### 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Individualism

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Uncertainty and risk

Uncertainty is a basic feature of life that results from the fact that time goes only one way. We are caught in a present that is just an infinitesimal borderline between past and future. We have to live with a future that moves away as fast as we try to approach it, but into which we project our present hopes and fears (Hofstede 2001: 145 and 146).

Uncertainty is associated with anxiety. Uncertainty differs from risk. In both cases, the outcome is unknown; however, under uncertainty the outcome’s probability distribution is unknown, whereas it is known under risk. A distribution can be unknown because a certain type of event, a crisis for example, happens very rarely. On the other hand, for events that occur frequently one can calculate a distribution for the outcomes of these events. A distribution can also be obtained if physical circumstances enforce it, for example, the chance that throwing a dic will deliver a ccrtain integral number. Emotionally, uncertainty and risk are very different. Loncertainty is related tn anxiety and hath are diffuse feelings. Risk is related to fear and both risk and fear are focused on something specific. This difference implies that in the case of risk, agents have the feeling that they have some control over the outcome, whereas that is not the case for uncertainty. ${ }^{8}$

Hofstede (2001: Ch. 4) has developed the cultural dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance, which measures the attitude of the inhabitants of a country towards uncertainty. The higher a country’s score on this dimension, the more uncertainty-averse the people in that country are. This dimension ranges from 8 (Singapore) to 112 in Greece. Its mean is 65 , which corresponds to the score for Germany. France scores higher, 86, and the United States lower, 46 (Table 2.1, row 2). The ranks illustrate that on this cultural dimension the differences between the three countries are quite large. The inhabitants of the United States accept uncertainty much more easily than those of Germany and France.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The attitude towards concentration of power

The hierarchical market economy distinguishes itself from the other two types in that the society’s design explicitly makes a difference between the ruler and the subordinates. In these societies, a hierarchical system is in place in which an elite (the state, in France) has to take care of the other members. In practice, this means a concentration of power and wealth in the hands of a few. Such a system can only operate if the majority in society accepts the role of the elite. An implicit social contract has to be in force by which the population allows power to rule (see Rousseau’s famous Du Contract Social $(2001[1762])$ ).

Hofstede’s cultural dimension Power Distance measures the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power and wealth is distributed unequally. The scores range from 11 (Austria) to 104 (Malaysia), with a mean of 57 . Of the three countries concerned, France scores 68 , the United States 40 , and Germany (Federal Republic) 35 (Table 2.1). These scores indicate that, indeed, in France the acceptance of differences in power is higher than in the two other countries.

The study by van Oudenhoven et al. (2014) finds that French respondents are the only ones who mention generosity among the ten most important virtues (see Table 2.2). Generosity appears to be the most important one. This could indicate that according to the French the better-off have to be generous to their fellow citizens, a character trait, which could be important for the elite to show.

The ideal type of the hierarchical market economy explicitly singles out a group of persons, the elite, from the rest of the population. The other two types do not at first hand make a distinction between the different groups in society. Since the French elite is formed by design, one would expect that, due to their privileged position, members of the elite would also have different values and that the virtues they select as important would be different from those of the population at large. One would not expect such a difference between the social classes in the other two countries. If such differences are present there too, then we expect them to be less significant than in France.

In order to investigate these differences, we created social economic classes with data from the WVS based on the highest level of education attained by respondents. There are eight levels of education ranging from no education to a universitylevel degree. The answers to questions about which qualities are to be encouraged in children are used as indicators for preferred character traits. These questions read as follows: ‘Here is a list of qualities that children can be encouraged to learn at home. Which, if any, do you consider to be especially important?

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Time preference

Transactions on free markets are often between anonymous persons and are one-time events. Due to these characteristics of market transactions, the agents regard the transaction as such and do not consider the consequences for the future. This is less so for transactions that take place between people who know each other or who belong to the same network. Then, they are more likely to consider the consequences of their behaviour for their future position in the network. In accordance with this, firms in a network society appear to strive to increase the firm’s values for all stakeholders, whereas in free market societies, shareholder value is more prominent. With this goes managers’ preferences for continuity of the firm versus short-term profits. In sum, differences in time preference are likely to be a distinguishing cultural value between different types of market economies.

Hofstede’s Long Term Orientation measures the relative importance attached to the future over the present. This dimension was not part of Hofstede’s original analysis but has been added after the Chinese Connection Group found a dimension that they first called Confucianism. A high score on Long-Term Orientation means that the country’s inhabitants attach a high value to future consequences. Germany is very much at the high end of the scale, scoring 83 , and the United States, scoring 26 , at the low end with France in between (see Table 2.1). The score for the United States suggests that US inhabitants are oriented towards the short term, a finding that is in accordance with studies on firm managers’ goals (see, e.g., Hofstede et al. 2002)

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Uncertainty and risk

Hofstede (2001: Ch. 4) 发展了不确定性避免的文化维度，它衡量一个国家的居民对不确定性的态度。一个国家在这个维度上的得分越高，该国人民就越厌恶不确定性。这个维度的范围从 8（新加坡）到希腊的 112。它的平均值是 65 ，对应于德国的得分。法国得分较高，为 86，美国得分较低，为 46（表 2.1，第 2 行）。排名说明，在这个文化维度上，三个国家之间的差异是相当大的。美国居民比德国和法国居民更容易接受不确定性。

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The attitude towards concentration of power

van Oudenhoven 等人的研究。(2014) 发现，法国受访者是唯一提到十项最重要美​​德中的慷慨的人（见表 2.2）。慷慨似乎是最重要的。这可能表明，根据法国人的说法，富裕的人必须对他们的同胞慷慨，这是一种性格特征，这对于精英们来说可能很重要。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。