## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Consumer Surplus

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## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Consumer Surplus

In a competitive market, consumers and producers buy and sell at the market equilibrium price. However, some consumers will be willing and able to pay more for the good than they have to. But they would never knowingly buy something that is worth less to them. That is, what a consumer actually pays for a unit of a good is usually less than the amount she is willing to pay. For example, would you be willing to pay more than the market price for a rope ladder to get out of a burning building? Would you be willing to pay more than the market price for a tank of gasoline if you had run out of gas on a desolate highway in the desert? Would you be willing to pay more than the market price for an anti-venom shot if you had been bitten by a rattlesnake? Consumer surplus is the monetary difference between the amount a consumer is willing and able to pay for an additional unit of a good and what the consumer actually paysthe market price. Consumer surplus for the whole market is the sum of all the individual consumer surpluses for those consumers who have purchased the good.

Suppose it is a hot day and iced tea is going for $\$ 1$per glass, but Emily is willing to pay$\$4$ for the first glass (point a), $\$ 2$for the second glass (point b), and$\$0.50$ for the third glass (point c), reflecting the law of demand. How much consumer surplus will Emily receive? First, it is important to note the general fact that if the consumer is a buyer of several units of a good, the earlier units will have greater marginal value and therefore create more consumer surplus because marginal willingness to pay falls as greater quantities are consumed in any period. In fact, you can think of the demand curve as a marginal benefit curve-the additional benefit derived from consuming one more unit. Notice in Exhibit 1 that Emily’s demand curve for iced tea has a step-like shape. This is demonstrated by Emily’s willingness to pay $\$ 4$and$\$2$ successively for the first two glasses of iced tea. Thus, Emily will receive $\$ 3$of consumer surplus for the first glass$(\$4-\$ 1)$and$\$1$ of consumer surplus for the second glass $(\$ 2-\$1)$, for a total consumer surplus of $\$ 4$, as seen in Exhibit 1 . Emily will not be willing to purchase the third glass because her willingness to pay is less than its price$(\$0.50$ versus $\$ 1.00)$. In Exhibit 2, we can easily measure the consumer surplus in the market by using a market demand curve rather than an individual demand curve. In short, the market consumer surplus is the area under the market demand curve and above the market price (the shaded area in Exhibit 2). The market for chocolate contains millions of potential buyers, so we will get a smooth demand curve. That is, each of the millions of potential buyers has their own willingness to pay. Because the demand curve represents the marginal benefits consumers receive from consuming an additional unit, we can conclude that all buyers of chocolate receive at least some consumer surplus in the market because the marginal benefit is greater than the market price-the shaded area in Exhibit 2 . ## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Price Changes and Changes in Consumer Surplus We may want to know how much consumers are hurt or helped when prices change. So let’s see what happens to consumer surplus when the price of a good rises or falls, when demand remains constant. Suppose that the price of your favorite beverage fell because of an increase in supply. Wouldn’t you feel better off? An increase in supply and a lower price will increase your consumer surplus for each unit you were already consuming and will also increase your consumer surplus from additional purchases at the lower price. Conversely, a decrease in supply and increase in price will lower your consumer surplus. Exhibit 3 shows the gain in consumer surplus associated with a fall in the market price of pizza from$P_1$to$P_2$. The fall in the market price leads to an increase in quantity demanded and an increase in consumer surplus. More specifically, consumer surplus increases from area$P_1 \mathrm{AB}$to area$P_2 \mathrm{AC}$, for a gain in consumer surplus of$P_1 B C P_2$. The increase in consumer surplus has two parts. First, there is an increase in consumer surplus, because$Q_1$can now be purchased at a lower price; this amount of additional consumer surplus is illustrated by area$P_1 \mathrm{BDP}_2$in Exhibit 3. That is, these consumers would have purchased those pizzas at the original price of$P_1$, but now can purchase them at the new lower price of$P_2$. Second, the lower price makes it advantageous for buyers to expand their purchases from$Q_1$to$Q_2$. The net benefit to buyers from expanding their consumption from$Q_1$to$Q_2$is illustrated by area BCD. That is, buyers would purchase those additional pizzas because the price was reduced. Similarly, if the market price of pizzas rose, the quantity demanded would fall. As a result, the two effects triggered by a decrease in price would increase consumer surplus, while an increase in price would decrease consumer surplus by$P_1 \mathrm{BCP}_2$. In sum, consumer surplus measures the net gains buyers perceive that they receive, over and above the market price they must pay. So in this sense, it is a good measure of changes in economic well-being, if we assume that individuals make rational choices-self-betterment choices-and that individuals are the best judges of how much benefit they derive from goods and services. # 宏观经济学代考 ## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Consumer Surplus 在竞争市场中，消费者和生产者以市场均衡价格进行买卖。然而，一些消费者愿意并且有能力为这些商品支付比他们必须支付的更多的钱。但他们永远不会故意购买对他们来说价值较低的东西。也就是说，消费者为一单位商品实际支付的价格通常低于她愿意支付的价格。例如，你愿意花比市场价更高的价格买一个绳梯从着火的大楼里出来吗?如果你在荒凉的沙漠公路上没油了，你愿意花比市场价更高的价钱买一箱汽油吗?如果你被响尾蛇咬了，你会愿意花比市场价更高的价钱去打一针抗蛇毒疫苗吗?消费者剩余是消费者愿意和能够为一单位额外商品支付的金额与消费者实际支付的市场价格之间的货币差额。整个市场的消费者剩余是购买了该商品的消费者的所有个人消费者剩余的总和。 假设天气很热，冰茶的价格是每杯1美元，但艾米丽愿意花4美元买第一杯(a点)，花2美元买第二杯(b点)，花0.50美元买第三杯(c点)，这反映了需求定律。艾米丽会得到多少消费者剩余?首先，重要的是要注意这样一个普遍的事实，即如果消费者是一种商品的几个单位的购买者，那么较早的单位将具有更大的边际价值，从而产生更多的消费者剩余，因为边际支付意愿随着任何时期消费数量的增加而下降。事实上，你可以把需求曲线看作边际效益曲线——多消费一单位产品所产生的额外效益。注意，在图表1中，艾米丽对冰茶的需求曲线呈阶梯状。艾米丽愿意为前两杯冰茶连续支付$ $4和$ $2就证明了这一点。因此，艾米丽将从第一杯酒中获得$  3的消费者剩余( 4-  1)$，从第二杯酒中获得$  1的消费者剩余 $($ $2-$ $1)$，总的消费者剩余 $4，如表1所示。艾米丽不愿意购买第三个杯子，因为她的支付意愿低于它的价格(0.50美元对1.00美元)。 在表2中，我们可以很容易地通过使用市场需求曲线而不是个人需求曲线来衡量市场中的消费者剩余。简而言之，市场消费者剩余是市场需求曲线下方和市场价格上方的面积(图2中的阴影区域)。巧克力市场包含数百万潜在买家，因此我们将得到一条平滑的需求曲线。也就是说，数百万潜在买家中的每个人都有自己的支付意愿。因为需求曲线代表消费者从额外消费一单位中获得的边际效益，我们可以得出结论，所有巧克力的购买者在市场上至少获得了一些消费者剩余，因为边际效益大于市场价格(图2中的阴影区域)。 ## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Price Changes and Changes in Consumer Surplus 我们可能想知道价格变化对消费者的伤害或帮助有多大。看看需求保持不变时，商品价格上升或下降时，消费者剩余会怎样。假设你最喜欢的饮料的价格因为供给的增加而下降。你会不会感觉好些?供给的增加和较低的价格会增加你已经消费的每单位的消费者剩余，也会增加你在较低价格下额外购买的消费者剩余。相反，供给的减少和价格的增加会降低消费者剩余。 图3显示了消费者剩余的增加与披萨市场价格从$P_1$下降到$P_2$有关。市场价格的下跌导致需求量的增加和消费者剩余的增加。更具体地说，消费者剩余从面积$P_1 \ mathm {AB}$增加到面积$P_2 \ mathm {AC}$，消费者剩余增加$P_1 B C P_2$。消费者剩余的增加有两个部分。首先，消费者剩余增加，因为Q_1美元现在可以以更低的价格购买;这个数量的额外消费者剩余在表3中用面积$P_1 \ mathm {BDP}_2$表示。也就是说，这些消费者会以原价$P_1$购买这些披萨，但现在可以以新的较低价格$P_2$购买。其次，较低的价格有利于买家将购买金额从$Q_1$扩大到$Q_2$。购买者将消费从$Q_1$扩大到$Q_2$的净收益用面积BCD表示。也就是说，买家会因为价格降低而购买那些额外的披萨。同样，如果披萨的市场价格上涨，需求量就会下降。结果表明，价格下降引起的两种效应均使消费者剩余增加，而价格上涨则使消费者剩余减少$P_1 \ mathm {BCP}_2$。 总而言之，消费者剩余衡量的是购买者认为他们获得的净收益，高于他们必须支付的市场价格。因此，从这个意义上说，如果我们假设个人做出理性选择——自我改善的选择——并且个人是他们从商品和服务中获得多少利益的最佳判断者，那么它是衡量经济福祉变化的一个很好的指标。 统计代写请认准statistics-lab™. statistics-lab™为您的留学生涯保驾护航。 ## 金融工程代写 金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题，以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。 ## 非参数统计代写 非参数统计指的是一种统计方法，其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型；这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。 ## 广义线性模型代考 广义线性模型（GLM）归属统计学领域，是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。 术语 广义线性模型（GLM）通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归，以及方差分析和方差分析（仅含固定效应）。 ## 有限元方法代写 有限元方法（FEM）是一种流行的方法，用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。 有限元是一种通用的数值方法，用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程（即一些边界值问题）。为了解决一个问题，有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分，称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的，它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的：用于求解的数值域，它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统，以模拟整个问题。然后，有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。 tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。 ## 随机分析代写 随机微积分是数学的一个分支，对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。 ## 时间序列分析代写 随机过程，是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体，参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现，其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值（如1秒，5分钟，12小时，7天，1年），因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中，往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录，以得到其自身发展的规律。 ## 回归分析代写 多元回归分析渐进（Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics）属于计量经济学领域，主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法，可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系，在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。 ## MATLAB代写 MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。 ## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|How Does the Price Elasticity of Demand Impact Total Revenue? 如果你也在 怎样代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics 这个学科遇到相关的难题，请随时右上角联系我们的24/7代写客服。宏观经济学Macroeconomics对国家或地区经济整体行为的研究。它关注的是对整个经济事件的理解，如商品和服务的生产总量、失业水平和价格的一般行为。宏观经济学关注的是经济体的表现–经济产出、通货膨胀、利率和外汇兑换率以及国际收支的变化。减贫、社会公平和可持续增长只有在健全的货币和财政政策下才能实现。 宏观经济学Macroeconomics（来自希腊语前缀makro-，意思是 “大 “+经济学）是经济学的一个分支，处理整个经济体的表现、结构、行为和决策。例如，使用利率、税收和政府支出来调节经济的增长和稳定。这包括区域、国家和全球经济。根据经济学家Emi Nakamura和Jón Steinsson在2018年的评估，经济 “关于不同宏观经济政策的后果的证据仍然非常不完善，并受到严重批评。宏观经济学家研究的主题包括GDP（国内生产总值）、失业（包括失业率）、国民收入、价格指数、产出、消费、通货膨胀、储蓄、投资、能源、国际贸易和国际金融。 statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。 ## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Proportion of Income Spent on the Good The price elasticity of demand for a good also has implications for total revenue. Total revenue (TR) is the amount sellers receive for a good or service. Total revenue is simply the price of the good$(P)$times the quantity of the good sold$(Q): T R=P \times Q$. The elasticity of demand will help to predict how changes in the price will impact total revenue earned by the producer for selling the good. Let’s see how this works. In Exhibit 1 , we see that when the demand is price elastic$\left(E_{\mathrm{D}}>1\right)$, total revenues will rise as the price declines, because the percentage increase in the quantity demanded is greater than the percentage reduction in price. For example, if the price of a good is cut in half (say from$\$10$ to $\$ 5$) and the quantity demanded more than doubles (say from 40 to 100 ), total revenue will rise from$\$400(\$ 10 \times 40=\$400)$ to $\$ 500(\$5 \times 100=\$ 500)$. Equivalently, if the price rises from$\$5$ to $\$ 10$and the quantity demanded falls from 100 to 40 units, then total revenue will fall from$\$500$ to $\$ 400$. As this example illustrates, if the demand curve is relatively elastic, total revenue will vary inversely with a price change. You can see from the following what happens to total revenue when demand is price elastic. (Note: The size of the price and quantity arrows represents the size of the percentage changes.) When Demand Is Price Elastic $$\downarrow T R=\uparrow P \times \downarrow Q$$ or $$\uparrow T R=\downarrow P \times \uparrow Q$$ On the other hand, if demand for a good is relatively inelastic$\left(E_{\mathrm{D}}<1\right)$, the total revenue will be lower at lower prices than at higher prices because a given price reduction will be accompanied by a proportionately smaller increase in quantity demanded. For example, as shown in Exhibit 2, if the price of a good is cut (say from$\$10$ to $\$ 5$) and the quantity demanded less than doubles (say it increases from 30 to 40 ), then total revenue will fall from$\$300(\$ 10 \times 30=\$300)$ to $\$ 200(\$5 \times 40=\$ 200)$. Equivalently, if the price increases from$\$5$ to $\$ 10$and the quantity demanded falls from 40 to 30 , total revenue will increase from$\$200$ to $\$ 300. That is, if the demand curve is inelastic, total revenue will vary directly with a price change. When Demand Is Price Inelastic \begin{aligned} \uparrow T R= & \uparrow P \times \downarrow Q \ & \text { or } \ \downarrow T R= & \downarrow P \times \uparrow Q \end{aligned} or In this case, the “net” effect on total revenue is reversed but easy to see. (Again, the size of the price and quantity arrows represents the size of the percentage changes.) ## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Price Elasticity Changes along a Linear Demand Curve As already shown (Section 6.1, Exhibit 1), the slopes of demand curves can be used to estimate their relative elasticities of demand: The steeper one demand curve is relative to another, the more inelastic it is relative to the other. However, except for the extreme cases of perfectly elastic and perfectly inelastic curves, great care must be taken when trying to estimate the degree of elasticity of one demand curve from its slope. In fact, as we will soon see, a straight-line demand curve with a constant slope will change elasticity continuously as you move up or down it. It is because the slope is the ratio of changes in the two variables (price and quantity) while the elasticity is the ratio of percentage changes in the two variables. We can easily demonstrate that the elasticity of demand varies along a linear demand curve by using what we already know about the interrelationship between price and total revenue. Exhibit 4 shows a linear (constant slope) demand curve. In Exhibit 4(a), we see that when the price falls on the upper half of the demand curve fromP_1$to$P_2$, and quantity demanded increases from$Q_1$to$Q_2$, total revenue increases. That is, the new area of total revenue$($area$b+c$) is larger than the old area of total revenue (area$a+b)$. It is also true that if price increased in this region (from$P_2$to$P_1$), total revenue would fall because$\mathrm{b}+\mathrm{c}$is greater than$\mathrm{a}+\mathrm{b}$. In this region of the demand curve, then, there is a negative relationship between price and total revenue. As we discussed earlier, this is characteristic of an elastic demand curve$\left(E_{\mathrm{D}}>1\right)$. Exhibit 4(b) illustrates what happens to total revenue on the lower half of the same demand curve. When the price falls from$P_3$to$P_4$and the quantity demanded increases from$Q_3$to$Q_4$, total revenue actually decreases because the new area of total revenue (area$\mathrm{e}+\mathrm{f}$) is less than the old area of total revenue (area$\mathrm{d}+\mathrm{e}$). Likewise, it is clear that an increase in price from$P_4$to$P_3$would increase total revenue. In this case, there is a positive relationship between price and total revenue, which, as we discussed, is characteristic of an inelastic demand curve$\left(E_{\mathrm{D}}<1\right)$. Together, parts (a) and (b) of Exhibit 4 illustrate that, although the slope remains constant, the elasticity of a linear demand curve changes along the length of the curve-from relatively elastic at higher price ranges to relatively inelastic at lower price ranges. # 宏观经济学代考 ## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Proportion of Income Spent on the Good 商品需求的价格弹性也会影响总收入。总收益(TR)是卖方从商品或服务中获得的金额。总收入就是商品的价格$(P)$乘以商品的销售量$(Q): T R=P \times Q$。需求弹性将有助于预测价格的变化将如何影响生产者销售商品所获得的总收入。让我们看看它是如何工作的。 在表1中，我们看到，当需求具有价格弹性$\left(E_{\mathrm{D}}>1\right)$时，总收益将随着价格下降而上升，因为需求量增加的百分比大于价格下降的百分比。例如，如果一种商品的价格减半(比如从$\$10$降至$\$ 5$)，而需求量增加一倍以上(比如从40降至100)，总收入将从$\$400(\$ 10 \times 40=\$400)$上升至$\$ 500(\$5 \times 100=\$ 500)$。同样地，如果价格从$\$5$上升到$\$ 10$，需求量从100下降到40，那么总收益将从$\$500$下降到$\$ 400$。如本例所示，如果需求曲线是相对弹性的，总收入将与价格变化成反比。 从下图可以看出，当需求具有价格弹性时，总收入的变化情况。(注:价格和数量箭头的大小代表百分比变化的大小。) 当需求具有价格弹性时 $$\downarrow T R=\uparrow P \times \downarrow Q$$ $$\uparrow T R=\downarrow P \times \uparrow Q$$ 另一方面，如果对一种商品的需求相对缺乏弹性$\left(E_{\mathrm{D}}<1\right)$，则总收益在价格较低时将低于价格较高时，因为给定的价格降低将伴随着按比例较小的需求量增加。例如，如图2所示，如果一种商品的价格降低(比如从$\$10$降至$\$ 5$)，而需求量增加一倍以下(比如从30增加到40)，那么总收入将从$\$300(\$ 10 \times 30=\$300)$降至$\$ 200(\$5 \times 40=\$ 200)$。同样，如果价格从$\$5$上升到$\$ 10$，需求量从40下降到30，总收益将从$\$200$上升到$\$ 300。也就是说，如果需求曲线是非弹性的，总收入将直接随价格变化而变化。 当需求价格无弹性时 \begin{aligned} \uparrow T R= & \uparrow P \times \downarrow Q \ & \text { or } \ \downarrow T R= & \downarrow P \times \uparrow Q \end{aligned} 在这种情况下，对总收入的“净”影响是相反的，但很容易看到。(同样，价格和数量箭头的大小表示百分比变化的大小。) ## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Price Elasticity Changes along a Linear Demand Curve 如前所述(第6.1节，表1)，需求曲线的斜率可以用来估计需求的相对弹性:一条需求曲线相对于另一条需求曲线越陡峭，它相对于另一条需求曲线的弹性就越小。然而，除了完全弹性曲线和完全非弹性曲线的极端情况外，在试图从一条需求曲线的斜率估计其弹性程度时，必须非常小心。事实上，我们很快就会看到，斜率为常数的直线需求曲线会随着上下移动而不断改变弹性。这是因为斜率是两个变量(价格和数量)变化的比率，而弹性是两个变量变化百分比的比率。 通过使用我们已经知道的价格和总收入之间的相互关系，我们可以很容易地证明需求弹性沿着线性需求曲线变化。 图4显示了一条线性(斜率恒定)需求曲线。在图4(a)中，我们看到，当价格在需求曲线的上半部分从P_1$下降到$P_2$时，需求量从$Q_1$增加到$Q_2$，总收入增加。也就是说，总收入的新区域$(区域$b+c$)大于总收入的旧区域$(区域$a+b)$。同样，如果该区域的价格上涨(从$P_2$到$P_1$)，总收益将下降，因为$\ mathm {b}+\ mathm {c}$大于$\ mathm {a}+\ mathm {b}$。 因此，在需求曲线的这个区域，价格和总收入之间存在负相关关系。正如我们前面所讨论的，这是弹性需求曲线$\left(E_{\ mathm {D}}>1\right)$的特征。 图4(b)展示了同一需求曲线下半部分的总收入。当价格从$P_3$下降到$P_4$，需求量从$Q_3$增加到$Q_4$时，总收入实际上减少了，因为总收入的新区域($\ mathm {e}+\ mathm {f}$)小于总收入的旧区域($\ mathm {d}+\ mathm {e}$)。同样，很明显，价格从$P_4$增加到$P_3$会增加总收入。在这种情况下，价格和总收入之间存在正关系，正如我们所讨论的，这是非弹性需求曲线$\left(E_{\ mathm {D}}<1\right)$的特征。图4的(a)和(b)部分共同说明，尽管斜率保持不变，但线性需求曲线的弹性沿着曲线的长度变化——从较高价格区间的相对弹性到较低价格区间的相对无弹性。 统计代写请认准statistics-lab™. statistics-lab™为您的留学生涯保驾护航。 ## 金融工程代写 金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题，以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。 ## 非参数统计代写 非参数统计指的是一种统计方法，其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型；这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。 ## 广义线性模型代考 广义线性模型（GLM）归属统计学领域，是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。 术语 广义线性模型（GLM）通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归，以及方差分析和方差分析（仅含固定效应）。 ## 有限元方法代写 有限元方法（FEM）是一种流行的方法，用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。 有限元是一种通用的数值方法，用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程（即一些边界值问题）。为了解决一个问题，有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分，称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的，它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的：用于求解的数值域，它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统，以模拟整个问题。然后，有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。 tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。 ## 随机分析代写 随机微积分是数学的一个分支，对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。 ## 时间序列分析代写 随机过程，是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体，参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现，其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值（如1秒，5分钟，12小时，7天，1年），因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中，往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录，以得到其自身发展的规律。 ## 回归分析代写 多元回归分析渐进（Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics）属于计量经济学领域，主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法，可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系，在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。 ## MATLAB代写 MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。 ## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Price Controls 如果你也在 怎样代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics 这个学科遇到相关的难题，请随时右上角联系我们的24/7代写客服。宏观经济学Macroeconomics对国家或地区经济整体行为的研究。它关注的是对整个经济事件的理解，如商品和服务的生产总量、失业水平和价格的一般行为。宏观经济学关注的是经济体的表现–经济产出、通货膨胀、利率和外汇兑换率以及国际收支的变化。减贫、社会公平和可持续增长只有在健全的货币和财政政策下才能实现。 宏观经济学Macroeconomics（来自希腊语前缀makro-，意思是 “大 “+经济学）是经济学的一个分支，处理整个经济体的表现、结构、行为和决策。例如，使用利率、税收和政府支出来调节经济的增长和稳定。这包括区域、国家和全球经济。根据经济学家Emi Nakamura和Jón Steinsson在2018年的评估，经济 “关于不同宏观经济政策的后果的证据仍然非常不完善，并受到严重批评。宏观经济学家研究的主题包括GDP（国内生产总值）、失业（包括失业率）、国民收入、价格指数、产出、消费、通货膨胀、储蓄、投资、能源、国际贸易和国际金融。 statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。 ## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Price Controls Although non-equilibrium prices can occur naturally in the private sector, reflecting uncertainty, they seldom last for long. Governments, however, may impose non-equilibrium prices for significant periods. Price controls involve the use of the power of the state to establish prices different from the equilibrium prices that would otherwise prevail. The motivations for price controls vary with the market under consideration. For example, a price ceiling, a legal maximum price, is often set for goods deemed important to low-income households, such as housing. Or a price floor, a legal minimum price, may be set on wages because wages are the primary source of income for most people. Price controls are not always implemented by the federal government. Local governments (and more rarely, private companies) can and do impose local price controls. One fairly wellknown example is rent control. The inflation of the late 1970 s meant rapidly rising rents; some communities, such as Santa Monica, California, decided to do something about it. In response, they limited how much landlords could charge for rental housing. Price Ceilings: Rent Controls Rent control experiences can be found in many cities across the country. San Francisco, Berkeley, and New York City all have had some form of rent control. Although the rules may vary from city to city and over time, generally the price (or rent) of an apartment remains fixed over the tenure of an occupant, except for allowable annual increases tied to the cost of living or some other price index. When an occupant moves out, the owners can usually, but not always, raise the rent to a near-market level for the next occupant. The controlled rents for existing occupants, however, are generally well below market rental rates. Results of Rent Controls Most people living in rent-controlled apartments are getting a good deal, one that they would lose by moving as their family circumstances or income changes. Tenants thus are reluctant to give up their governmentally granted right to a below-market-rent apartment. In addition, because the rents received by landlords are constrained and below market levels, the rate of return (roughly, the profit) on housing investments falls compared with that on other forms of real estate not subject to rent controls, such as office rents or mortgage payments on condominiums. Hence, the incentive to construct new housing is reduced. Furthermore, when landlords are limited in the rents they can charge, they have little incentive to improve or upgrade apartments-by putting in new kitchen appliances or new carpeting, for instance. In fact, rent controls give landlords some incentive to avoid routine maintenance, thereby lowering the cost of apartment ownership to a figure approximating the controlled rental price, although the quality of the housing stock will deteriorate over time. Another impact of rent controls is that they promote housing discrimination. Where rent controls do not exist, prejudiced landlords might willingly rent to people they believe are undesirable simply because the undesirables are the only ones willing to pay the requested rents (and the landlords are not willing to lower their rents substantially to get desirable renters because of the possible loss of thousands of dollars in income). With rent controls, each rent-controlled apartment is likely to attract many possible renters, some desirable and some undesirable as judged by the landlord, simply because the rent is at a below-equilibrium price. Landlords can indulge in their “taste” for discrimination without any additional financial loss beyond that required by the controls. Consequently, they will be more likely to choose to rent to desirable people, perhaps a family without children or pets, rather than to undesirable ones, perhaps a family with lower income and so a greater risk of nonpayment. Exhibit 1 shows the impact of rent controls. If the price ceiling$\left(P_{\mathrm{RC}}\right)$is set below the equilibrium price$\left(P_{\mathrm{E}}\right)$, consumers are willing to buy$Q_{\mathrm{D}}$, but producers are only willing to supply$Q_s$. The rent control policy will therefore create a persistent shortage, the difference between$Q_D$and$Q_s$. ## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Price Floors: The Minimum Wage The argument for a minimum wage is simple: Existing wages for workers in some types of labor markets do not allow for a very high standard of living, and a minimum wage allows those workers to live better than before. Ever since 1938, when the first minimum wage was established (at 25 cents per hour), the federal government has, by legislation, made it illegal to pay most workers an amount below the current legislated minimum wage. In 2014 , the federal minimum wage was set at$\$7.25$. A number of states also have minimum-wage laws. In cases where an employee is subject to both state and federal minimum-wage laws, the employee is entitled to the higher minimum wage.

Let’s examine graphically the impact of a minimum wage on low-skilled workers. In Exhibit 2, suppose the government sets the minimum wage, $W_{M I N}$, above the market equilibrium wage, $W_{\mathrm{E}}$. In Exhibit 2, we see that the price floor is binding. That is, there is a surplus of low-skilled workers at $W_{\text {MIN }}$ because the quantity of labor supplied is greater than the quantity of labor demanded. The reason for the surplus of low-skilled workers (unemployment) at $W_{\mathrm{MIN}}$ is that more people are willing to work than employers are willing and able to hire.
Notice that not everyone loses from a minimum wage. Workers who continue to hold jobs have higher incomesthose between 0 and $Q_D$ in Exhibit 2. However, many lowskilled workers suffer from a minimum wage-those between $Q_D$ and $Q_S$ in Exhibit 2-because they either lose their jobs or are unable to get them in the first place. Although studies disagree somewhat on the precise magnitudes, they largely agree that minimum-wage laws do create some unemployment and that the unemployment is concentrated among teenagers-the least-experienced and least-skilled members of the labor force. Many teenagers are willing to accept the lower wage in exchange for on-the-job training. In fact, some college students accept non-paying intern jobs for the experience. Minimum-wage laws do not apply to internships, and if they did, many of those jobs might not exist.

# 宏观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Determination of Exchange Rates and Trade

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Determination of Exchange Rates and Trade

As mentioned above, transferable sources of comparative advantage aren’t the only way to eliminate trade imbalances. Exchange rates are another. The market for foreign currencies is called the foreign exchange (forex) market. It is this market that determines the exchange rates-the rate at which one country’s currency can be traded for another country’s currency – that newspapers report daily in tables such as the table below, which shows the cost of various currencies in terms of dollars and the cost of dollars in terms of those currencies.

The second column in this table reports the price of foreign currencies in terms of dollars. For example, one Argentinean peso costs about 22 cents. The third column tells you the price of dollars in terms of the foreign currency. For example, one U.S. dollar costs 4.5 Argentinean pesos.

People exchange currencies to buy goods or assets in other countries. For example, an American who wants to buy stock of a company that trades on the EU stock exchange first needs to buy euros with dollars. If the stock costs 150 euros, he will need to buy 150 euros. With an exchange rate of $\$ 1.30$for 1 euro, he will need to pay$\$195$ to buy 150 euros $(\$ 1.30 \times 150)$. Only then can he buy the stock. Let’s now turn to a graphical analysis of the forex market. At first glance, the graphical analysis of foreign exchange rates seems simple: You have an upward-sloping supply curve and a downward-sloping demand curve. But what goes on the axes? Obviously price and quantity, but what price? And what quantity? Because you are talking about the prices of currencies relative to each other, you have to specify which currencies you are using. Figure 9-2 presents the supply of and demand for euros in terms of dollars. Notice that the quantity of euros goes on the horizontal axis and the dollar price of euros goes on the vertical axis. When you are comparing currencies of only two countries, the supply of one currency equals the demand for the other currency. To demand one currency, you must supply another. In this figure, I am assuming that there are only two trading partners: the United States and the European Union. This means that the supply of euros is equivalent to the demand for dollars. The Europeans who want to buy U.S. goods or assets supply euros to buy dollars. Let’s consider an example. Say a European wants to buy a Dell computer made in the United States. She has euros, but Dell wants dollars. So, to buy the computer, she or Dell must somehow exchange euros for dollars. She is supplying euros in order to demand dollars. The supply curve of euros is upward-sloping because the more dollars European citizens get for their euros, the cheaper U.S. goods and assets are for them and the greater the quantity of euros they want to supply for those goods. Say, for example, that the dollar price of one euro rises from$\$1.30$ to $\$ 1.35$. That means that the price of a dollar to a European has fallen from 0.78 euro to 0.74 euro. For a European, a good that cost$\$100$ now falls in price from 78 euros to 74 euros. U.S. goods are cheaper, so the Europeans buy more U.S. goods and more dollars, which means they supply more euros.
The demand for euros comes from Americans who want to buy European goods or assets. The demand curve is downward-sloping because the lower the dollar price of euros, the more euros U.S. citizens want to buy, using the same reasoning I just described.

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。