### 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECO118

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Efficiency versus Equity

The social goal of a more equitable distribution of income is often of paramount importance to political decision-makers, and disputes can arise over whether equity or economic efficiency should be the prime consideration in setting policy. One source of dispute is rooted in the problem that there is not a unique set of transactions that are Pareto efficient. There are, in fact, a number of different sets of transactions that can satisfy our definition of economic efficiency, and questions can arise as to which set is the most equitable.

To understand the multiple sets of efficient transactions that are possible, we return to our example of the woman willing to create blueprints for $\$ 20$per hour. If Ace Engineering Services is willing to pay up to$\$22$ per hour for blueprints, and Sally is willing to work for $\$ 20$, their agreement on her employment at an hourly wage of, say,$\$21$ would be beneficial to both parties. However, the same can be said for an agreement on wages of either $\$ 20.25$or$\$21.75$ per hour. We can objectively judge any of these potential agreements as efficient because both parties are better off than they would be if they did not transact. But it is not clear which of the potential agreements are more equitable unless we define a subjective standard for “fairness.”

The second source of dispute over equity and efficiency is rooted in the problem that to achieve more equity, steps away from Pareto efficiency must often be taken. ${ }^5$ Minimum wage laws, for example, block transactions that parties might be willing to make at a lower wage; thus, some who would have accepted jobs at less than the legislated minimum are not offered any at all because their services are “priced out of the market.” Similarly, welfare programs have often been structured so that recipients who find paid work receive, in effect, a zero wage-a price distortion of major proportions, but one that is neither easily nor cheaply avoided (as we will see in chapter 6).

Normative economics tends to stress efficiency over equity considerations, not because it is more important but because it can be analyzed more scientifically. For a transaction to be mutually beneficial, all that is required is for each party to individually feel better off. Thus, studying voluntary transactions (that is, market behavior) is useful when taking economic efficiency into account. Equity considerations, however, always involve comparing the welfare lost by some against the utility gained by others-which, given the impossibility of measuring happiness, cannot be scientifically done. For policy decisions based on considerations of equity, society usually turns to guidance from the political system, not from markets.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Statistical Testing of Labor Market Hypotheses

This appendix provides a brief introduction to how labor economists test hypotheses. We will discuss how one might attempt to test the hypothesis presented in this chapter that other things equal, one should expect to observe that the higher the wage a firm pays, the lower the voluntary labor turnover among its employees will be. Put another way, if we define a firm’s quit rate as the proportion of its workers who voluntarily quit in a given time period (say, a year), we expect to observe that the higher a firm’s wages, the lower its quit rate will be, holding other factors affecting quit rates constant.

An obvious first step is to collect data on the quit rates experienced by a set of firms during a given year and match these data with the firms’ wage rates. This type of analysis is called univariate because we are analyzing the effects on quit rates of just one other variable (the wage rate). The data are called cross-sectional because they provide observations across behavioral units at a point in time. 1 Table 1 A.1 contains such information for a hypothetical set of 10 firms located in a single labor market in, say, 1993. For example, firm A is assumed to have paid an average hourly wage of $\$ 4$and to have experienced a quit rate of 40 percent in$1993 .$The data on wages and quit rates are presented graphically in Figure 1A.1. Each dot in this figure represents a quit-rate/hourly wage combination for one of the firms in Table 1A.1. Firm A, for example, is represented in the figure by point$A$, which shows a quit rate of 40 percent and an hourly wage of$\$4$, while point $B$ shows comparable data for firm B. From a visual inspection of all 10 data points, it appears from this figure that firms paying higher wages in our hypothetical sample do indeed have lower quit rates. Although the data points in Figure 1A.1 obviously do not lie on a single straight line, their pattern suggests that on average, there is a linear (straight-line) relationship between a firm’s quit rate and its wage rate.
Any straight line can be represented by the general equation
$$Y=a+b x \text { (1A.1) }$$
Variable $\uparrow$ is the dependent variable, and it is generally shown on the vertical axis of the graph depicting the line. Variable $X$ is the independent, or explanatory, variable, which is usually shown on the horizontal axis. ${ }^2$ The letters ” $a$ ” and ” $b$ ” are the parameters (the fixed coefficients) of the equation, with ” $a$ ” representing the intercept and ” $b$ ” the slope of the line. Put differently, ” $a$ ” is the value of $\gamma$ when the line intersects the vertical axis $(X=0)$.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Statistical Testing of Labor Market Hypotheses

$$Y=a+b x(1 \mathrm{~A} .1)$$

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。