经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|ECON6025

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写博弈论Game Theory方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写博弈论Game Theory代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写博弈论Game Theory相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|CONSTRUCTING UTILITIES

We have already suggested how we might construct a utility function to model a player’s choices when there are a finite number of outcomes. Ordinal preferences can be revealed by asking the player to choose among all outcomes and assign those outcomes the highest utility, asking the player to choose among all outcomes not previously chosen and assign those outcomes the second highest utility, and so forth. vNM preferences can be obtained by asking the player to name the highest and lowest ranked outcomes $o_h$ and $o_l$, assign utilities of $u\left(o_h\right)=1$ and $u\left(o_l\right)=0$ to these outcomes, and then for each remaining outcome $o$ determine a probability $p$ for which the player would be willing to choose either the outcome $o$ or the lottery $(1-p) o_l+p o_h$ and assign $u(o)=p$.

In this section, we examine four specific scenarios to illustrate a variety of ways utility functions may be created.

To model Self-Interest and Other-Interest, we simplify our scenario to examine the monthly salaries of the job offers for each spouse. Suppose Scarlett and Regis receive $\$ x$thousand and$\$y$ thousand, respectively; we will denote this by $(x, y)$. Consider the following four possible outcomes: $(7,0),(6,6),(5,7)$, and $(1,6)$. If Scarlett is exclusively self-interested, she would rank order these outcomes in the given order. If Scarlett is primarily interested in Regis receiving money and only secondarily interested in receiving money for herself, Scarlett would rank order the outcomes $(5,7),(6,6),(1,6)$, and $(7,0)$. If Scarlett had a mixture of self-interest, other-interest, and a desire for equity, she might rank order the outcomes $(6,6),(5,7),(7,0)$, and $(1,6)$.

In fact, this last rank order would be obtained if Scarlett considered $\$ 1,000$given to Regis to be worth the same to her as her receiving$\$500$, suggesting the utility function $u(x, y)=x+0.5 y$. Of course, this is only an ordinal utility function unless, at minimum, Scarlett is indifferent between the outcome $(7,0)$ with utility $u(7,0)=7$ and the lottery $L=0.6(6,6)+0.4(1,6)$ with utility
$$u(L)=0.6 u(6,6)+0.4 u(1,6)=0.6(9)+0.4(4)=7 .$$
This example demonstrates how we can incorporate both self-interest and altruistic interests into a player’s utility function. Therefore, maximizing a utility function does not necessarily imply selfishness, but rather achieving the most preferred outcome based on the player’s interests.

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|DETERMINING RISK

In the duopoly scenario, and in most other economic models, the utility of an outcome is cquivalent to some dollar value associated with the outcome. While we can see how dollar values might capture the intensity of a player’s preferences, dollar values are not necessarily vNM utilities. For example, receiving $\$ 11.00$instead of$\$10.00$ means significantly more than receiving $\$ 1001.00$instead of$\$1000.00$ to most people. To explore this difference, we consider the relationship between the expected utility of a lottery, as given by the Expected Utility Hypothesis, and the utility of the expected value of the lottery.

Consider the following raffle: For $\$ 25$, you can purchase a$\frac{1}{400}$chance for a$\$10,000$ college scholarship. We can represent this lottery with our usual notation
$$\left.\frac{399}{400}(\text { losing } \ 25)+\frac{1}{400} \text { (winning } \ 9,975\right) \text {, }$$ but since the outcomes are numerical, we can calculate the expected monetary value of the raffle as
$$\frac{399}{400}(-\ 25)+\frac{1}{400}(\ 9,975)=\ 0 .$$
The expected monetary value of entering or not entering the raffle is the same, however, entering the raffle involves a small chance of a large gain offset by a large chance of a small loss, while not entering the raffle involves no chance of a gain or a loss. Entering the raffle involves risk while not entering the raffle does not.

Most parents of college students are willing to enter the raffle, but many college students themselves are not. For the college parents,
$$\left.\left.u\left(\frac{399}{400} \text { (losing } \ 25\right)+\frac{1}{400} \text { (winning } \ 9,975\right)\right)>u(\ 0),$$
but for the students themselves,
$$\left.u\left(\frac{399}{400}(\text { losing } \ 25)+\frac{1}{400} \text { (winning } \ 9,975\right)\right)<u(\ 0) .$$
For the parents, the utility of the lottery is greater than the utility of the expected value, making them risk loving in this scenario. On the other hand, the students are risk adverse since the utility of the lottery is less than the utility of the expected value. This principle holds in general, as we describe in the following definition.

博弈论代考

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|CONSTRUCTING UTILITIES

$$u(L)=0.6 u(6,6)+0.4 u(1,6)=0.6(9)+0.4(4)=7 .$$

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|DETERMINING RISK

$$\left.\left.\frac{399}{400} \text { ( losing } \ 25\right)+\frac{1}{400} \text { (winning } \ 9,975\right) \text {, }$$

$$\frac{399}{400}(-\ 25)+\frac{1}{400}(\ 9,975)=\ 0 .$$

$$u\left(\frac{399}{400}(\text { losing } \ 25)+\frac{1}{400}(\text { winning } \ 9,975)\right)>u(\ 0)$$

$$u\left(\frac{399}{400}(\text { losing } \ 25)+\frac{1}{400}(\text { winning } \ 9,975)\right)<u(\ 0) .$$

有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。