### 数学代写|数学分析代写Mathematical Analysis代考|MATH2241

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 数学代写|数学分析代写Mathematical Analysis代考|Solving the Constraint Equations

The constraint equations Eq. (14), may be concisely written as
$$\mathbf{U}{\mathbf{A}}=\mathbf{h} .$$ As a rule, the system is underdetermined due to a large number of elementary subnetworks and limited data on reaction rates known from experiments or literature that can be used in formulating constraint equations. Consequently, Eq. (16) is not expected to provide a unique solution and a suitable solution needs to be selected by utilizing an optimization procedure with an appropriate objective function. A clue to defining an objective function is readily provided by employing the stability analysis of stoichiometric networks as outlined in Sect. 2. More specifically, for chemical oscillators the emergence of oscillations via Hopf bifurcation is implied by dominance of the chosen (leading) unstable subnetwork. Therefore we can postulate that the contributions of the elementary subnetworks other than the leading unstable subnetwork should be as small as possible at the oscillatory instability. Thus the objective function to be minimized may be taken as the sum of the contributions of all subnetworks involved in the constraint equations other than the unstable dominant one, whose contribution is used as a free bifurcation parameter, which is varied until a Hopf bifurcation is found. Since the constraint equations are constructed to be linear, a linear programming solver [14] was used for solving the constrained system Eq. (16) by minimizing $$f(\mathbf{a})=\sum{k=1}^{p} \alpha_{k}^{u v} .$$
In general, the set of all admissible solutions of Eq. (16) with non-negative components of $\mathbf{a}$ is restricted to a set which may be a convex bounded polytope or a convex unbounded polytope, which arises by shifting the non-negative cone (if it exists) of the homogeneous subsystem of Eq. (16) in the space of a due to $\mathbf{b}$ and has a set of apexes in some directions but extends without bounds in other directions. The minimal solution sits in one of the apexes.

## 数学代写|数学分析代写Mathematical Analysis代考|Discussion and Conclusions

The approach outlined above has been applied to the glucose oxidase-catalase reaction [11] and the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction [15]. However, main applications are expected in identifying kinetic parameters in models of biological oscillating systems, such as circadian clocks [7]. Also, when temperature dependence of the rate coefficients is of interest, the input experimental information at two (or more) different temperatures needs to be provided and results subsequently fitted to Arrhenius law.

There are certain caveats that must be taken care of to obtain the solution of Eq. (16). Some of the parameters $\mathbf{x}^{f v}$ and $\mathbf{k}^{f v}$ that are not available from measurements must be assigned fixed values chosen heuristically. It may happen that such a choice violates solvability of the system Eq. (16). In this case, an effective way of resolving the problem is to find incompatible constraint equations and remove them. Likewise, some constraint equations may be linear combinations of others, which causes the linear programming solver to fail. Both incompatible and linearly dependent equations can be removed by applying singular value decomposition [14]. Another limitation is the linearity of constraint equations. In future work a nonlinear constrained optimization [1] should be considered.

## 数学代写|数学分析代写Mathematical Analysis代考|Solving the Constraint Equations

$$\mathbf{U A}=\mathbf{h} .$$

$$f(\mathbf{a})=\sum k=1^{p} \alpha_{k}^{u v} .$$

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。