### 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|ECE5745

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|nMOS Transistors

The physical structure of an nMOS transistor is basically composed of a metal-oxidesilicon (MOS) system and two $n^{+}$regions on the surface of a p-type silicon substrate, as depicted in Figure 1.7(a). The MOS system is a sandwich structure where a dielectric (an insulator) is inserted between a metal or a polysilicon and a p-type substrate. The metal or polysilicon is called the gate. The two $n^{+}$regions on the surface of the substrate are referred to as drain and source, respectively.

The operation of an nMOS transistor can hee illustrated by Figure $1.7(\mathrm{a})$. When a large enough positive voltage $V_{G S}$ is applied to the gate (electrode), electrons are attracted toward the silicon surface from the $p$-type substrate due to a positive electric field being built on the silicon surface by the gate voltage. These electrons form a channel between the drain and source. The minimum voltage $V_{G S}$ inducing the channel is defined as the threshold voltage, denoted $V_{T n}$, of the nMOS transistor. The value of $V_{T n}$ ranges from $0.3 \mathrm{~V}$ to $0.7 \mathrm{~V}$ for the present submicron and deep-submicron processes, depending on a particular process of interest.

For digital applications, an nMOS transistor can be thought of as a simple switch element. The switch is turned on when the gate voltage is greater than or equal to its threshold voltage and turned off otherwise. Due to the symmetric structure of an nMOS transistor, either of $n^{+}$regions can be used as the source or drain, depending on how the operating voltage is applied. One with more positive voltage is the drain and the other is the source because the carriers on the nMOS transistor are electrons.
Figure $1.7$ (b) shows the circuit symbols that are often used in circuit designs. The one with an explicit arrow associated with the source electrode is often used in analog applications, where the roles of source and drain are fixed. The other without an explicit arrow is often used in digital applications because the roles of the drain and source will be dynamically determined by the actual operating conditions of the circuit. The switch circuit model is depicted in Figure $1.7(\mathrm{c})$.

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|pMOS Transistors

Likewise, the physical structure of a pMOS transistor comprises a MOS system and two $p^{+}$regions on the surface of an $n$-type silicon substrate, as depicted in Figure $1.8(\mathrm{a})$. The MOS system is a sandwich structure where a dielectric (an insulator) is inserted between a metal or polysilicon and an $n$-type substrate. The metal or polysilicon is called a gate. The two $p^{+}$regions on the surface of substrate are referred to as the drain and source, respectively.

The operation of a pMOS transistor can be illustrated by Figure 1.8(a). When a large negative voltage $V_{G S}$ is applied to the gate (electrode), holes are attracted toward the silicon surface from the $n$-type substrate due to a negative electric field being built on the silicon surface by the gate voltage. These holes form a channel between the drain and source. The minimum voltage $\left|V_{G S}\right|$ inducing the channel is defined as the threshold vollage, denoted $V_{T p}$, of the pMOS Lransistor. The value of $V_{T p}$ ranges from $-0.3 \mathrm{~V}$ to $-0.7 \mathrm{~V}$ for the present submicron and deep-submicron processes, depending on a particular process of interest.

Like an nMOS transistor, a pMOS transistor can be regarded as a simple switch element for digital applications. The switch is turned on when the gate voltage is less than or equal to its threshold voltage and turned off otherwise. Due to the symmetric structure of a pMOS transistor, either of $p^{+}$regions can be used as the source or drain, depending on how the operating voltage is applied. One with more positive voltage is the source and the other is the drain since the carriers on the pMOS transistor are holes.

Figure 1.8(b) shows the circuit symbols that are often used in circuit designs. The symbol convention of pMOS transistors is exactly the same as that of nMOS transistors. The one with an explicit arrow associated with the source electrode is often used in analog applications in which the roles of source and drain are fixed. The other without an explicit arrow but with a circle at the gate is often used in digital applications because the roles of drain and source will be dynamically determined by the actual operating conditions of the circuit. The circle is used to distinguish it from the nMOS transistor and to indicate that the pMOS transistor is at active-low cnable. The switch circuit model is depicted in Figure $1.8(\mathrm{c})$.

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|nMOS Transistors

nMOS晶体管的物理结构基本上由一个金属氧化物硅（MOS）系统和两个n+p 型硅衬底表面上的区域，如图 1.7(a) 所示。MOS系统是一种夹层结构，其中在金属或多晶硅和p型衬底之间插入了电介质（绝缘体）。金属或多晶硅称为栅极。他们俩n+衬底表面上的区域分别称为漏极和源极。

nMOS晶体管的操作可以用图来说明1.7(一个). 当足够大的正电压在G小号施加到栅极（电极），电子从硅表面被吸引p型衬底由于栅极电压在硅表面上建立了正电场。这些电子在漏极和源极之间形成通道。最低电压在G小号诱导通道被定义为阈值电压，表示在吨n, nMOS 晶体管。的价值在吨n范围从0.3 在至0.7 在对于目前的亚微米和深亚微米工艺，取决于感兴趣的特定工艺。

## 广义线性模型代考

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## MATLAB代写

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