### CS代写|程序设计作业代写algorithm Programming代考|THE ART OF FILE PROCESSING

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## CS代写|程序设计作业代写algorithm Programming代考|A file may generally

A file may generally be defined as an organized collection of well-ordered, well-related, and self-contained information held on a stable storage medium. The information in a file is placed in a specific way and read back in a specific way. The information must be kept together as a unit in the same sequence in a well-organized way. The different units of information must bear some relationship with one another for collective consideration. A file is self-contained in that it is complete in all respects. The stable storage medium may be a piece of paper, a magnetic or optical disk, or a magnetic tape or any other medium where the information can be kept for a long time for repeated use without any special aid. Thus, the information bearing the characteristics mentioned above stored in the main memory of a computer will not make a file because the main memory of a computer can hold it only as long as electricity is supplied to the main memory.

Depending on the nature of the information, files can be classified into two basic types: the program file and the data file. A program file is a file that contains a sequential set of instructions in a computer language that can direct a computer in the performance of some specific task. A data file is a collection of records about closely-related or similar entities. However, these types of files should possess all the features stated in the generalized definition above. A record is an ordered collection of the attribute values of an entity. An attribute is any characteristic or feature of an entity that tells something about the entity, where an entity is anything with a physical or conceptual existence. A fact is anything that is true about an entity. To collect facts about an entity, we first decide on some attributes of the entity and procure facts on those attributes. We normally choose a group of entities called an entity set, a collection of items that are considered together for some close relationship. We next select some of the attributes common to all the entities of the set and collect facts on those attributes in a predefined order to form a record for each of them and put all such records together to form the desired file. Let us consider a business enterprise, for instance. The employees of the enterprise form a closely related set of entities. If we consider the attributes EMPLOYEE-CODE-NUMBER, EMPLOYEE-NAME, EMPLOYEE-ADDRESS, DESIGNATION, and SALARY for each of the employees, then the values of these attributes in the mentioned order form a record of an employee of the enterprise and the collection of all the records of the employees of the enterprise forms the desired employee data file (if the records are kept on a stable storage medium).

## CS代写|程序设计作业代写algorithm Programming代考|A file is typically considered

A file is typically considered a data file. The task of file processing is the set of activities performed on the records of a file to generate some desired information. Now depending on the organization of the records, the set of operations will vary. We next consider a discussion on file organization. Basically, file organization can be classified into three categories:
(i) Sequential File Organization
(ii) Indexed File Organization
(iii) Hashed/Relative/Random File Organization
Sequential file organization is one in which records are kept in a file, one after another, and processed in the same sequence in which they are written. The term sequential means one after another, and hence the name bears the nature of the organization of the file.

Indexed file organization is one in which sequentially organized records are associated with an index for the purpose of direct access to the records. An index is a special kind of file that contains records consisting of two attribute values, one that is a unique identifying attribute of the records in the sequential file and the other that contains the address of the records in the main file. The identifying attribute is also known as the key attribute or key field. The records in the index are kept in the ascending order of the key field values. When a user wishes to access a record from an indexed file, she initiates a binary search in the index for some key field value and the record found in the search process is then accessed to get the address of the desired record in the main file. Thus, any record in an indexed file can be accessed without reading the preceding or the following records in the file. This saves time and increases the speed of processing, if the number of records to be accessed in

one processing run is less than one-fourth of the total number of records in the file. The disadvantage of such a file organization is that it takes additional disk space for the index, and hence the file organization is more expensive than sequential file organization. The speed of accessing records also varies depending on the organization of the records in the index. For more details about the index file organization, please see any standard textbook on databases or file management systems.

A hashed or relative file organization is also a direct access file organization. In such a file organization, the key field or identifying attribute value is hashed or converted to some location address in the file space relative to the beginning of the file-record positions on the basis of some predefined function. The predefined function is called a hash routine and the method is called hashing. As the hashing is done dynamically during the creation of the file, no extra file space is needed for this purpose, rather, the records can be pointed to directly later by using the same hash function. The only problem with this type of organization is the proper selection of the hash function and its implementation through programming instructions. The programming efficiency of the developers is considered when selecting one of the two direct access file organizations. (The reader is again advised to read a textbook on file/database management systems for further details.) We now study different problems on file processing to illustrate the flowcharts and the algorithms corresponding to their solutions. The following problems involve sequential file organization.

## CS代写|程序设计作业代写algorithm Programming代考|A file named EMPFL

Problem 5.3. A file named EMPFL contains the records of the employees of an organization. Each record consists of data: EMP-CODE, EMP-NAME, and BASIC-PAY. The gross salary of an employee is calculated by using the following formula: Gross Salary = Basic Pay + DA + ADA + HRA + MA
where $\quad D A=45 \%$ of Basic Pay
$A D A=18 \%$ of Basic Pay subject to a minimum of $\$ 200$and a maximum of$\$1000$.
HRA $=25 \%$ of Basic Pay subject to a minimum of $\$ 500$and a maximum of$\$5000$.
$M A=10 \%$ of the Basic pay subject to a minimum of $\$ 100$. The net salary of an employee is calculated by the formula: Net Salary = Gross Salary$-$Total Deduction where Total Deduction$=P F+P T$where$\quad P F=12 \%$of Basic Pay$P T=5 \%$of Basic Pay subject to a maximum of$\$200$.
Develop a flowchart and the algorithm to show how the salary for different employees is calculated to generate the pay slips for the employees of the organization.

Task Analysis. The problem here is to print the pay slip for each of the employees whose records are contained in EMPFL. This can be done by reading the records of the employees one at a time and then calculating the DA, ADA, HRA, and MA values to determine the gross salary and then finding out the amounts of PF and PT for determining the total deduction. The net salary can then be obtained by subtracting the total deduction from the gross salary. The ADA is $18 \%$ of Basic Pay, subject to a minimum of $\$ 200$and a maximum of$\$1,000$. This implies that if the $18 \%$ of the Basic Pay value happens to be less than $\$ 200$, then$\$200$ is the ADA amount; if, however, it exceeds $\$ 1,000$, then$\$1,000$ is the ADA amount. The conditions for HRA, MA, and PT can be handled in the same way.

## CS代写|程序设计作业代写algorithm Programming代考|A file is typically considered

(i) 顺序文件组织
(ii) 索引文件组织
(iii) 散列/相对/随机文件组织

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。