经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|ECON6002

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宏观经济学,对国家或地区经济整体行为的研究。它关注的是了解整个经济的事件,如商品和服务的生产总量、失业水平和价格的一般行为。

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  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|ECON6002

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Supply Lags and Market Movements

Tinbergen proposed a supply lag scheme as early as 1928 , in a paper published in $D e$ Socialistische Gids. The paper was rather long considering that the journal usually published articles of only a dozen pages, and most of it was concerned with problems of exchange related to Cournot’s theories of competition. Incidentally, Tinbergen deplored the fact that Cournot’s work had remained mostly ignored, adding that the mathematical form in which it was published (in 1838) was probably to blame for this (Tinbergen, 1928: 543). ${ }^{14}$

The last part of this paper was concerned with the problem of the temporal element in his analysis, recognizing that this influence was mostly ignored in the previous sections. Tinbergen studied a problem of fluctuations around an equilibrium and based his discussion on a mechanical analogy: solving the “dynamic problem” meant that “as in mechanical dynamics, further data is needed, data which we can denote by inertia and delay, the inertia being related to the effort, the delay to the time of displacement” (Tinbergen, 1928: 544). Tinbergen then proposed to observe the behavior of one market where supply would adjust with a lag, while “demand adapts to supply without delay” (Tinbergen, 1928: 544). Although he did not explicitly present the equations behind his scheme, he did propose a numerical example with a figure of the temporal evolution of the quantities exchanged of a good, which took the form of damped oscillations that were in fact the result of a cobweb mechanism (reproduced in Fig. 2.2).

Obviously this example showed somewhat trivial oscillations from a high point to a low point each period, the only kind allowed by a first-order difference equation. ${ }^{15}$ This did not prevent him from discussing the conclusions one could draw from such a model for the economy as a whole and the observed cycles of three to four years or the longer cycles of seven to ten years, and the problems they posed for the social welfare of workers. Tinbergen also touched upon the problem of the damping of those oscillations, in connection with similar problems in physical system, and briefly considered the case where “the deviations are getting bigger (as in cases of unstable equilibrium),” but he added that these fluctuations could occur “only occasionally” (Tinbergen, 1928: 547).

At the very end of his article, Tinbergen concluded with a reference to another work: “a very fine example of an isolated fluctuating market (with a period of 3-4 years) is that of the … pigs!” (Tinbergen, 1928: 547). He was referring here to the work of Arthur Hanau on the cycles in the pig market that had just been published in the Vierteljahreshefte zur Konjunkturforschung, the journal of the Berlin Business Cycle Institute where Hanau was working at the time. Tinbergen would refer to this work enthusiastically many times afterward; its empirical conclusions clearly showed the importance of introducing lags and considering the dynamics of supply and demand on a market, and almost sixty years later he still gave credit to Hanau for the discovery of the mechanism of the supply lag (Tinbergen et al., 1987: 120). ${ }^{16}$

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|The Shipbuilding Model and Mixed Equations

In the introduction of his 1931 paper “Ein Problem der Dynamik,” when Tinbergen distinguished several lines of research that expanded “the static theory of social economy,” he finished his review by remarking that no one had yet tried to combine time derivatives and lags into a “systematic design of the dynamic theory” (Tinbergen, 1931a: 169). A scheme was proposed in the paper but it was still floundering; nevertheless, that same year, Tinbergen proposed a straightforward combination of time derivatives and lags, through his model of the shipbuilding cycle.

The choice of shipbuilding was not anecdotal; in a paper published in De Nederlandsche Conjunctuur, the journal of the Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (CBS) where he was working at the time, Tinhergen explained that “[t]he hranch of industry concerned with shipbuilding has a number of peculiarities which make a study of the relationship between the business cycle and this branch of industry of great importance, especially for shipbuilding itself and for shipping companies” (Tinbergen, 1931c: 14). Shipbuilding was one of the biggest branches of activity in the Netherlands, and Tinbergen saw at least three characteristics that made its study worthwhile: the long production process of building ships, the strong fluctuations in its activity, and the long life of its means of production. This meant that the shipbuilding industry was quite different from the agricultural markets that had spurred the cobweb models of Moore, Schultz, Ricci and Tinbergen. Clearly, trying to explain the fluctuations of a market of durable instead of perishable goods led Tinbergen to important new ideas.

The first study that he published on the question (Tinbergen, 1931c) was very empirical as he tried to determine the lifespan of ships and other characteristics of the cycle. Nevertheless, he was also clearly searching for an explanation of the cycle, for a mechanism that would explain the fluctuations he had found empirically. $\mathrm{He}$ argued that a causal mechanism existed in particular between tonnage and its own increase: “[t]here is indeed a clear interaction between tonnage and increase in tonnage, an interaction which will be referred to in the remainder of this article as the ‘own mechanism’ of the development of tonnage” (Tinbergen, 1931c: 17). But he did not try in this paper to give a more mathematical form to this finding, which he reserved for a paper written in German for the Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, the journal of the Kiel group of economists (Tinbergen 1931b, which was translated in Tinbergen 1959 from which we quote hereafter). ${ }^{24}$

Characteristically, Tinbergen started this second paper on shipbuilding with a nod to Moore and Hanau, hinting that this study was similar in character. But although it was concerned with fluctuations as well, the form he gave to his model was rather different than the simple cobweb, and most of the paper was concerned with the detailed presentation of Tinbergen’s solution of an equation of the type $\dot{f}(t)=-a f(t-\theta)$, which states that the time derivative of tonnage $\dot{f}$ is inversely proportional to the total tonnage a time $\theta$ ago (taken to be two years in his second paper). Although this is the simplest type of mixed differential-difference equations, it still poses some challenges to solve and Tinbergen’s background in theoretical physics served him well to work out an answer. Indeed this class of equations had not yet been studied extensively, and the absence of a road map to solve dynamic systems relying on them hindered the early development of macro-dynamic models, eventually leading to the abandonment of this approach in favor of simpler difference equations models in the late $1930 \mathrm{~s}$.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|ECON6002

宏观经济学代考

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Supply Lags and Market Movements

Tinbergen 早在 1928 年就在一篇发表于丁和Socialistische Gids。考虑到该杂志通常发表的文章通常只有十几页,而且大部分都是与古诺竞争理论相关的交流问题,所以这篇论文相当长。顺便说一句,Tinbergen 对古诺的工作几乎一直被忽视这一事实感到遗憾,并补充说它出版时所用的数学形式(1838 年)可能是造成这种情况的原因(Tinbergen,1928:543)。14

本文的最后一部分在他的分析中关注时间因素的问题,认识到这种影响在前几节中大多被忽略了。丁伯根研究了围绕平衡的波动问题,并将他的讨论基于机械类比:解决“动态问题”意味着“在机械动力学中,需要更多数据,我们可以用惯性和延迟表示的数据,惯性是与努力有关,延迟与流离失所的时间有关”(Tinbergen,1928:544)。Tinbergen 随后提议观察一个市场的行为,在该市场中,供应会滞后调整,而“需求会立即适应供应”(Tinbergen,1928:544)。尽管他没有明确提出他的方案背后的方程式,

显然,这个例子显示了每个周期从高点到低点的轻微振荡,这是一阶差分方程唯一允许的振荡。15这并没有阻止他讨论人们可以从这样一个模型中得出的结论,该模型适用于整个经济和观察到的三到四年或七到十年的更长周期,以及它们对社会福利提出的问题工人。丁伯根还谈到了与物理系统中类似问题相关的这些振荡的阻尼问题,并简要考虑了“偏差越来越大(如不稳定平衡的情况)”的情况,但他补充说,这些波动可能“只是偶尔”发生(Tinbergen,1928:547)。

在文章的最后,Tinbergen 引用了另一篇著作作为总结:“孤立波动市场(周期为 3-4 年)的一个很好的例子是……猪!” (丁伯根,1928:547)。他在这里指的是亚瑟·哈瑙 (Arthur Hanau) 关于猪市周期的著作,该著作刚刚发表在柏林商业周期研究所 (Berlin Business Cycle Institute) 的期刊 Vierteljahreshefte zur Konjunkturforschung 上,哈瑙当时正在该研究所工作。之后丁伯根多次热情地提到这部作品;它的实证结论清楚地表明引入滞后和考虑市场供求动态的重要性,将近 60 年后,他仍然相信哈瑙发现了供应滞后机制(Tinbergen 等人,1987 年) :120)。16

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|The Shipbuilding Model and Mixed Equations

在他 1931 年的论文“Ein Problem der Dynamik”的引言中,当 Tinbergen 区分了扩展“社会经济的静态理论”的几条研究路线时,他在结束评论时说,还没有人试图将时间导数和滞后结合起来进入“动态理论的系统设计”(Tinbergen,1931a:169)。论文中提出了一个方案,但仍在挣扎;尽管如此,同年,丁伯根通过他的造船周期模型提出了时间导数和滞后的直接组合。

造船的选择不是轶事。在他当时工作的中央统计局 (CBS) 期刊 De Nederlandsche Conjunctuur 上发表的一篇论文中,Tinhergen 解释说,“与造船业有关的行业有许多特点,这使得研究商业周期与这个非常重要的行业分支之间的关系,特别是对于造船业本身和航运公司”(Tinbergen,1931c:14)。造船业是荷兰最大的活动分支之一,丁伯根至少看到了三个值得研究的特点:造船的生产过程漫长、活动波动剧烈,以及生产资料的使用寿命长. 这意味着造船业与刺激了摩尔、舒尔茨、里奇和丁伯根蜘蛛网模型的农业市场截然不同。显然,试图解释耐用品而非易腐烂商品市场的波动使丁伯根产生了重要的新想法。

他发表的关于这个问题的第一项研究(Tinbergen,1931c)非常注重经验,因为他试图确定船舶的寿命和周期的其他特征。尽管如此,他显然也在寻找周期的解释,寻找一种机制来解释他凭经验发现的波动。H和认为吨位与其自身增长之间存在因果机制:“[t]吨位与吨位增长之间确实存在明显的相互作用,本文其余部分将这种相互作用称为“自身机制” ‘吨位的发展”(Tinbergen,1931c:17)。但他并没有试图在这篇论文中对这一发现给出更多的数学形式,他将其保留在为 Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 撰写的德文论文中,基尔经济学家小组的期刊(Tinbergen 1931b,翻译于 Tinbergen 1959我们在下文中引用)。24

典型地,Tinbergen 在第二篇造船论文的开头向 Moore 和 Hanau 致敬,暗示这项研究在性质上是相似的。但是,尽管它也与波动有关,但他赋予模型的形式与简单的蜘蛛网有很大不同,并且大部分论文都与丁伯根对此类方程的解的详细介绍有关F˙(吨)=−一种F(吨−一世), 表示吨位的时间导数F˙与一次总吨位成反比一世前(在他的第二篇论文中被认为是两年)。虽然这是最简单的混合微分-差分方程类型,但它仍然对求解提出了一些挑战,而丁伯根的理论物理学背景很好地帮助他找到了答案。事实上,这类方程尚未得到广泛研究,并且缺乏解决依赖于它们的动态系统的路线图阻碍了宏观动力学模型的早期发展,最终导致放弃这种方法,转而采用更简单的差分方程后期模型1930 秒.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考 请认准statistics-lab™

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

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随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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