### 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|CSE435

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|CMOS Transmission Gates

Since a voltage of magnitude $V_{T n}$ between the gate and source of an nMOS transistor is required to turn on the transistor, the maximum output voltage of an $n M O S$ switch is equal to $V_{D D}-V_{T n}$, provided that $V_{D D}$ is applied to both gate and drain electrodes. Similarly, the minimum output voltage of a pMOS switch is equal to $\left|V_{T p}\right|$, provided that $0 \mathrm{~V}$ is applied to both gate and drain electrodes. The above two statements can be restated in terms of information transfer by letting $0 \mathrm{~V}$ represent logic 0 and $V_{D D}$ denote logic 1 as follows. The nMOS transistor can pass 0 perfectly but cannot pass 1 without degradation; the pMOS transistor can pass 1 perfectly but cannot pass 0 without degradation.

The aforementioned shortcomings of nMOS and pMOS transistors may be overcome by combining an nMOS transistor with a pMOS transistor as a parallel-connected switch, referred to as a transmission gate (TG) or a CMOS switch, as shown in Figure 1.9. Since both nMOS and pMOS transistors are connected in parallel, the imperfect feature of one transistor will be made up by the other. Figure $1.9(\mathrm{a})$ shows the circuit structure of a TG switch and Figure 1.9(b) shows the logic symbol often used in logic diagrams.

Even though using TG switches may overcome the degradation of information passing through them, each TG switch needs two transistors, one nMOS and one pMOS. This means that the use of TG switches needs more area than the use of nMOS switches or pMOS switches alone. In practice, for area-limited applications the use of nMOS transistors is much more prefcrable to pMOS transistors since the clectron mobility is much greater than hole mohility. Hence, nMOS transistors perform much hetter than pMOS transistors.

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|Simple Switch Logic Design

As introduced, any of three switches, nMOS, pMOS, and TG, may be used as a switch to control the close (on) or open (off) status of two points. Based on a proper combination of these switches, a switch logic circuit can be constructed. In the following, we begin with the discussion of compound switches and then introduce a systematic design methodology for constructing a switch logic circuit from a given switching function.
For many applications, we often combine two or more switches in a serial, parallel, or combined fashion to form a compound switch. For instance, the case of two switches being connected in series to form a compound switch is shown in Figure 1.10. The operation of the resulting switch is controlled by two control signals: $S 1$ and $S 2$. The compound switch is turned on only when both control signals $S 1$ and $S 2$ are asserted and remains in an off state otherwise.

Recall that to activate an nMOS switch we need to apply a high-level voltage to its gate and to activate a pMOS switch we need to apply a low-level voltage to its gate. As a result, the compound nMOS switch shown in Figure 1.10(a) is turned on only when both control signals $S 1$ and $S 2$ are at high-level voltages (usually $V_{D D}$ ) and remains in an off state in all other combinations of control signals. The compound pMOS switch depicted in Figure $1.10$ (b) is turned on only when both control signals $S 1$ and $S 2$ are at low-level voltages (usually at the ground level) and remains in an off state in all other combinations of control signals.

Figure $1.11$ shows the case of two switches being connected in parallel to form a compound switch. The operation of the resulting switch is controlled by two control signals: $S 1$ and $S 2$. The compound switch is turned on whenever either switch is on. Therefore, the compound switch is turned off only if both control signals $S 1$ and $S 2$ are deasserted and remains in an on state otherwise.

In Figure 1.11(a), the compound nMOS switch is turned on whenever one control signal of $S 1$ and $S 2$ is at a high-level voltage (usually $V_{D D}$ ) and remains in an off state only when both control signals are at the ground level. In Figure 1.11(b), the compound pMOS switch is turned on whenever one control signal of $S 1$ and $S 2$ is at the ground level and remains in an off state only when both control signals $S 1$ and $S 2$ are at high-level voltages.

## 广义线性模型代考

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## MATLAB代写

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