### 统计代写|数据可视化代写Data visualization代考|BINF7003

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写数据可视化Data visualization方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写数据可视化Data visualization代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写数据可视化Data visualization相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|数据可视化代写Data visualization代考|Vital Statistics

In the previous chapter we explained how concerns in France about crime led to the systematic collection of social data. This combination of important social issues and available data led Guerry to new developments involving data display in graphs, maps, and tables.

A short time later, an analogous effort began in the United Kingdom, in the context of social welfare, poverty, public health, and sanitation. These efforts produced two new heroes of data visualization, William Farr and John Snow, who were influential in the attempt to understand the causes of several epidemics of cholera and how the disease could be mitigated.

In the United Kingdom the Age of Data can be said to have begun with the creation of the General Register Office (GRO) by an Act of Parliament in 1836. ${ }^1$ The initial intent was simply to track births and deaths in England and Wales as the means of ensuring the lawful transfer of property rights between generations of the landed gentry.

But the 1836 act did much more. It required that every single child of an English parent, even those born at sea, have the particulars reported to a local registrar on standard forms within fifteen days. It also required that every marriage and death be reported and that no dead body could be buried without a certificate of registration, and it imposed substantial fines (10-50£) for failure in this reporting duty. The effect was to create a complete data base of the entire population of England, which is still maintained by the GRO today.

The following year, William Farr [1807-1883], a 30-year-old physician, was hired, initially to handle the vital registration of live births, deaths, marriages, and divorces for the upcoming Census of 1841. After he wrote a chapter ${ }^2$ on “Vital statistics; or, the statistics of health, sickness, diseases, and death,” he was given a new post as the “compiler of scientific abstracts”, becoming the first official statistician of the UK.

Like Guerry at the Ministry of Justice in France, Farr had access to, and had to make sense of, a huge mountain of data. Farr quickly realized that these data could serve a far greater purpose: saving lives. Life expectancy could be broken down and compared over geographic regions, down to the county level. Information about the occupations of deceased persons was also recorded, so Farr could also begin to tabulate life expectancy according to economic and social station. Information about the cause of death was lacking, and Farr probably exceeded his initial authority by adding instructions to list the cause(s) of death on the standard form. This simple addition opened a vast new world of medical statistics and public health that would eventually be called epidemiology, involving the study of patterns of incidence, causes, and control of disease conditions in a population.

## 统计代写|数据可视化代写Data visualization代考|Farr’s Diagrams

Figure $4.1$ is one of five lithographed plates (three in color) that appear in Farr’s report. Farr takes many liberties with the vertical scales (we would now call these graphical sins) to try to show any relation between the daily numbers of deaths from cholera and diarrhea to metrological data on those days. Most apparent are the spikes of cholera deaths in August and September. Temperature was also elevated, but perhaps no more than in the adjacent months. The weather didn’t seem to be a sufficient causal factor in 1849 . Or was it? Plate 2 takes a longer view, showing the possible relationship between temperature and mortality for every week over the eleven years from 1840 to 1850. This is a remarkable chart-a new invention in the language of statistical graphs. This graphical form, now called a radial diagram (or windrose), is ideally suited to showing and comparing several related series of events having a cyclical structure, such as weeks or months of the year or compass directions. The radial lines in Plate 2 serve as axes for the fifty-two weeks of each year. The outer circles show the average weekly number of deaths (corrected for increase in population) in relation to the mean number of deaths over all years. When these exceed the average, the area is shaded black (excess mortality); they are shaded yellow when they are below the average (salubrity).
Similarly, the inner circles show average weekly temperature against a baseline of the mean temperature $\left(48^{\circ} \mathrm{F}\right)$ of the seventy-nine years from 1771 to 1849 . Weeks exceeding this average are outside the baseline circle and shaded red, while those weeks that were colder than average are said to be shaded blue (but appear as gray).

In this graph we can immediately see that something very bad happened in London in summer 1849 (row 3, column 2), leading to a huge spike in deaths from July through September, and the winter months in 1847 (row 2, column 3) also stand out. This larger view, using the idea later called “small multiples” by Tufte, ${ }^6$ does something more, which might not be noticed in a series of separate charts: it shows a general pattern across years of fewer deaths on average in the warmer months of April (at 9:00) through September (at 3:00), but the dramatic spikes point to something huge that can not be explained by temperature.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。