulated net income (or net earnings) of the company since the day it started business, less any net losses and dividends declared during this time. When the accumulated amount is negative, the term deficit is used to describe it. The statement of retained earnings reports the changes in a company’s retained earnings during the same period covered by the income statement. Under ASPE, this statement is often added to the bottom of the income statement, although it may also be presented as a completely separate statement. Under IFRS, information on the changes in retained earnings is included in the statement of changes in owners’ equity, which you will learn more about in Chapter 9. At the beginning of 2014, Canadian Tire had retained earnings of $\$ 4,405$million (line 3 of Exhibit 1-5). Let’s look at the major changes to Canadian Tire’s retained earnings during 2014. • Because retained earnings represent a company’s accumulated net income, the first addition to the opening balance is Canadian Tire’s 2014 net income of$\$639$ million (line 4), which comes directly from line 12 of the income statement in Exhibit 1-4.
• On line 5, we see that Canadian Tire declared dividends of $\$ 154$million during 2014. Dividends represent the distribution of past earnings to current shareholders of the company. You will learn more about dividends in Chapter 9. • After accounting for other reductions during 2014 (line 6), Canadian Tire reports a closing retained earnings balance of$\$4,075$ million on line 7 . This balance will be carried forward to the owners’ equity section of the balance sheet, which is the next financial statement we will introduce to you.

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|The Balance Sheet Measures Financial Position

A company’s financial position consists of three elements: the assets it controls, the liabilities it is obligated to pay, and the equity its owners have accumulated in the business. These elements are reported in the balance sheet, which under IFRS is also known as the statement of financial position. (For simplicity, this financial statement will be referred to as the balance sheet throughout the textbook.) The balance sheet reports a company’s financial position as at a specific date, which always falls on the last day of a monthly, quarterly, or annual reporting period. Because it is presented as at a specific date, you can think of the balance as a snapshot of the company’s financial position at a particular point in time. The Canadian Tire balance sheet in Exhibit 1-6 reports its financial position as at the year-end dates of January 3, 2015 , and December 28, 2013.

The balance sheet takes its name from the fact that the assets it reports must always equal—or be in balance with-the sum of the liabilities and equity it reports. This relationship is known as the accounting equation, and it provides the foundation for the double-entry method of accounting you will begin to learn in Chapter 2 . Exhibit 1-7 illustrates the equation using the figures from Canadian Tire’s 2014 balance sheet in Exhibit $1-6$.

IFRS and ASPE define assets, liabilities, and equity using different terms, but the definitions are essentially equivalent. The IFRS definitions are used below, primarily because they are more concise than the ASPE definitions.

Assets. An asset is a resource controlled by the company as a result of past events and from which the company expects to receive future economic benefits. Let’s use two of Canadian Tire’s assets to illustrate this formal definition. One of Canadian Tire’s assets is its “accounts receivable” (line 5), which arose from past sales to customers who purchased Canadian Tire’s products and services on account (or on credit), with the promise to pay off the accounts at a later date. In the future, when customers do pay off their accounts, Canadian Tire will receive the economic benefit of “cash” (line 4), another asset, which it can use to fund future business activities. We classify assets into two categories on the balance sheet: current assets and non-current assets. We classify an asset as current when we expect to convert it to cash, sell it, or consume it within one year of the balance sheet date, or within the business’s normal operating cycle if it is longer than one year. Current assets are listed in order of their liquidity, which is a measure of how quickly they can be converted to cash, the most liquid asset. At the end of 2014, Canadian Tire had \$8,510 million in current assets (line 9). Let’s look at some of Canadian Tire’s major current assets, all of which will be covered in more detail in later chapters. ## 金融会计代考 ## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|The Statement of Retained Earnings Reports 公司的留存收益是指公司自开业之日起的累计净收入（或净收益），减去在此期间宣布的任何净亏损和股息。当累计金额为负数时，用赤字一词来描述。留存收益表报告了公司在损益表涵盖的同一时期内的留存收益的变化。在 ASPE 下，该报表通常被添加到损益表的底部，尽管它也可以作为完全独立的报表呈现。根据国际财务报告准则，关于留存收益变动的信息包含在所有者权益变动表中，您将在第 9 章了解更多信息。2014 年初，加拿大轮胎的留存收益为$4,405百万（图表 1-5 的第 3 行）。让我们看看加拿大轮胎在 2014 年留存收益的主要变化。

• 由于留存收益代表公司的累计净收入，期初余额的第一个增加是加拿大轮胎公司 2014 年的净收入$639百万（第 4 行），直接来自图表 1-4 中损益表的第 12 行。 • 在第 5 行，我们看到加拿大轮胎宣布分红$1542014 年 100 万美元。股息代表了过去收益向公司当前股东的分配。您将在第 9 章中了解有关股息的更多信息。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。