### 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|ECON3503

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写博弈论Game Theory方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写博弈论Game Theory代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写博弈论Game Theory相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Probabilities, information and entropy

Consider $n$ mutually exclusive events $E_1, \ldots, E_n$, and expect that any one of these, say $E_i$, indeed occurs “with probability” $p_i=\operatorname{Pr}\left(E_i\right)$. Then the parameters $p_i$ form a probability distribution $p \in \mathbb{R}^{\mathcal{E}}$ on the set $\mathcal{E}=\left{E_1, \ldots, E_n\right}$, i.e., the $p_i$ are nonnegative real numbers that sum up to 1 :
$$p_1+\cdots+p_n=1 \quad \text { and } \quad p_1, \ldots, p_n \geq 0 .$$
If we have furthermore a measuring or observation device $f$ that produces the number $f_i$ if $E_i$ occurs, then these numbers have the expected value
$$\mu(f)=f_1 p_1+\cdots+f_n p_n=\sum_{k=1}^n f_i p_i=\langle f \mid p\rangle .$$
In a game-theoretic context, a probability is often a subjective evaluation of the likelihood for an event to occur. The gambler, investor, or general player may not know in advance what the future will bring, but has more or less educated guesses on the likelihood of certain events. There is a close connection with the notion of information.

Intensity. We think of the intensity of an event $E$ as a numerical parameter that is inversely proportional to its probability $p=\operatorname{Pr}(E)$ with which we expect its occurrence to be: the smaller $p$, the more intensely felt is an actual occurrence of $E$. For simplicity, let us take $1 / p$ as our objective intensity measure.

Remark $1.7$ (Fechner’s law). According to Fechner, ${ }^{11}$ the intensity of a physical stimulation is physiologically felt on a logarithmic scale. Well-known examples are the Richter scale for earthquakes or the decibel scale for the sound.

Following FECHNER, we feel the intensity of an event $E$ that we expect with probability $p$ on a logarithmic scale and hence according to a function of type
$$I_a(p)=\log _a(1 / p)=-\log _a p,$$
where $\log _a p$ is the logarithm of $p$ relative to the basis $a>0$ (see Ex. 1.7). In particular, the occurrence of an “impossible” event, which we expect with zero probability, has infinite intensity
$$I_a(0)=-\log _a 0=+\infty .$$

## 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Systems

A system is a physical, economic, or other entity that is in a certain state at any given moment. Denoting by $\mathfrak{S}$ the collection of all possible states $\sigma$, we identify the system with $\mathfrak{S}$. This is, of course, a very abstract definition. In practice, one will have to describe the system states in a way that is suitable for a concrete mathematical analysis. To get a first idea of what is meant, let us look at some examples.

Chess. A system arises from a game of chess as follows: A state of chess is a particular configuration $C$ of the chess pieces on the chess board, together with the information which of the two players ( ” $B$ ” or ” $W$ “) is to draw next. If $\mathfrak{C}$ is the collection of all possible chess configurations, a state could thus be described as a pair
$$\sigma=(C, p) \quad \text { with } C \in \mathfrak{C} \text { and } p \in{B, W} .$$
In a similar way, a card game takes place in the context of a system whose states are the possible distributions of cards among the players together with the information which players are to move next.

Economies. The model of an exchange economy involves a set $N$ of agents and a set $\mathcal{G}$ of certain specified goods. A bundle for agent $i \in N$ is a data vector
$$b=\left(b_G \mid G \in \mathcal{G}\right) \in \mathbb{R}^{\mathcal{G}},$$
where the component $b_G$ indicates that the bundle $b$ comprises $b_G$ units of the good $G \in \mathcal{G}$. Denoting by $\mathcal{B}$ the set of all possible bundles, we can describe a state of the exchange economy by a data vector
$$\beta=\left(\beta_i \mid i \in N\right) \in \mathcal{B}^N$$
that specifies each agent $i$ ‘s particular bundle $\beta_i \in \mathcal{B}$.

# 博弈论代考

## 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Probabilities, information and entropy

$$p_1+\cdots+p_n=1 \quad \text { and } \quad p_1, \ldots, p_n \geq 0 .$$

$$\mu(f)=f_1 p_1+\cdots+f_n p_n=\sum_{k=1}^n f_i p_i=\langle f \mid p\rangle .$$

$$I_a(p)=\log _a(1 / p)=-\log _a p,$$

$$I_a(0)=-\log _a 0=+\infty$$

## 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Systems

$$\sigma=(C, p) \quad \text { with } C \in \mathfrak{C} \text { and } p \in B, W .$$

$$b=\left(b_G \mid G \in \mathcal{G}\right) \in \mathbb{R}^{\mathcal{G}},$$

$$\beta=\left(\beta_i \mid i \in N\right) \in \mathcal{B}^N$$

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。