### 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|ST326

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写金融统计Financial Statistics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写金融统计Financial Statistics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写金融统计Financial Statistics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|The Role of Statistics in Business and Economics

Statistics is a body of knowledge that is useful for collecting, organizing, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting data (collections of any number of related observations) and numerical facts. Applied statistical analysis helps business managers and economic planners formulate management policy and make business decisions more effectively. And statistics is an important tool for students of business and economics. Indeed, business and economic statistics has become one of the most important courses in business education, because a background in applied statistics is a key ingredient in understanding accounting, economics, finance, marketing, production, organizational behavior, and other business courses.

We may not realize it, but we deal with and interpret statistics every day. For example, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) is the best-known and most widely watched indicator of the direction in which stock market values are heading. When people say, “The market was up 12 points today,” they are probably referring to the DJIA. This single statistic summarizes stock prices of 30 large companies. Rather than listing the prices at which all of the approximately 2,000 stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange are currently selling, analysts and reporters often cite this one number as a measure of overall market performance.

Let’s take another example. Before elections, the media sometimes present surveys of voter preference in which a sample of voters instead of the whole population of voters is asked about candidate preferences. The media usually give the results of the poll and then state the possible margin of error. A margin of error of $3 \%$ means that the actual extent of a candidate’s popular support may differ from the poll results by as much as $3 \%$ points in either direction (“plus or minus”). Anyone who conducts a survey must understand statistics in order to make such decisions as how many people to contact, how to word the survey, and how to calculate the potential margin of error.

In business and industry, managers frequently use statistics to help them make better decisions. A shoe manufacturer, for instance, needs to produce a forecast of future sales in order to decide whether to expand production. Sales forecasts provide statistical guidance in most business decision making.

On a broader scale, the government publishes a variety of data on the health of the economy. Some of the most popular measures are the gross national product (GNP), the index of leading economic indicators, the unemployment rate, the money supply, and the consumer price index (CPI). All these measures are statistics that are used to summarize the general state of the economy. And, of course, business, government, and academic economists use statistical methods to try to predict these macroeconomic and other variables.

The following additional examples are presented to show that the use of statistics is widespread not only in business and economics but in everyday life as well.

## 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|Descriptive Versus Inferential Statistics

Having gotten a feel for the use of statistics by looking at several illustrations, we can now refine our definition of the term. Statistics is the collection, presentation, and summary of numerical information in such a way that the data can be easily interpreted.

There are two basic types of statistics: descriptive and inferential. Descriptive statistics deals with the presentation and organization of data. Measures of central tendency, such as the mean and median, and measures of dispersion, such as the standard deviation and range, are descriptive statistics. These types of statistics summarize numerical information. For example, a teacher who calculates the mean, median, range, and standard deviation of a set of exam scores is using descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics is the subject of the first part of this book.
The following are examples of the use (or misuse) of descriptive statistics.
Example 1.6 Baseball Players’ Batting Averages. Descriptive statistics can be used to provide a point of reference. The batting averages of baseball players are commonly reported in the newspapers, but to people unfamiliar with baseball, these numbers may be misleading. For example, Wade Boggs of the Boston Red Sox hit $.366$ in 1988; that is, he got a hit in almost $37 \%$ of his official at bats. Because he was unsuccessful over $63 \%$ of the time, however, a person with little knowledge of baseball might conclude that Boggs is an inferior hitter. Comparing Boggs’s average to the mean batting average of all players in the same year, which was $.285$, reveals that Boggs is among the best hitters.

Example 1. 7 Monthly Unemployment Rates. Graphical statistical analysis can be used to summarize small amounts of information. Figure $1.1$ displays the US unemployment rates for each month from January 2001 to July 2011. It shows, for instance, that the unemployment rates for December 2001, December 2005, and December 2010 were $5.7 \%, 4.9 \%$, and $9.4 \%$, respectively.

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。