## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|PACC6001

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写管理会计Management Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写管理会计Management Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写管理会计Management Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE TWO-STAGE PROCESS

Earlier in this chapter, Figure 3.3 was used to contrast the general features of $\mathrm{ABC}$ systems with traditional costing systems. It was pointed out that $A B C$ systems differ from traditional systems by having a greater number of cost centres in the first stage, and a greater number, and variety, of cost drivers/ allocation bases in the second stage of the two-stage allocation process. We shall now look at $\mathrm{ABC}$ systems in more detail.

You will see from Figure 3.3 that another major distinguishing feature of $\mathrm{ABC}$ is that overheads are assigned to each major activity, rather than departments, which normally represent cost centres with traditional systems. Activities consist of the aggregation of many different tasks, events or units of work that cause the consumption of resources. They tend to consist of verbs associated with objects. Typical production support activities include schedule production, setup machines, move materials, purchase materials, inspect items and process supplier records. When costs are accumulated by activities they are known as activity cost centres or activity cost pools. Production process activities include machine products and assembly products. Thus, within the production process, activity cost centres are sometimes identical to the cost centres used by traditional cost systems. Generally with $\mathrm{ABC}$ systems cost centres are often decomposed into many different activity centres.

We shall now use Example 3.1 for the Enterprise Company to compute the product costs for an $\mathrm{ABC}$ system. The computations are shown in Exhibit 3.2. ABC systems normally decompose production cost centres into many different activity centres, but to keep things simple we shall assume that the three production centres (i.e. the two machine centres and the assembly centre) established for the traditional costing system have also been identified as activity centres with the $\mathrm{ABC}$ system. Therefore, the production activity cost centres shown in Exhibit 3.2 are identical to the cost centres used by the traditional cost system shown in Exhibit 3.1. However, we shall assume that three activity centres have been established for each of the two support functions. For materials procurement the following activity centres have been established.

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|EXTRACTING RELEVANT COSTS FOR DECISION-MAKING

The cost computations relating to the Enterprise Company for products $\mathrm{A}$ and $\mathrm{B}$ represent the costs that should be generated for meeting inventory valuation and profit measurement requirements. For decision-making, non-manufacturing costs should also be taken into account. In addition, some of the costs that have been assigned to the products may not be relevant for certain decisions. For example, if you look at the overhead analysis sheet in Exhibit 3.1, you will see that property taxes, depreciation of machinery and insurance of buildings and machinery have been assigned to cost centres, and thus included in the costs assigned to products for both traditional and $\mathrm{ABC}$ systems. If these costs are unaffected by a decision to discontinue a product they should not be assigned to products when undertaking product discontinuation reviews. However, if cost information is used to determine selling prices, such costs may need to be assigned to products to ensure that the selling price of a customer’s order covers a fair share of all organizational costs. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the costs incorporated in the overhead analysis are suitably coded so that different overhead rates can be extracted for different combinations of cost. This will enable relevant cost information to be extracted from the database for meeting different requirements. For an illustration of this approach you should refer to the answer to Review problem 3.23 .

Our objective in this chapter has not been to focus on the cost information that should be extracted from the costing system for meeting decision-making requirements. Instead, it is to provide you with an understanding of how cost systems assign costs to cost objects. In Chapter 9, we shall concentrate on the cost information that should be extracted for decision-making. Also, only the basic principles of $\mathrm{ABC}$ have been introduced. A more theoretical approach to $\mathrm{ABC}$ will be presented in Chapter 10 with an emphasis being given to how cost information generated from an $\mathrm{ABC}$ system can be used for decision-making.

Our discussion in this chapter has assumed that the actual overheads for an accounting period have been allocated to the products. However, the use of actual figures can be problematic. This is because the product cost calculations would have to be delayed until the end of the accounting period, since the overhead rate calculations cannot be obtained before this date. However, information on product costs is required more quickly if it is to be used for monthly profit calculations and inventory valuations or as a basis for setting selling prices. One may argue that the timing problem can be resolved by calculating actual overhead rates at more frequent intervals, say on a monthly basis, but the difficulty here is that a large amount of overhead expenditure is fixed in the short term whereas activity will vary from month to month, giving large fluctuations in the overhead rates. Furthermore, customers will only buy if they know the price they are being charged; a ‘market’ price could be quoted but this should still be checked against a predicted cost.

# 管理会计代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|ACCT2003

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写管理会计Management Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写管理会计Management Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写管理会计Management Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|THE TWO-STAGE ALLOCATION PROCESS

It is apparent from the previous section that separate departmental overhead rates should normally be established. To establish departmental overhead rates, an approach known as the two-stage allocation process is used. This process applies to assigning costs to other cost objects, besides products, and is applicable to all organizations that assign indirect costs to cost objects. The approach applies to both traditional and $\mathrm{ABC}$ systems.

The two-stage allocation process for traditional and $\mathrm{ABC}$ systems is illustrated in Figure 3.3. You can see in the upper section for a traditional costing system that in the first stage, overheads are assigned to cost centres (also called cost pools). The terms cost centres or cost pools are used to describe a location to which overhead costs are initially assigned. Normally, cost centres consist of departments, but in some cases they consist of smaller segments such as separate work centres within a department.

In the second stage, the costs accumulated in the cost centres are allocated to cost objects using selected allocation bases (you should remember from our discussion earlier that allocation bases are also called cost drivers). Traditional costing systems tend to use a small number of second stage allocation bases, typically direct labour hours or machine hours. In other words, traditional systems assume that direct labour or machine hours have a significant influence in the long term on the level of overhead expenditure. Other allocation bases used to a lesser extent by traditional systems are direct labour cost, direct materials cost and units of output. These methods are described and illustrated in Learning Note 3.1 on the dedicated digital support resources (see Preface for details).

Within the two-stage allocation process, $\mathrm{ABC}$ systems (see the lower section of Figure 3.3 ) differ from traditional systems by having a greater number of cost centres in the first stage and a greater number, and variety, of cost drivers or allocation bases in the second stage. Both systems will be described in more detail later in the chapter.

How many cost centres should a firm establish? If only a small number of cost centres are established, it is likely that activities within a cost centre will not be homogeneous and, if the consumption of the activities by products/services within the cost centres varies, activity resource consumption

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|Reallocating the costs assigned to service

The next step is to reallocate the costs that have been assigned to service cost centres to production cost centres. Service departments (i.e. service cost centres) are those departments that exist to provide services of various kinds to other units within the organization. They are sometimes called support departments. The Enterprise Company has two service centres. They are materials procurement and general factory support, which includes activities such as production scheduling and machine maintenance. These service centres render essential services that support the production process, but they do not deal directly with the products. Therefore service centre costs are not allocated to products because products do not pass through these centres. Nevertheless, the costs of providing support services are part of the total product costs and therefore should be assigned to products. To assign costs to products traditional costing systems reallocate service centre costs to production centres that actually work on the product. The method that is chosen to allocate service centre costs to production centres should be related to the benefits that the production centres derive from the service rendered.

We shall assume that the value of materials issued (shown in Example 3.1) provides a suitable approximation of the benefit that each of the production centres receives from materials procurement. Therefore 50 per cent of the value of materials is issued to machine centre $\mathrm{X}$, resulting in 50 per cent of the total costs of materials procurement being allocated to this centre. If you refer to Exhibit 3.1, you will see that $£ 880,000$ ( 50 per cent of material procurement costs of $£ 1,760,000$ ) has been reallocated to machine centre X. It is also assumed that direct labour hours provides an approximation of the benefits received by the production centres from general factory support resulting in the total costs for this centre being reallocated to the production centres proportionate to direct labour hours. Therefore, since machine centre $\mathrm{X}$ consumes 25 per cent of the direct labour hours, $£ 450,000$ ( 25 per cent of the total costs of $£ 1,800,000$ assigned to general factory support) has been reallocated to machine centre X. You will see in the row labelled ‘step 2 of stage 1 ‘ in Exhibit 3.1 that all manufacturing costs have now been assigned to the three production centres. This completes the first stage of the two-stage allocation process. You should note that this reallocation of service centre costs is somewhat arbitrary, for example, an expensive material would result in a greater allocation of procurement costs compared to an inexpensive material and hence be a potential for distortion of costs.

# 管理会计代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|FNS50217

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|The parent’s financial statements

In many countries (e.g. most European countries) IFRS is only required for consolidated financial statements, and in some cases (e.g. France or Spain) IFRS is only allowed for consolidated statements. Therefore, it is common for parent statements to be prepared under national accounting rules. This might suit a country’s system of calculating taxable income and distributable income, which are issues for individual entities not groups. Given that investors are usually only interested in consolidated statements, it makes sense to concentrate on harmonizing these by adopting IFRS.

In the parent’s financial statements, the practice is to account for the direct legal arrangements. In the above case of Figure 14.6 , the parent company owns and controls its investments in the other seven entities. Consequently, in the parent’s balance sheet the investments would be shown as non-current investments rather than showing all the individual assets and liabilities that the parent controls through its control of some of the other entities. Also, in the parent’s income statement, accountants show just a single line of ‘income from investments’ rather than the sales, wages, interest, etc. of the investees.

Generally, in the parent’s balance sheet, the valuation of the controlled and significantly influenced investments is at cost (less any impairment; see Chapters 9 and 11) and the income is measured at the level of dividends flowing from the investments. This is also allowed under IFRS (by IAS 27), although it is also possible to show these investments at fair value as financial assets (see Chapter 11).

However, under the national basis of a few countries, such as Denmark, the Netherlands and Norway, the influence of the parent over the other entities is seen as sufficient to justify taking credit for its share of profit, not just for the dividends received. In a balance sheet, the parent then includes the excess of profit over dividends as an increase in value of the investment. This is called the equity method. It is also important to learn about it for consolidated accounting, not just in these few countries but under IFRS and more generally (see Section 14.5 , where a fuller explanation is given).

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Consolidated balance sheets

In addition to the eight legal entities in Figure 14.6 , there is also the economic entity of the group as a whole. For reasons mentioned in Section 14.1, it is now thought to be essential to show the position for the whole group as a single entity. This idea is taken to an extreme in the United States because that country has the clearest view that investors are the users of financial statements. In the United States, it is normal to present financial statements for the group only and not to bother about publishing the statements of the parent and the other legal entities. An element of this can be found in some continental European countries, which exempt a subsidiary from having to publish financial statements if the parent company guarantees all the subsidiary’s debts. Similarly, under UK law, parent companies are exempted from various aspects of reporting, e.g. the cash flow statement.

In Big’s balance sheet, the shareholding in Little will normally appear as an investment at historical cost. However, as with any other asset in a balance sheet, the use of historical cost would not normally give the shareholders of Big a good indication of the value of the subsidiary or of the underlying assets. In Big’s income statement, the only reference to the subsidiary would be ‘dividends received from Little’ (assuming there were any) and, of course, this would give no clear indication of the subsidiary’s profit. The holding company’s financial statements would give no meaningful information about the whole group’s activities.

Because of the conclusion in the Feedback to Activity 14.C, group statements are prepared by adding together (consolidating) the position and results for all the components of the group. The basic process of consolidation takes the balance sheet of Big Co. as the starting point. In order to show the group as a single entity, the “Investment in Little’ entry must be removed and replaced by the assets and liabilities of Little that it represents, with any remaining excess shown as ‘Goodwill on consolidation’. So, the goodwill is what Big paid, less the identifiable (net) items which it bought. This procedure means that the resulting group balance sheet does not show an ‘Investment in Little’, because a group cannot own an investment in itself.

The above procedure leaves a crucial question unresolved, because two alternative values are available for the net assets (i.e. assets – liabilities) of Little Co.: (a) the figures taken from Little’s own accounting records as shown in its balance sheet (largely based on historical cost) or (b) the current market values or ‘fair values’ of Little’s assets and liabilities. It is clearly arithmetically possible to use either set of figures, as the goodwill arising on consolidation is simply a balancing number.

# 财务会计代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|ACCT2110

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Reporting cash flows from operating activities

Entities are allowed to use either of two methods to analyse and report cash flows from operating activities. These are:
(a) the direct method, whereby major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments are disclosed; or
(b) the indirect method, whereby net profit or loss is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, for any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and for items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows.

IAS 7 encourages entities to report cash flows from operating activities using the direct method, but this is not a requirement. The indirect method takes reported net profit and removes non-cash items included in the calculation of that profit figure. The indirect method thus undoes the effects of the accrual basis, but adds no new information beyond that already inherent in the income statement and balance sheet. The direct method, in contrast, amounts to an analysis of the cash records. Therefore, the direct method provides information that may be useful in estimating future cash flows and is not available under the indirect method.

The differences between the methods are best shown by example. Table 13.2 shows the typical headings that might be seen in a direct calculation of operating cash flows. Table 13.3 shows the headings for an indirect calculation.

A comparison of the two tables makes it clear that the indirect method is at the same time more complicated for the reader and less informative in terms of actual cash flows than the direct method. As noted above, IAS 7 encourages – but does not require – the use of the direct method and the same applies in US GAAP. In practice, the indirect method is generally widely used in IFRS or US practice (perhaps because it is easier to prepare and gives less information) and the next section examines this method in more detail. An exception is that most Australian companies use the direct method under the Australian version of IFRS.

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|The preparation of cash flow statements

A cash flow statement prepared by the indirect method is in essence a reconciliation between the opening and closing cash and cash equivalents of the accounting period. A convenient way to begin is to determine the differences between opening and closing balance sheets. These differences can then be analysed and presented in the desired format, segregating the inflows from the outflows.

Table 13.4 shows summarised balance sheets for the years $\mathrm{X} 1$ and $\mathrm{X} 2$ and columns for difference, outflow and inflow.

It is important that the logic of Table 13.5 is fully understood. Non-current assets have increased, i.e. money has been spent on buying new ones. This clearly represents a cash outflow. The argument concerning depreciation is rather more complicated. Depreciation is merely the allocation of cost over different accounting periods and, of itself, involves no cash flows at all. However, the depreciation charge for the year (of 8 in our example) will have been deducted from the profit for the year and, unless this is corrected for, the net cash inflow from operating would be understated by this non-cash charge. In this sense, correcting for the depreciation charge for the year, though not of itself causing any cash movement, has the effect of increasing the calculated cash inflows from operations.

As regards the inventory difference, the money tied up in closing inventory has increased by 4 , so an outflow of 4 has been necessary to finance this extra amount. With receivables, the entity is owed 22 more than before, i.e. it has received 22 less than a constant receivables figure would indicate – again having the effect of an outflow (strictly, perhaps, a negative inflow). The reduction in the cash balance of 6 is the balancing number.

The remaining items are fairly straightforward. Share capital has increased by the sale of shares, creating a cash inflow. Annual profits will in principle cause net cash inflows. The issue of debentures clearly creates a cash inflow of the amount borrowed. An increase in creditors, of 26 , is equivalent to borrowing money of this amount, so it represents a cause of cash increase.

Several simplifying assumptions have been made in this example. It is assumed that non-current assets have been sold and there are no dividends or taxation paid. However, such issues could be dealt with using the logic of the previous paragraphs (see Activity 13.G later).

# 财务会计代考

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Reporting cash flows from operating activities

(a) 直接法，披露主要类别的现金收入总额和现金支付总额；(
b) 间接方法，即根据非现金性质交易的影响、过去或未来经营现金收支的任何递延或应计费用以及与投资或筹资现金流量。

IAS 7 鼓励主体使用直接法报告经营活动产生的现金流量，但这不是一项要求。间接方法采用报告的净利润，并删除计算该利润数字时包含的非现金项目。因此，间接方法消除了权责发生制的影响，但除了损益表和资产负债表中已经固有的信息外，没有增加新的信息。相反，直接法相当于对现金记录的分析。因此，直接法提供的信息可能对估计未来现金流量有用，而间接法无法提供。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|BFA503

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务管理Financial Management方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务管理Financial Management代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务管理Financial Management相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|Issue Costs

Financial securities impose two kinds of costs on the issuer: annual costs, such as interest expense, and issue costs. We will consider the more important annual costs later. Issue costs are the costs the issuer and its shareholders incur on initial sale. For privately negotiated transactions, the only substantive cost is the fee charged by the investment banker in his or her capacity as agent. On a public issue, there are legal, accounting, and printing fees, plus those paid to the managing underwriter. The managing underwriter states his fee in the form of a spread. To illustrate, suppose ABC Corporation is a publicly traded company that wants to sell 10 million new shares of common stock using traditional registration procedures, and its shares presently trade at $\$ 20$on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). A few hours prior to public sale, the managing underwriter might inform ABC management, “Given the present tone of the markets, we can sell the new shares at an issue price of$\$19.00$ and a spread of $\$ 1.50$, for a net to the company of$\$17.50$ per share.” This means the investment banker intends to underprice the issue $\$ 1.00$per share (\$20 market price less $\$ 19$issue price) and is charging a fee of$\$1.50$ per share, or $\$ 15$million, for his services. This fee will be split among the managing underwriter and the syndicate members by prior arrangement according to each bank’s importance in the syndicates. To underprice an issue means to offer the new shares at a price below that of existing shares, or in the case of an IPO, below the market price of the shares shortly after the issue is completed. One obvious motivation investment bankers have for underpricing is to make their own job easier. Selling something worth$\$20$ for $\$ 19$is a lot easier than selling for$\$20$. But there appears to be more to the practice than this. In any public sale of securities, well-informed insiders are selling paper of uncertain value to less informed outsiders. One way to quell outsiders’ natural concern with being victimized by insiders is to consistently underprice new issues. This gives uninformed buyers the expectation the shares will more likely rise than fall after issue. Underpricing is not an out-of-pocket cost to the company, but it is a cost to shareholders. The greater the underpricing, the more securities a company must issue to raise a given amount of money. If the securities are bonds, this translates into higher interest expense, and if they are shares, it translates into a reduced percentage ownership for existing owners.

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|What Is an Efficient Market?

Market efficiency describes how prices in competitive markets respond to new information. The arrival of new information at a competitive market can be likened to the arrival of a lamb chop at a school of flesh-eating piranha, where investors are, plausibly enough, the piranha. The instant the lamb chop hits the water, turmoil erupts as the fish devour the meat. Very soon the meat is gone, leaving only the worthless bone behind, and the waters soon return to normal. Similarly, when new information reaches a competitive market, much turmoil erupts as investors buy and sell securities in response to the news, causing prices to change. Once prices adjust, all that is left of the information is the worthless bone. No amount of gnawing on the bone will yield any more meat, and no further study of old information will yield any more valuable intelligence.

An efficient market, then, is one in which prices adjust rapidly to new information, and current prices fully reflect available information about the assets traded. “Fully reflect” means investors rapidly pounce on new information, analyze it, revise their expectations, and buy or sell securities accordingly. They continue to buy or sell securities until price changes eliminate the incentive for further trades. In such an environment, current prices reflect the cumulative judgment of investors. They fully reflect available information.

The degree of efficiency a particular market displays depends on the speed with which prices adjust to news and the type of news to which they respond. It is common to speak of three levels of informational efficiency:

1. A market is weak-form efficient if current prices fully reflect all information about past prices.
2. A market is semistrong-form efficient if current prices fully reflect all publicly available information.
3. A market is strong-form efficient if current prices fully reflect all information public or private.

Extensive tests of many financial markets suggest that with limited exceptions, most financial markets are semistrong-form efficient but not strong-form efficient. In other words, you generally cannot make money trading on public information; insider trading, however, based on private information, can be lucrative. This statement needs to be qualified in two respects. First, there is the issue of perspective.

# 财务管理代考

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|What Is an Efficient Market?

1. 如果当前价格完全反映有关过去价格的所有信息，则市场是弱式有效的。
2. 如果当前价格完全反映了所有公开可用的信息，则市场是半强式有效的。
3. 如果当前价格完全反映所有公开或私人信息，则市场是强型有效的。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|FINM1416

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务管理Financial Management方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务管理Financial Management代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务管理Financial Management相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|Using Derivatives to Manage Risks

A discussion of financial instruments would not be complete without at least an introduction to financial derivatives. As mentioned earlier in the chapter, the term derivative refers to a broad class of financial instruments whose value depends upon, or is “derived” from, the value of some other asset. Derivatives have received some bad press over the years, perhaps rightfully so. Warren Buffett famously stated in Berkshire Hathaway’s 2002 annual report that “derivatives are financial weapons of mass destruction, carrying dangers that, while now latent, are potentially lethal.” And, in fact, derivatives were very much entwined with many of the regrettable events of the financial crisis of 2008.

However, blaming derivatives for financial disasters is a bit like blaming a baseball bat for a vandalized storefront. Misuse of derivatives can be damaging, but in the right hands, derivatives help financial managers to mitigate risk and thereby create substantial value for companies. Indeed, the view of some executives is that a major element of modern business is getting paid to undertake intelligent risks, while deftly avoiding others. According to this view, a steel maker is well positioned to manage the vagaries of changing steel demand, but ill-equipped to cope with volatile interest rates or exchange rates. A logical response then is for the company to use financial instruments systematically to sidestep unwanted risks, enabling it to better focus on the activities at which it excels.

Despite the occasional complexity of derivatives, operating executives need to understand the basics of using derivatives for financial risk management for at least three reasons:

• The market for derivatives is huge. Statistics put the total value of derivative contracts of all types outstanding in 2020 at over $\$ 600$trillion.${ }^{14}$While the amount of money actually at risk in derivatives contracts is closer to “only”$\$20$ trillion, the markets are huge by any measure, and size alone warrants a basic familiarity. By comparison, the total value of all stocks trading on all exchanges worldwide in 2020 was $\$ 110$trillion.${ }^{15}$• Most large companies use derivatives. A survey of the world’s 500 largest companies found that 94 percent use derivatives for risk management.${ }^{16}$It is very likely that anyone embarking on a career as a financial manager will encounter derivatives of some type sooner or later. • Misuse of derivatives can be dangerous. A number of otherwise sophisticated companies have reported multimillion-dollar losses on what were originally intended as risk-reducing activities. Moreover, although financial risk management is an indisputably valuable activity, it is not a panacea. Executives throughout the firm need a clear understanding of what the techniques can and cannot do if they are to use them effectively. ## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|Hedging with Futures Contracts One potential difficulty with the scenario described above is that AWI and MBI could have trouble finding each other or, for that matter, any partner willing to take the opposite side of a forward contract in the same quantity and time to maturity that they require. So an alternative for companies looking to hedge risk is to deal with a futures exchange that facilitates the matching of parties to forward transactions, which in this case are called futures contracts. A futures contract is the same as a forward contract in spirit, but its terms (i.e., the amount, the time to maturity, and so on) are standardized to make it easier for them to be bought and sold between different parties. Suppose that in March, MBI knows that it needs to buy 100,000 bushels of wheat in September and decides to hedge the risk of wheat price fluctuations using futures contracts offered by CME Group, the largest futures exchange in the world. The CME buys and sells wheat futures contracts in increments of 5,000 bushels per contract and they offer contracts that mature in various months of the year, including September. To hedge its risk, MBI would buy (or go long, as a purchase is often called) 20 September wheat futures contracts in March. If the price of the September futures in March was$\$4.60$ per bushel, this would mean that MBI was effectively locking in a price of $\$ 460,000(20 \times 5,000 \times \$4.60)$ for 100,000 bushels of wheat in September. This long position ensures that MBI can obtain wheat in September at a cost that will allow them to be profitable.

At the same time, AWI can go to the CME in March and sell (or short) 20 September wheat futures contracts at a price of $\$ 4.60$per bushel. This short position allows AWI to lock in a selling price of$\$460,000$ for the wheat they need to sell in September. The CME acts as an intermediary to match up the buyer and the seller, eliminating the need for AWI and MBI to deal with each other. AWI does not even need to know that a company called MBI exists, and vice versa.

It is important to recognize that companies can hedge price risk using futures contracts without holding the contract to maturity and without making or taking delivery of the underlying asset through the exchange. Unlike with forward contracts, companies can (and almost always do) close out their futures contracts at some point prior to delivery and take profits or losses that have accrued on the contract to that point. Then, they simply buy or sell the underlying asset as they normally would in the spot market. When the hedge is set up properly, the company profits from its futures contract when spot market prices move against it, and suffers losses on its futures contract when spot market prices move in its favor. The company ends up paying or receiving roughly the same net amount regardless of which direction prices move.
To illustrate how this works, consider MBI’s long position in 20 September wheat futures contracts, which it bought in March at a price of $\$ 4.60$per bushel. Suppose that come September, when MBI needs to purchase wheat, poor weather conditions have caused the futures price for September wheat to rise to$\$5.10$ per bushel. The price increase is profitable for MBI’s futures contracts, because the contracts they purchased at $\$ 4.60$per bushel are now worth$\$5.10$ per bushel. Their profit from the futures can be calculated as the change in the futures price per bushel times the number of bushels contracted.

# 财务管理代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|ACC337

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写金融会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写金融会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写金融会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Re-measurements and other comprehensive income

As noted earlier, if a company owns listed equities that rise in value, it seems relevant and verifiable to record the assets in the balance sheet at the higher values. Are such gains to be treated as income? The IASB concludes that they should indeed be. They meet the definition of income (see Section 8.4.1). As noted in Chapter 6 , two income statements are now to be found under the rules of the IASB, the United Kingdom and the United States. The gains or losses on any revaluations of some financial assets (see Chapter 11) are shown in the first income statement, i.e. treated as profit or loss. The same applies to gains or losses on investment properties (see Chapter 9).

However, if a company’s other land and buildings are revalued (see Chapter 9), the resulting gains are not treated as ‘profit or loss’ but go to the second income statement (called ‘other comprehensive income’). An example of 2018 is shown as Figure 8.7, which relates again to the BASF Group. Some of the issues raised by this are too complex to consider at this stage, and you should not try to understand all the detail. We show extracts relating to both 2017 and 2018 . All companies will have their own individual characteristics, and no example should be regarded as ‘typical’. But, in relation to this particular illustration, you should note several conclusions. As presented here, the figure starts with the end result of ‘profit or loss’, called ‘Income after taxes’ by BASF. A number of adjustments are shown, all of which increase or decrease the closing net assets and therefore the closing net equity, but none of which, according to the ‘theory’, relate to the operating activities or to the interest costs of the business during the year. Secondly, the numbers involved may be significant, so an understanding of ‘performance’ over the year is seriously affected. Thirdly, the changes over time are often unpredictable. This example illustrates this particularly well. Note that the effect of the ‘remeasurement of defined benefit (pension) plans’ moves from a gain of over $€ 1$ billion in 2017 to a loss of almost $€ 1$ billion in 2018, a change over the two years of over $€ 2$ billion in apparent performance. Conversely the ‘unrealised gains/losses from currency translation’ move from a loss of over $€ 2$ billion in 2017 to a small gain of almost $€ 200,000$ in 2018, again a net movement of over $€ 2$ billion, but in the opposite direction to the pension-related movement. So what should an investor predict for 2019 ?

Unfortunately, there is no clear rationale for the distinction between the gains in one statement and those in the other. For example, most of the items in Figure $8.7$ are unrealised, in the sense that no sale has yet occurred. At first sight, the opening ‘income after taxes’ figure is concerned with operations. However, if the head office were sold after 50 years, any gains would be recorded in profit or loss even though they are not to do with operations. The 2018 framework (Chapter 7) briefly deals with this issue, suggesting that ‘profit or loss’ relates to performance of the period, but this does not solve these problems.

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Capital maintenance

One of the functions served by accounting for centuries is the calculation of distributable profit. A sole trader likes to calculate how much cash can reasonably be taken from the business as a result of a year’s successful operations. This becomes a vital issue when there are several owners. In the context of companies, the issue becomes one of determining the size of dividend payments.

A long-standing tradition of accountants is that dividends should only be paid to the extent that profit has been made. Otherwise, the business will be run down. This principle can be found in the laws of many countries, including EU laws based on the Second company law Directive. Adherence to the principle is said to protect the creditors of a company by restraining the cash outflows to shareholders.

From the accounting equation introduced in Chapter 2 and discussed again in Section 8.2, it is clear that an increase in equity is caused by an increase in net assets. For example, suppose that a retail company buys inventory for $€ 10 \mathrm{~m}$ cash and sells it for $€ 12 \mathrm{~m}$ cash in the same year. The net assets rise by $€ 2 \mathrm{~m}$, and the corresponding increase in equity appears to suggest that a dividend payment of $€ 2 \mathrm{~m}$ would be reasonable. However, the retailer perhaps used shops and delivery vans as part of the process of making the profit, so some account should be taken of the need to preserve those assets before any ‘profit’ is identified. This leads to the recognition of the expense called depreciation, as discussed in Chapter 9.
Further, suppose that the retailer’s shop has nearly doubled in market value from $€ 80 \mathrm{~m}$ to $€ 150 \mathrm{~m}$. The shop had been bought many years ago with cash contributed by the shareholders. If the retailer sells the shop for $€ 150 \mathrm{~m}$ cash, is the profit sensibly available for distribution as dividends? The company has cash and profit. However, in order to stay in business at the same level of operations, it will probably need to buy a new shop for at least $€ 150 \mathrm{~m}$. If the capital of the company is viewed as including one shop, then the gain cannot be paid out without drastically reducing the company’s capital. Taking account of this can be called ‘physical, or operating, capital maintenance’. On the other hand, if the capital is seen as the original money amount of $€ 80 \mathrm{~m}$ contributed by the shareholders, then the excess could be regarded as distributable (called ‘financial capital maintenance’), as the full amount of $€ 80 \mathrm{~m}$ would still remain within the company.

# 金融会计代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|ACC415

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写金融会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写金融会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写金融会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Revenue from simple sales

It has been agreed, in nearly all countries, that the recognition of revenue does not always need to await the receipt of cash. For example, receivables instead of cash might be acceptable, and the accruals convention might be used if work is done for a customer over a period. Consequently, the determination of the exact moment when revenue should be recognised becomes a major practical problem. Under EU laws, for example, the answer is expressed in terms of ‘realisation’: income should be recognised in the income statement when it is realised. In practice, this does not help much because there is no clear way to define what is realised, if it does not strictly mean ‘received in cash’. One possibility is to define realised as having received either cash or a contractual right to cash.

IFRS 15 requires that revenue should be measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. If a customer pays $€ 1,000$ cash at the time of sale, then the revenue is obviously $€ 1,000$. However, if the customer pays in barrels of oil or promises to pay cash in one year’s time, the fair value of the consideration must be estimated. In the second case, this is done by discounting.

Sometimes the sale involves foreign currency. Suppose that a Dutch company has delivered goods to a US customer who will later pay an agreed amount of US dollars. If the US dollar rises by the balance sheet date, so that the Dutch company now has a contractual right to receive an amount worth more than the original value in euros, has the company made a further gain? It seems obvious that the company is better off, but is the gain realised and should it be shown in profit or loss? Under IFRS, the gain is shown in profit or loss, but these apparently simple questions are contentious and are addressed further in Chapter 15.

Sometimes, the contract between the supplier and the customer involves the delivery of several things for a single price. In such cases, the supplier should split the price on the basis of the fair values of the components, and take revenue as the various parts of the contract are fulfilled. This idea applies widely, for example:
A manufacturer of electrical goods might include a three-year warranty with the sale of a particular refrigerator. There is a single price. The revenue allocated to the refrigerator is taken on delivery. The revenue allocated to the warranty is taken over the three years.

• Lufthansa gives ‘air miles’ to customers when they buy flight tickets. The part of the ticket price allocated to the flight is recognised as revenue on the day of the flight. The part allocated to the air miles is taken as revenue later.

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Revenue on contracts over time

Some construction or service contracts last a long time – often over more than one accounting period. The issue of determining the total revenue on such a contract raises no accounting problems beyond those discussed above in relation to simple sales of inventory. However, there is one important and difficult additional issue: the allocation of the total revenue over the various accounting periods during which the construction or service takes place.

If a profitable contract extends over, say, three years, should the contribution to profits be 0 per cent, 0 per cent and 100 per cent respectively for the three years? Can an entity make profits on something before it has finished making it? In old-fashioned terms, the prudence convention would certainly argue against that. Furthermore, unless something has been delivered to the customer, the basic principle of revenue recognition would not allow it. However, the various users want regular information on business progress. Can we not argue that revenue should be recorded as the contractor gradually makes a product under a contract if it can be ‘reasonably certain’ of making at least some profit before the contract has finished? Two alternative approaches emerged over the years. These are sometimes called ‘the completed contract method’, which delays revenue recognition (and therefore profit) until the end, and ‘the percentage-of-completion method’, which allocates revenue over the accounting periods concerned. The effects of these two methods are best shown by a comparative example.

The EU Directive does not deal with revenue under long-term contracts. So, presumably, it allows both the completed contract method and the percentageof-completion method. Different countries have used this flexibility in particular ways. In Europe, under national accounting rules, the completed contract method tended to dominate in more prudent Germany, whereas the percentageof-completion method was normal in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (see FEE, 1991).

Under IFRS, until 2018, the former IAS 11 required the percentage-of-completion method, when the outcome of a contract could be ‘estimated reliably’. However, IFRS 15 , specifically referring to both goods and services, restricts the use of the percentage basis (now called ‘revenue over time’) to cases where control passes to the customer as production proceeds, e.g. because the customer must always pay for sobligation’ needs to have been met. This would seem to mean that a boat-builder could not take revenue over a period on a contract under which a boat is built in the builder’s shipyard and a substantial amount of the price is not due until delivery of the completed boat.

However, other contracts will continue to have revenue recognised over time, such as:

• constructing a building on a customer’s land;
delivering audit services;
delivering electricity for a year.

# 金融会计代考

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Revenue from simple sales

IFRS 15 要求收入应按已收或应收对价的公允价值计量。如果客户付款€€1,000销售时现金，那么收入显然是€€1,000. 但是，如果客户以桶装石油支付或承诺在一年后支付现金，则必须估计对价的公允价值。在第二种情况下，这是通过贴现来完成的。

• 购买机票时，汉莎航空会向客户提供“飞行里程”。分配给航班的票价部分在航班起飞当天确认为收入。分配给航空里程的部分稍后作为收入。

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Revenue on contracts over time

• 在客户的土地上建造建筑物；
提供审计服务；
供电一年。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|ACCT4201

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写金融会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写金融会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写金融会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Initial measurement

Once it has been decided that an asset or liability should be recognised in the balance sheet, it is then necessary to measure its value before it can be shown. Under most systems of accounting that have been used in practice, initial recognition of nearly all assets takes place at cost rather than at ‘fair value’. If this were not the case, much effort would have to be put into estimating and auditing the fair value of any purchased asset. Also, the very act of purchasing an asset would often lead to the recognition of a loss because ‘cost’ includes not only the invoice price of the asset but also all costs involved in getting the asset into a location and condition where it can be productive. So, this will include delivery charges, sales taxes and installation charges in the case of plant and machinery. For land and buildings, cost will include legal fees. If a company arranges to have its own building constructed, the ‘cost’ will also include architect’s fees, clearing the land and so on, as well as the builder’s bill and the cost of the land. If a company uses its own labour or materials to construct an asset, these should also increase the cost of the asset rather than being treated as current expenses; that is, the costs are capitalised. IFRS and US GAAP also require a company to capitalise the interest cost on money borrowed specifically to create non-current assets. Where labour or material is capitalised, certain formats of the income statement (described as ‘by nature’ in Chapter 6) show this item as a type of income. This is because all the labour and materials used have been charged elsewhere in the income statement. However, the items capitalised do not relate to current operations, so they are added back as though they were income (see Section 8.4), although they could more logically be seen as reductions in expenses. In the example of Figure $8.5$ (CEPSA of Spain), the 4,079 million of capitalised expenses are a partial credit for the expenses shown on the debit side.

Expenditure on an asset after its initial recognition should sometimes also be added in as part of the asset’s cost. This includes inevitable future costs of dismantling or cleaning up. Any payments that make the asset better than it was initially are capitalised (added) to the asset. Any other payments are expenses. The principle in Figure $8.1$ is being maintained here.

In general, repairs and maintenance are treated as current expenses, whereas improvements are capitalised. So, a new engine for a company vehicle will usually be treated as an expense, since it keeps the vehicle in running order rather than improving it, unless the engine is recorded as a separate asset. In the case of an aeroplane, the engines are very valuable and have different useful lives from the rest of the plane, so they are treated as separate assets. Even painting new advertising signs on the company’s fleet of vans could be treated as a capital item, if material in size. However, repainting the signs would be an expense.

Obviously, the accountant needs to consider whether the amounts relating to the improvements are material enough to capitalise them. He or she tends to treat as much as possible as expense, since this is administratively more convenient. If the inspector of taxes can be convinced that items are expenses, this will also speed up their tax deductibility, although this ought not to influence the accounting.

## 会计代写|金融会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Subsequent measurement

We now need to consider whether an entity should take account of subsequent changes in the value of an asset or liability. For assets that are to be sold, the issue really becomes not whether, but when, to take account of changes in value, because eventually any previously ignored change in value is recognised at the point of sale. Accounting in most countries continues to use cost as the basis for valuing most assets until the point of sale. The arguments in favour of this approach are substantial: cheapness and greater verifiability.

Historical cost is an easier and cheaper method of valuation than most methods, because it uses information already recorded and does not require expensive estimations and the auditing of them. The Framework (paragraphs $2.39-2.43$ ) suggests that regulators should be aware of the cost of doing the accounting, to ensure that it does not exceed the benefits to the users. In addition, for most assets the cost is more reliably determined than the fair value or other current valuation could be. It will be remembered that one of the characteristics for external reporting, as examined in the IASB’s Framework, is verifiability. However, one should not exaggerate the verifiability of historical cost. The cost basis involves estimating depreciation and impairment (see Chapter 9 for more coverage).

However, the Framework’s key characteristic is relevance for economic decisions, and it is difficult to see how the historical cost could be the most relevant information for making decisions – which involves thinking about the future, particularly the prediction of cash flows.

It seems that the $€ 800$ cost is not a very useful predictor of cash flows at 31 December $20 \times 1$, particularly if the asset had been held for a longer period. Also, if only cost is recorded until sale, then a gain of $€ 150$ will be shown in $20 \times 2$ even though the asset has fallen in value in $20 \times 2$. The result of management’s decision not to sell the asset early in $20 \times 2$ is not reflected in the $20 \times 2$ statements.
The main asset valuation bases that could be used instead of cost are:
fair value (as defined above), which assumes that the business is not necessarily selling, because the selling costs are not deducted.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|TACC203

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|International influences

As noted at the beginning of this chapter, many nations have contributed to the development of accounting. In the case of some countries, ideas have been transferred wholesale from another country, such as the following:

Several African countries that are members of the (British) Commonwealth have accounting systems closely based on that of the British Companies Acts of 1929 or 1948.

• The French plan comptable général was introduced into France in the 1940s, based closely on a German precedent, and later into several former French colonies in Africa.
• The Japanese accounting system consists largely of a commercial code borrowed from Germany in the late nineteenth century, overlaid with US-style securities laws imposed in the late 1940 s.

By the end of the twentieth century, international influences had begun to affect accounting in all countries, sometimes overwhelmingly. The globalisation of markets had led to an increased need for internationally comparable accounting information. Where several large multinational companies are based in comparatively small countries (e.g. Hong Kong, Singapore, the Netherlands and Sweden), international influences are likely to be particularly great.

Many large European companies responded to internationalisation by volunteering to use one of two sets of internationally recognised rules: the United States’ generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the international standards of the IASB. In general – in Europe at least – this usage has been mostly restricted to the consolidated financial statements prepared for groups headed by listed companies. As noted in Chapter 4 , there are EU requirements in this area from 2005.

Another effect has been that national rule-makers have been trying to reduce differences between their national rules and the above international norms. At the extreme, certain countries (e.g. South Africa) have directly adopted IFRS as part of their national rules. These issues were noted in Chapter 4 and are taken up again in Section 5.5.

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Introduction to harmonisation

So far, this chapter has made it clear that there are major differences in the financial reporting practices of companies in different countries. This leads to great complications for those preparing, consolidating, auditing and interpreting published financial statements. Since the preparation of internal financial information often overlaps with the preparation of published information, the complications spread into management accounting. To combat these problems, several organisations throughout the world are involved in attempts to harmonise or standardise accounting.
‘Harmonisation’ is a process of increasing the compatibility of accounting practices by setting bounds to their degree of variation. ‘Standardisation’ appears to imply the imposition of a more rigid and narrow set of rules. However, within accounting these two words have almost become technical terms, so one cannot rely upon the normal difference in their meanings. Harmonisation is a word that tends to be associated with the supranational legislation promulgated in the European Union, while standardisation is a word often associated with the International Accounting Standards Board. In practice, the words are often used interchangeably. Convergence is a newer word, in this context, and means the gradual aligning of IFRS and US GA $A P$, followed by other jurisdictions aligning with the result of that.

It is necessary to distinguish between de jure harmonisation (that of rules, standards, etc.) and de facto harmonisation (that of corporate financial reporting practices). For any particular topic or set of countries, it is possible to have one of these two forms of harmonisation without the other. For example, countries or companies may ignore the harmonised rules of standard setters or even law-makers. By contrast, in the $1980 \mathrm{~s}$, market forces persuaded many listed companies in France and Switzerland to volunteer to produce English-language financial reports that approximately followed Anglo-American practice. Even among a large set of companies using IFRS (i.e. with de jure identity), there may be differences in policy choice because IFRS allows many areas of choice (i.e. de facto variety). However, there might then be gradual harmonisation within an industry as companies seek to be more comparable.

The EU achieves its harmonising objectives mainly through Directives (which must be incorporated into the laws of member states) and Regulations (which have direct effect). In the 1970 s and 1980 s attention was given to harmonising national laws through Directives (see Sections 5.4.2 and 5.4.3 below). During the 1990 s, the EU began to take more notice of international standards, leading to a Regulation of 2002 requiring IFRS for the consolidated statements of listed companies (see Section 5.4.4).

# 财务会计代考

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|International influences

• 法国 plan comptable général 在 1940 年代被引入法国，严格遵循德国的先例，后来又被引入非洲的几个前法国殖民地。
• 日本的会计制度主要由 19 世纪末从德国借来的商业法典组成，外加 1940 年代末实施的美国式证券法。

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Introduction to harmonisation

“协调”是通过设定差异程度的界限来增加会计实践的兼容性的过程。“标准化”似乎意味着强加一套更加严格和狭隘的规则。然而，在会计中，这两个词几乎已成为专业术语，因此不能依赖它们在含义上的正常差异。协调这个词往往与欧盟颁布的超国家立法相关联，而标准化这个词通常与国际会计准则委员会相关联。在实践中，这些词经常互换使用。趋同是一个较新的词，在这种情况下，意味着 IFRS 和 US GA 的逐渐统一一个P，其次是与该结果一致的其他司法管辖区。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。