### 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|ECON3050

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Environmental Sex Determination

In many species the sex of offspring is not determined by the offspring genotype but can depend on other circumstances of the mother or the developing offspring. In other words, sex determination is state dependent.

In many reptile species the sex of offspring is determined by the temperature at which the eggs develop. For example, in their study of sex determination in alligators, Ferguson and Joanen (1982) found that at hatching all offspring were female if the eggs developed at less than $30^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ and all were male if eggs developed at greater than $34^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$. Ferguson and Joanen suggest possible adaptive reasons for this phenomenon, but it is, of course, not easy to perform controlled experiments to find out what would have happened if the offspring had developed as the other sex. However, through hormonal manipulation of eggs the differential effects of temperature on the sexes can be experimentally explored. Using this technique on Jacky dragon lizards, where normally females are produced at low and at high temperatures and a mixture of males and females at intermediate temperatures, Warner and Shine (2008) found that males from intermediate incubation temperatures had greater lifetime reproduction than those from either low or high temperatures, and there was a tendency towards an inverted pattern for females. This kind of explanation for temperature-dependent sex determination-that the sexes differ in how their growth, survival, or reproduction are influenced by temperature during development, was put forward by Charnov and Bull (1977). After much work, it has proven difficult to establish general empirical support for the hypothesis, and this research is ongoing (e.g., Pen et al., 2010; Schwanz et al., 2016).

## 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|A Model of Animal Conflict with Assessment

Individuals vary in some quality $q$, which we assume is normally distributed in the population with mean $\mu_{q}$ and standard deviation $\sigma_{q}$. We might, for instance, have the logarithm of body size as $q$, or some other aspect of fighting ability.

When a pair meet there are two stages. In the first stage, the contestants observe some measure $\xi$ of relative quality. For the interaction between contestants with qualities $q^{\prime}$ and $q$, the observation by the $q^{\prime}$ individual is
$$\xi^{\prime}=q^{\prime}-q+\epsilon^{\prime},$$
where $\epsilon^{\prime}$ is an error of observation, assumed to be normally distributed with mean 0 and standard deviation $\sigma$. Similarly, the observation by the quality $q$ individual is $\xi=q-q^{\prime}+\epsilon$. We assume that the errors $\epsilon^{\prime}$ and $\epsilon$ are independent.

In the second stage each performs one of two actions, $A$ and $S$, where $A$ is an aggressive display or actual fighting behaviour and $\mathrm{S}$ is a subordinate or submissive display. If both contestants use action $\mathrm{S}$, each has a $50 \%$ chance of obtaining a resource of value $V$ (or, alternatively, they share it). If one uses $\mathrm{A}$ and the other $\mathrm{S}$, the aggressive individual gets the resource. If both use $\mathrm{A}$, we assume that they are preoccupied with aggressive behaviour, and neither gets the resource (for instance, some other, unspecified agent gets the resource, or, if it is a potential mate, that the resource moves on). An AA interaction incurs a cost from exhaustion or injuries. The cost to the $q^{\prime}$ contestant is
$$\operatorname{Cexp}\left(-q^{\prime}+q\right) .$$
The observation in eq (3.22) is statistically related to this cost.

## 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|A Model of Animal Conflict with Assessment

$$\xi^{\prime}=q^{\prime}-q+\epsilon^{\prime}$$

$$\operatorname{Cexp}\left(-q^{\prime}+q\right)$$
eq (3.22) 中的观察结果在统计上与此成本相关。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。