### 统计代写|假设检验代写hypothesis testing代考|BSTA511

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在假设检验hypothesis testing作业代写方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在假设检验hypothesis testing代写方面经验极为丰富，各种假设检验hypothesis testing相关的作业也就用不着 说。

• 时间序列分析Time-Series Analysis
• 马尔科夫过程 Markov process
• 随机最优控制stochastic optimal control
• 粒子滤波 Particle Filter
• 采样理论 sampling theory

## 统计代写|假设检验代写hypothesis testing代考|Clarifying the question

In Section 1 we consider what is meant by the question
How often do pupils truant?
Notice that this question refers implicitly to whole populations: for example, all schools in a particular area. We are usually not directly interested in how the children in one particular school behaved. However, it is often impossible, or at least not feasible, to collect data from the whole population. Instead we select a random sample of data. It might be a random sample of schools or of children. The sample is analysed by the methods we learned in earlier units, and we then need to decide how the results obtained from the sample apply to the whole population.
Statistical inference makes inferences about a population on the basis of data drawn from that population.
The above question about truancy may well have arisen from more general questions, such as:
Why do some pupils learn very little? Are we using good ways of teaching? Does the quality of my child’s education depend on where I live?

However, these latter questions can only be tackled if they are first made more precise. Hence, rather than simply posing a question, we will often need to clarify it, and we may need to clarify it more than once as we learn more about the problem. In earlier units we used the modelling diagram shown in Figure 1 as a framework for how we explore and summarise batches of data.

## 统计代写|假设检验代写hypothesis testing代考|The question to be clarified

As we saw in earlier units, statistics is good at answering questions that require a numerical answer. However, the question for this unit is a very vague question. For example, we might be interested in how much particular children truant, or we might want to compare truancy at different schools.
First, suppose we were looking at particular children.
Activity 1 Factors affecting a child’s truancy
Spend a few minutes thinking about what factors might affect how much a child plays truant. Then write down three factors that you think might be relevant.
Suppose a child psychologist is helping a particular child with a truancy problem. The psychologist would want to know the child’s attendance record and factors about the child’s circumstances that can influence truancy. The psychologist would then consider these factors and see if any pattern from the attendance record supported a given factor.
The same approach is followed if you move from considering individual truancy to truancy associated with different schools. We shall concentrate on looking at patterns with regard to schools, not individual children.
There are many different schools, and the amount of truancy will vary greatly. One of the interesting questions is whether different types of school have different amounts of truancy.
Activity 2 Factors affecting truancy in a school
Write down three factors that might affect the amount of truancy in a school.

Age of children is one of the most important factors in truancy figures. There is much less truancy at primary schools than at secondary schools. Young children are more likely to be taken to school by their parents, and also, since they are usually with the same class teacher all the time, truancy would be more easily noticed and could be followed up more quickly. We shall concentrate on secondary schools.
As you saw in the solution to Activity 2, there are still many factors that may affect truancy rate even after we have allowed for age to some extent by looking only at secondary schools. They include type of school, location of school and size of school, and there are also other factors, such as the attitude of the teachers, which are more difficult to measure. We shall look at several of these factors in the course of the unit, but we shall start with size of school.

# 假设检验代写

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