### 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|ECOS3007

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Economic Barometers and “Cumulation”

The hunt for mechanisms responsible for cyclical fluctuations was clearly visible in Tinbergen’s first published article, where he recognized the importance of Aftalion’s theory of crisis, one of the few that was able, in his view, to account for the fact that “in each cycle there is already the seed for the next one” (Tinbergen, 1927: 715). But Tinbergen did not build a model of the economy in this article, which was aimed at the readers of De Economist to inform them of the latest developments in statistical and mathematical economics and business cycle analysis. At this time, what this covered was essentially the latest debates around the barometers, and the critiques they were subjected to.

One debate in particular interested Tinbergen, it was the “new interpretation” of Karl Karsten which had been discussed-among others-by Warren Persons and Alvin Hansen. Karsten was the main proponent in the 1920s of the “quadrature theory,” which had been developed hy Charles Fdge in 1908 (Karsten, 1924: 14). Being in “quadrature,” a term borrowed from electrical engineering, meant that the fluctuations of one curve corresponded to the fluctuations of the cumulation of another curve, or in other terms, its integral. ${ }^2$ For Karsten, the main advantage of this approach was to show how to obtain cycles of different length or amplitude: “By the quadrature theory, it seems possible to interpret the various phases of the economic cycle as entirely orderly and in accordance with theory, and yet wholly irregular in point of time” (Karsten, 1924: 16).

It was on the basis of this theory that Karsten suggested a new interpretation of the Harvard Business Index in Karsten (1926). While in the “official” interpretation of the barometer, the A curve (speculation) preceded and caused the B curve (production), Karsten thought that the second curve was in fact the causal predecessor of the first and the real driver of the cycle. His theoretical argument was that what counted was not so much business conditions represented by the B curve but the flow of money into the markets that accompanied poor business conditions and inversely the flow of money toward business when it was booming; in terms of “cumulation,” the A curve, representing the prices of securities, “shows the cumulative effects of the flow of money (into the market out of business, or out of the market into business)” (Karsten, 1926: 406). This led him to argue that the B curve was plotted upside down, and he showed that he could obtain a much larger correlation coefficient by following his theory.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Time Derivatives and the Theories of Maximum

By the time he defended his thesis in 1929 , Tinbergen had already published at least two papers in De Economist and one in De Socialistische Gids. The economic appendix of his thesis, which he wrote up under the direction of renowned physicist Paul Ehrenfest, was published the same year in German in the Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, and the contents of his thesis were reviewed for De Economist by Ludwig Hamburger (see Chap. 3). This was a strong start for the 26-year-old Tinbergen, although those works bear little resemblance to the large macroeconometric models that he later developed and became known for. In fact, the thesis was taking an approach wholly different from what was hinted at in Tinbergen’s earlier article on barometers, but it opened a research program that he pursued for several years and that connected him to many other researchers in Europe and the USA.

The thesis title was “Minimum problems in physics and in the economy,” although Tinbergen warned from the beginning that the economic problems were only pointed out in the appendix. The title was also misleading in that the object of the work was not so much “minimum problems” but problems involving stationarity, neglecting the problem of knowing whether the solution obtained was a maximum or a minimum, and the latter term was used in this general meaning. Tinbergen argued that he was merely interested in the “formal analogy” between a number of problems that could be represented under this form of a “minimum problem.” This allowed him to avoid the treacherous question of the teleological aspect of such an idea, although he was inclined to think that the “striving for a minimum” was something that lied in the nature of an economic system (Tinbergen, 1929: 2), something he shared with Evans, one of the main proponents of maximum principles. ${ }^6$

The thesis was mostly concerned with the demonstration that much of contemporary physics could be derived from extremal principles, Tinbergen taking throughout his work examples of mechanical motions, thermodynamics, optics, electrostatics and electrodynamics. Historically, minimum principles had been developed in optics and mechanics, and had first culminated in the middle of the eighteenth century with Maupertuis’ principle of least action. Maupertuis saw in his principle the proof that God existed and had built the world according to an harmonious principle, a Leibnizian idea that was the subject of Voltaire’s derision in Candide. ${ }^7$ While these teleological aspects marked the developments of the idea, the most important works on the question became those that managed to keep a safe distance from it, first in Euler’s work and especially in Lagrange’s analytical mechanics. The works of the latter two formed the basis of the calculus of variation, and the solutions of such problems are still called today Euler-Lagrange equations.

# 宏观经济学代考

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Economic Barometers and “Cumulation”

Tinbergen 特别感兴趣的一场辩论是 Warren Persons 和 Alvin Hansen 讨论过的 Karl Karsten 的“新解释”。Karsten 是 1920 年代“正交理论”的主要支持者，该理论由 Charles Fdge 于 1908 年提出 (Karsten, 1924: 14)。处于“正交”（从电气工程中借用的一个术语）意味着一条曲线的波动对应于另一条曲线的累积波动，或者换句话说，它的积分。2对于 Karsten 来说，这种方法的主要优点是展示了如何获得不同长度或幅度的周期：“通过正交理论，似乎可以将经济周期的各个阶段解释为完全有序且符合理论，并且但在时间点上完全不规则”（Karsten，1924：16）。

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## MATLAB代写

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