### 统计代写|线性回归代写linear regression代考|STAT6450

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|线性回归代写linear regression代考|Some Regression Models

In data analysis, an investigator is presented with a problem and data from some population. The population might be the collection of all possible outcomes from an experiment while the problem might be predicting a future value of the response variable $Y$ or summarizing the relationship between $Y$ and the $p \times 1$ vector of predictor variables $\boldsymbol{x}$. A statistical model is used to provide a useful approximation to some of the important underlying characteristics of the population which generated the data. Many of the most used models for 1D regression, defined below, are families of conditional distributions $Y \mid \boldsymbol{x}=\boldsymbol{x}_o$ indexed by $\boldsymbol{x}=\boldsymbol{x}_o$. A $1 \mathrm{D}$ regression model is a parametric model if the conditional distribution is completely specified except for a fixed finite number of parameters, otherwise, the 1D model is a semiparametric model. GLMs and GAMs, defined below, are covered in Chapter $13 .$

Definition 1.1. Regression investigates how the response variable $Y$ changes with the value of a $p \times 1$ vector $x$ of predictors. Often this conditional distribution $Y \mid \boldsymbol{x}$ is described by a $1 D$ regression model, where $Y$ is conditionally independent of $\boldsymbol{x}$ given the sufficient predictor $S P=h(\boldsymbol{x})$, written
$$Y \Perp x \mid S P \text { or } \mathrm{Y} \Perp \boldsymbol{x} \mid \mathrm{h}(\boldsymbol{x}),$$
where the real valued function $h: \mathbb{R}^p \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$. The estimated sufficient predictor $\mathrm{ESP}=\hat{h}(\boldsymbol{x})$. An important special case is a model with a linear predictor $h(\boldsymbol{x})=\alpha+\boldsymbol{\beta}^T \boldsymbol{x}$ where $\mathrm{ESP}=\hat{\alpha}+\hat{\boldsymbol{\beta}}^T \boldsymbol{x}$. This class of models includes the generalized linear model (GLM). Another important special case is a generalized additive model (GAM), where $Y$ is independent of $\boldsymbol{x}=\left(x_1, \ldots, x_p\right)^T$ given the additive predictor $A P=\alpha+\sum_{j=1}^p S_j\left(x_j\right)$ for some (usually unknown) functions $S_j$. The estimated additive predictor $\mathrm{EAP}=\mathrm{ESP}=\hat{\alpha}+\sum_{j=1}^p \hat{S}_j\left(x_j\right)$.

## 统计代写|线性回归代写linear regression代考|Multiple Linear Regression

Suppose that the response variable $Y$ is quantitative and that at least one predictor variable $x_i$ is quantitative. Then the multiple linear regression (MLR) model is often a very useful model. For the MLR model,
$$Y_i=\alpha+x_{i, 1} \beta_1+x_{i, 2} \beta_2+\cdots+x_{i, p} \beta_p+e_i=\alpha+\boldsymbol{x}_i^T \boldsymbol{\beta}+e_i=\alpha+\boldsymbol{\beta}^T x_i+e_i(1.9)$$
for $i=1, \ldots, n$. Here $Y_i$ is the response variable, $\boldsymbol{x}_i$ is a $p \times 1$ vector of nontrivial predictors, $\alpha$ is an unknown constant, $\boldsymbol{\beta}$ is a $p \times 1$ vector of unknown coefficients, and $e_i$ is a random variable called the error.

The Gaussian or normal MLR model makes the additional assumption that the errors $e_i$ are iid $N\left(0, \sigma^2\right)$ random variables. This model can also he written as $Y=\alpha+\boldsymbol{\beta}^T \boldsymbol{x}+e$ where $e \sim N\left(0, \sigma^2\right)$, or $Y \mid \boldsymbol{x} \sim N\left(\alpha+\boldsymbol{\beta}^T \boldsymbol{x}, \sigma^2\right)$, or $Y \mid \boldsymbol{x} \sim$ $N\left(S P, \sigma^2\right)$, or $Y \mid S P \sim N\left(S P, \sigma^2\right)$. The normal MLR model is a parametric model since, given $\boldsymbol{x}$, the family of conditional distributions is completely specified by the parameters $\alpha, \boldsymbol{\beta}$, and $\sigma^2$. Since $Y \mid S P \sim N\left(S P, \sigma^2\right)$, the conditional mean function $E(Y \mid S P) \equiv M(S P)=\mu(S P)=S P=\alpha+\boldsymbol{\beta}^T \boldsymbol{x}$. The MLR model is discussed in detail in Chapters 2,3 , and $4 .$

## 统计代写|线性回归代写linear regression代考|Multiple Linear Regression

$$Y_i=\alpha+x_{i, 1} \beta_1+x_{i, 2} \beta_2+\cdots+x_{i, p} \beta_p+e_i=\alpha+\boldsymbol{x}_i^T \boldsymbol{\beta}+e_i=\alpha+\boldsymbol{\beta}^T x_i+e_i(1.9)$$

$N\left(S P, \sigma^2\right)$ ， 或者 $Y \mid S P \sim N\left(S P, \sigma^2\right)$. 正常的 MLR 模型是参数模型，因为，给定 $\boldsymbol{x}$ ，条件分布族完全由 参数指定 $\alpha, \boldsymbol{\beta}$ ，和 $\sigma^2$. 自从 $Y \mid S P \sim N\left(S P, \sigma^2\right)$, 条件均值函数
$E(Y \mid S P) \equiv M(S P)=\mu(S P)=S P=\alpha+\boldsymbol{\beta}^T \boldsymbol{x} . \mathrm{MLR}$ 模型在第 2,3 章中详细讨论，以及4.

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。