### 统计代写|随机分析作业代写stochastic analysis代写|MA53200

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|随机分析作业代写stochastic analysis代写|Loynes’s scheme

Here we will consider the case where the state space $E$ is equipped with a partial ordering $\preceq$ (see section A.3), and admits a minimal point $\mathbf{0}$ such that $\mathbf{0} \preceq x$ for all $x \in E$. We will assume that on $E$ there exists a metric $d_{E}$ such that all $\preceq$-increasing sequences converge in $\bar{E}$, the adherence of $E$.
DEFINITION 2.5.- A function $\varphi: E \times F^{\mathbf{Z}} \rightarrow E$ is said $\preceq$-increasing when
$$\eta \preceq \eta^{\prime} \Longrightarrow \varphi(\eta, \omega) \preceq \varphi\left(\eta^{\prime}, \omega\right), \mathbf{P}{X}-a . s . .$$ It is said continuous with respect to its first variable when for $\mathbf{P}{X}$-almost all $\omega$, the function $(\eta \mapsto \varphi(\eta, \omega))$ is continuous for the metric $d_{E}$.

THEOREM $2.4$ (LOYNES’s THEOREM).- If $\varphi$ is $\preceq$-increasing and continuous, the equation [2.7] admits a solution $M_{\infty}$ with values in the adherence $\bar{E}$ of $E$.

Proof. Let us recall that we have assumed that we know the stimulus through the quadruple $\mathfrak{O}$, whose generic element is denoted $\omega$. We look for a random variable $Y$ valued in $E$ and satisfying [2.7]. We will get $Y$ as the limit of a sequence converging almost surely. To do this, we consider Loynes’s sequence $\left(M_{n}, n \in \mathbf{N}\right)$, defined by
$$M_{0}(\omega)=\mathbf{0} \text { and } M_{n+1}(\omega)=\varphi\left(M_{n} \circ \theta^{-1}(\omega), \theta^{-1} \omega\right), \forall n \geq 1 .$$
By the definition of $\mathbf{0}$, we have $M_{0}=\mathbf{0} \preceq M_{1}$, and assuming that for some $n>1$, $M_{n-1} \preceq M_{n}$ a.s., since $\varphi$ is increasing we have
$$M_{n}(\omega)=\varphi\left(M_{n-1}\left(\theta^{-1} \omega\right), \theta^{-1} \omega\right) \preceq \varphi\left(M_{n}\left(\theta^{-1} \omega\right), \theta^{-1} \omega\right)=M_{n+1}(\omega) \mathbf{P}_{X} \text {-a.s.. }$$

## 统计代写|随机分析作业代写stochastic analysis代写|Coupling

The idea of coupling plays a central role in the asymptotic study of SRS. It is in fact possible to state the conditions under which the trajectories of two SRS (or possibly those of the corresponding backward schemes) coincide at a certain point. These properties imply naturally, in particular, more traditional properties of convergence for random sequences such as convergence in distribution.

Hereafter we only state the results that will be useful to us in the applications to queueing, in their simplest form.

Secondly, we develop the theory of renovating events of Borovkov, which gives sufficient conditions for coupling, and even strong backward coupling. In addition, the results of Borovkov and Foss also allow in many cases to solve the equation [2.7], even when the conditions of continuity and monotonicity of Theorem $2.4$ are not satisfied. Particularly, in this framework we can also deal with the intricate question of the transient behavior depending on the initial conditions. In what follows, $\mathfrak{O}=$ $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, \mathbf{P}, \theta)$ is a stationary ergodic quadruple.

## 统计代写|随机分析作业代写stochastic analysis代写|Loynes’s scheme

$$\eta \preceq \eta^{\prime} \Longrightarrow \varphi(\eta, \omega) \preceq \varphi\left(\eta^{\prime}, \omega\right), \mathbf{P} X-a . s . .$$

$$M_{0}(\omega)=\mathbf{0} \text { and } M_{n+1}(\omega)=\varphi\left(M_{n} \circ \theta^{-1}(\omega), \theta^{-1} \omega\right), \forall n \geq 1$$

$$M_{n}(\omega)=\varphi\left(M_{n-1}\left(\theta^{-1} \omega\right), \theta^{-1} \omega\right) \preceq \varphi\left(M_{n}\left(\theta^{-1} \omega\right), \theta^{-1} \omega\right)=M_{n+1}(\omega) \mathbf{P}_{X} \text {-a.s.. }$$

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。