### 数学代写|组合优化代写Combinatorial optimization代考|COMP567

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 数学代写|组合优化代写Combinatorial optimization代考|Data Structure

A data structure is a data storage format which is organized and managed to have efficient access and modification. Each data structure has several standard operations. They are building bricks to construct algorithms. The data structure plays an important role in improving efficiency of algorithms. For example, we may introduce a data structure “Disjoint Sets” to improve Kruskal algorithm.

Consider a collection of disjoint sets. For each set $S$, let First $(S)$ denote the first node in set $S$. For each element $x$ in set $S$, denote First $(x)=\operatorname{First}(S)$. Define three operations as follows:
Make-Set $(x)$ creates a new set containing only $x$.
Union $(x, y)$ unions sets $S_x$ and $S_y$ containing $x$ and $y$, respectively, into $S_x \cup S_y$,
Moreover, set
$\operatorname{First}\left(S_x \cup S_y\right)= \begin{cases}\operatorname{First}\left(S_x\right) & \text { if }\left|S_x\right| \geq\left|S_y\right|, \ \operatorname{First}\left(S_y\right) & \text { otherwise. }\end{cases}$
Find-Set $(x)$ returns First $\left(S_x\right)$ where $S_x$ is the set containing element $x$.
With this data structure, Kruskal algorithm can be modified as follows.

## 数学代写|组合优化代写Combinatorial optimization代考|Algorithms with Self-Reducibility

There exist a large number of algorithms in which the problem is reduced to several subproblems, each of which is the same problem on a smaller-size input. Such a problem is said to have the self-reducibility, and the algorithm is said to be with self-reducibility.

For example, consider sorting problem again. Suppose input contains $n$ numbers. We may divide these $n$ numbers into two subproblems. One subproblem is the sorting problem on $\lfloor n / 2\rfloor$ numbers, and the other subproblem is the sorting problem on $\lceil n / 2\rceil$ numbers. After completely sorting each subproblem, combine two sorted sequences into one. This idea will result in a sorting algorithm, called the merge sort. The pseudocode of this algorithm is shown in Algorithm 1.

The main body calls a procedure. This procedure contains two self-calls, which means that the merge sort is a recursive algorithm, that is, the divide will continue until each subproblem has input of single number. Then this procedure employs another procedure (Merge) to combine solutions of subproblems with smaller inputs into subproblems with larger inputs. This computation process on input ${5,2,7,4,6,8,1,3}$ is shown in Fig. 2.1.

Note that the running time of procedure Merge at each level is $O(n)$. Let $t(n)$ be the running time of merge sort on input of size $n$. By the recursive structure, we can obtain that $t(1)=0$ and
$$t(n)=t(\lfloor n / 2\rfloor)+t(\lceil n / 2\rceil)+O(n) .$$
Suppose
$$t(n) \leq 2 \cdot t(\lceil n / 2\rceil)+c \cdot n$$
for some positive constant $c$.

# 组合优化代写

## 数学代写|组合优化代写Combinatorial optimization代考|Data Structure

Make-Set $(x)$ 创建一个仅包含的新集合 $x$.

$\operatorname{First}\left(S_x \cup S_y\right)=\left{\operatorname{First}\left(S_x\right) \quad\right.$ if $\left|S_x\right| \geq\left|S_y\right|, \operatorname{First}\left(S_y\right)$ otherwise. 查找集 $(x)$ 首先返回 $\left(S_x\right)$ 在哪里 $S_x$ 是包含元素的集合 $x$.

## 数学代写|组合优化代写Combinatorial optimization代考|Algorithms with Self-Reducibility

$$t(n)=t(\lfloor n / 2\rfloor)+t(\lceil n / 2\rceil)+O(n) .$$

$$t(n) \leq 2 \cdot t(\lceil n / 2\rceil)+c \cdot n$$

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。