### 物理代写|核物理代写nuclear physics代考|PX4516

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写核物理nuclear physics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写核物理nuclear physics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写核物理nuclear physics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 物理代写|核物理代写nuclear physics代考|The Geiger-Marsden Experiments

As we shall see later the “Plum Pudding” model predicts that a charged particle which is moving through such a positively charged “dough” will experience a very weak electric force and will only undergo very small angular deflections. In order to verify this, Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden, at the behest of Ernest Rutherford, carried out three experiments between 1908 and 1910 in which $\alpha$-particles from a radioactive source were incident on a very thin foil of gold (gold was selected because it can be beaten very thin – the foil used by Geiger and Marsden had a thickness of $400 \mathrm{~nm}$ ). The entire apparatus was encased in a tube, which was evacuated in order to minimize energy loss of the $\alpha$-particles before they scattered off the foil. A schematic sketch of the experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1.1.
In the first experiment, [13] a screen was placed behind the gold foil and scintillations caused by the $\alpha$-particles landing on the screen, were observed with a travelling microscope. Although most $(86 \%)$ of the $\alpha$-particles passed through with a deflection of less than $1^{\circ}$, a substantial angular spread of scintillations was observed.

In the second experiment [14], the screen was placed on the incident side of the gold foil in order to observe reflected $\alpha$-particles. The screen was protected from direct $\alpha$-particles by placing an impenetrable lead plate in the direct path of the particles. They nevertheless observed that about one particle in 8000 was reflected by the foil, implying that there had been scattering through an angle of greater than $90^{\circ}$ – way above the limit predicted by the “Plum Pudding” model.

In a third experiment [15], a year later, Geiger and Marsden used several different foils of different thickness and made of different materials. In this experiment, they managed to determine the most probable deflection angle. They showed that the most probable angle of scattering:

1. Increased with increasing thickness of the foil,
2. Increased with the atomic mass of the material the foil,
3. Decreased with increasing velocity of the incident $\alpha$-particles.

## 物理代写|核物理代写nuclear physics代考|Rutherford’s Scattering Formula

Rutherford’s surprise at the results of the Geiger-Marsden experiment, particularly the fact that some of the $\alpha$-particles were scattered though an angle of more than $90^{\circ}$, led him to state during a lecture at Cambridge University:

In 1911 , he adopted the model postulated 7 years earlier by the Japanese physicist Hantaro Nagaoka [16]. This model comprised of a small positively charged nucleus at the centre of an atom with electrons orbiting around it. Within this model, Rutherford calculated the probability of scattering of the $\alpha$-particles through an angle $\theta$ [17] under the following assumptions:

• The atom contains a nucleus of charge $Z e$, where $Z$ is the atomic number of the atom (i.e. the number of electrons in the neutral atom),
• The nucleus can be treated as a point particle,
• The nucleus is sufficiently massive compared with the mass of the incident $\alpha$ particle that the nuclear recoil may be neglected,
• The laws of classical mechanics and Electromagnetism can be applied and that no other forces are present,
• The collision is elastic.

## 物理代写|核物理代写nuclear physics代考|The Geiger-Marsden Experiments

1. 随着箔厚度的增加而增加，
2. 随着箔材料的原子质量增加，
3. 随着事件速度的增加而减少一个-粒子。

## 物理代写|核物理代写nuclear physics代考|Rutherford’s Scattering Formula

1911 年，他采用了日本物理学家长冈半太郎 7 年前提出的模型[16]。该模型由位于原子中心的带正电的小核组成，电子围绕它运行。在这个模型中，卢瑟福计算了散射的概率一个- 粒子通过一个角度一世[17] 在以下假设下：

• 原子含有一个电荷核从和， 在哪里从是原子的原子序数（即中性原子中的电子数），
• 原子核可以看作一个点粒子，
• 与事件的质量相比，原子核的质量足够大一个可以忽略核反冲的粒子，
• 可以应用经典力学和电磁学定律，并且不存在其他力，
• 碰撞是弹性的。

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。