## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|STAT3007

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写深度学习deep learning方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写深度学习deep learning代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写深度学习deep learning相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Some Background on Darwin and Evolution

Charles Darwin formed his initial concepts and theory of natural selection based on his voyages around the continent of South America. From Darwin’s work, our thirst for understanding evolution drove our exploration into how life on earth shares and passes on selective traits using genetics.

Taking 2 decades to write in 1859 , Darwin published his most famous work “On the Origin of Species” a seminal work that uprooted the natural sciences. His work challenged the idea of an intelligent creator and formed the basis for much of our natural and biological sciences to this day. The following excerpt is from that book and describes the theory of natural selection in Darwin’s words:

“One general law, leading to the advancement of all organic beings, namely, multiply, vary, let the strongest live and the weakest die.”
Charles Darwin – On the Origin of Species
From this law Darwin constructed his theory of evolution and the need for life to survive by passing on more successful traits to offspring. While he didn’t understand the process of cellular mitosis and genetics, he did observe the selective passing of traits in multiple species. It wasn’t until 1865 that a German monk named Gregor Mendel would outline his theories of gene inheritance by observing 7 traits in pea plants.

Mendel used the term factors or traits to describe what we now understand as genes. It took almost another 3 decades before his work was recognized and the field of genetics was born. Since then, our understanding of genetics has grown from gene therapy and hacking to solving complex problems and evolving code.

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Applying Crossover – Reproduction

After the parents are selected, we can move on to applying crossover or essentially the reproduction process of creating offspring. Not unlike the cellular division process in biology, we simulate the combining of chromosomes through a crossover operation. Where each parent shares a slice of its gene sequence and combines it with the other parents.

Figure $2.9$ shows the crossover operation being applied using 2 parents. In crossover, a point is selected either randomly or using some strategy along the gene sequence. It is at this point the gene sequences of the parents are split and then recombined. In this simple example, we don’t care about what percentage of the gene sequence is shared with each offspring.

For more complex problems requiring thousands or millions of generations we may prefer more balanced crossover strategies rather than this random selection method. We will further cover the strategies we can use to define this operation later in the chapter.

In code the crossover operation first makes a copy of themselves to create the raw children. Then we randomly determine if there is a crossover operation using the variable crossover_rate. If there is a crossover operation then a random point along the gene sequence is generated as the crossover point. This point is used to split the gene sequence and then the children are generated by combining the gene sequences of both parents.

There are several variations and ways in which crossover may be applied to the gene sequence. For this example, selecting a random crossover point and then simply combining the sequences at the split point works. However, in some cases, particular gene sequences may or may not make sense in which case we may need other methods to preserve gene sequences.

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Some Background on Darwin and Evolution

1859 年，达尔文花了 2 年的时间写作，发表了他最著名的著作《物种起源》，这是一部颠覆自然科学的开创性著作。他的工作挑战了智能创造者的想法，并构成了我们今天大部分自然科学和生物科学的基础。以下摘自那本书，用达尔文的话描述了自然选择理论：

“一个普遍的规律，导致所有有机生物的进步，即繁殖，变异，让最强者生存，让最弱者死亡。”

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|COMP5329

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写深度学习deep learning方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写深度学习deep learning代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写深度学习deep learning相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Conway’s Game of Life on Google Collaboratory

In this next section we are going to explore the Game of Life by John Horton Conway. This simple cellular automation developed in 1970 is attributed to the birth of the computer simulation. While the rules of the simulation are simple the patterns and manifestations it can produce are an incredible testament to its eloquence.

This next exercise will also help us introduce Google Collaboratory or Colab as it is widely known and the term, we will refer to it by. Colab is an excellent platform for performing all forms of machine learning from evolutionary computation to deep learning. It is based on Jupyter notebooks so should be familiar to most Python developers with a notebook background. Furthermore, it is free and provides both CPU and GPU resources we will heavily use later.

EDL_2_1_Conways_Game_of_Life.ipynb in your browser. Please refer to appendix A to get details on how to load the code from the GitHub repository to Colab.
2. After you open the notebook in Colab you will see several text and code cells. We won’t worry about any of the code in this exercise, just the steps on how to use Colab to execute the notebook and explore the results.
3. Next, select the first code cell in the notebook and click the Run Cell button in the top left or type Ctrl+Enter or Cmd+Enter to run the cell. This will run the code and setup the show_video function to be use later. We employ this function to demonstrate a real-time visual output of the simulation.

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Life Simulation as Optimization

In this next scenario, we are going to use our previous simple example and elevate it to perform optimization of an attribute defined on the cells. There are many reasons we may develop simulations for all forms of discovery of behavior, optimization, or enlightenment. For most applications of evolutionary algorithms, our end goal will be to optimize a process, parameters, or structure.

For this next notebook, we extend the attributes in each cell from health to include a new parameter called strength. Our goal will be to optimize the cell strength of our entire population. Strength will be representative of any trait in an organism that makes it successful in its environment. That means in our simple example our goal will be to maximize strength across the entire population.

1. Open the notebook example EDL_2_3_Simulating_Life_part2.ipynb in your browser. Check appendix $\mathrm{A}$ if you require assistance.
2. We are using a useful real-time plotting library called LivelossPlot for several examples in this book. This library is intended for plotting training losses for machine and deep learning problems. So, the default graphs present terminology we would use in a DL problem but nonetheless, it will work perfectly fine for needs. The code below demonstrates installing the package and importing the PlotLosses class.
3. The bulk of the code in this example is shared from the previous and as such we will just look at the differences. Starting with the first cell we can see a few changes in the functions that define the life simulation shown below. The big change here is that we now use the new strength parameter to derive the cell’s health.
4. Likewise, the reproduction and death functions have been modified to not pick random cells to reproduce or die. Instead, the new functions determine if a cell reproduces or dies based on the health attribute. Notice the addition of 2 new parameters, reproduction bounds and death bounds. These new parameters control at what health level a cell can reproduce or when it should die.

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Conway’s Game of Life on Google Collaboratory

1. 通过在浏览器中加载练习 EDL_2_1_Conways_Game_of_Life.ipynb 来开始练习。请参阅附录 A 以获取有关如何将代码从 GitHub 存储库加载到 Colab 的详细信息。
2. 在 Colab 中打开笔记本后，您将看到几个文本和代码单元格。我们不会担心本练习中的任何代码，只需关注有关如何使用 Colab 执行笔记本并探索结果的步骤。
3. 接下来，选择笔记本中的第一个代码单元格，然后单击左上角的“运行单元格”按钮或键入 Ctrl+Enter 或 Cmd+Enter 来运行该单元格。这将运行代码并设置 show_video 函数以供稍后使用。我们使用此功能来演示模拟的实时视觉输出。

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Life Simulation as Optimization

1. 在浏览器中打开笔记本示例 EDL_2_3_Simulating_Life_part2.ipynb。检查附录一种如果您需要帮助。
2. 对于本书中的几个示例，我们使用了一个名为 LivelossPlot 的有用实时绘图库。该库旨在绘制机器和深度学习问题的训练损失。因此，默认图表提供了我们将在 DL 问题中使用的术语，但尽管如此，它仍然可以很好地满足需要。下面的代码演示了安装包和导入 PlotLosses 类。
3. 此示例中的大部分代码与之前的代码相同，因此我们将只查看不同之处。从第一个单元格开始，我们可以看到定义如下所示的生命模拟的函数发生了一些变化。这里最大的变化是我们现在使用新的强度参数来推导细胞的健康状况。
4. 同样，繁殖和死亡功能已被修改为不选择随机细胞进行繁殖或死亡。相反，新函数根据健康属性确定细胞是繁殖还是死亡。注意添加了 2 个新参数，即繁殖界限和死亡界限。这些新参数控制细胞可以在什么健康水平下繁殖或何时死亡。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|COMP30027

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写深度学习deep learning方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写深度学习deep learning代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写深度学习deep learning相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Optimizing the Network Architecture

As a network becomes more sophisticated with the addition of layers or various node types it puts direct consequences on how the loss/error is backpropagated through it. Figure $1.2$ demonstrates the more common problems we typically encounter when growing more complex and larger DL systems.

Larger networks mean the amount of loss needs to be divided into smaller and smaller components that eventually approach or get close to zero. When these loss components or gradients approach zero we call this a vanishing gradient problem often associated with deep networks. Conversely, components may also get exceptionally large by successively passing through layers that magnify those input signals. Resulting in gradient components getting large or what’s called exploding gradients.

Both gradient problems can be resolved using various techniques like normalizing input data and again through the layers. Special types of layer functions called normalization and dropout are shown in Figure 1.3. These techniques also add to the computational complexity and requirements for the network. They may also overtly smooth over important and characteristic features in data. Thus, requiring larger and more diverse training datasets to develop good network performance.

Normalization may solve the vanishing/exploding gradient problems of deep networks but as models grow these manifest other concerns. As networks grow, they increase the ability to digest larger sets of input, bigger images for example. Yet, this also may cause a side effect known as network memorization which can occur again if the input training set is too small. This occurs because the network is so large that it may start to memorize sets of input chunks or potentially whole images or sets of text.

The cutting-edge DL models that you may have heard about like the GPT-3, a natural language processor from OpenAI, suffer in part from memorization. This is even after feeding billions of documents representing multiple forms of text into such models. Even with such diverse and massive training sets models like GPT-3 have been shown to replay whole paragraphs of remembered text. Which may be an effective feature for a database that doesn’t fit well into a DL model.

There have been workarounds developed for the memorization problem called dropout, a process by which a certain percentage of the nodes within network layers may be deactivated through each training pass. The result of turning off/on nodes within each pass creates a more general network. Yet at a cost of still requiring the network to now be 100 $200 \%$ larger.

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|What is Automated Machine Learning, AutoML?

AutoML or automated machine learning is a tool or set of tools used to automate and enhance the building of $\mathrm{AI} / \mathrm{ML}$. It is not a specific technology but a collection of methods and strategies in which evolutionary algorithms or evolutionary optimization methods would be considered a subset. It is a tool that can be used throughout the $\mathrm{AI} / \mathrm{ML}$ workflow as depicted in Figure 1.3.

Figure $1.1$ depicts the typical AI/ML workflow for building a good model used later for confident inference of new data. This workflow is often undertaken manually by various oractitioners of AI/ML but there have been various attempts to automate all steps. Below is a summary of each of these steps in more detail and how they may be automated with AML:

expensive. In general, preparing data Automating this task can dramatically increase the performance of data workflows critical to fine-tuning complex models. AutoML online services often assume that the user has already prepared and cleaned data as required by most ML models. With evolutionary methods, there are several ways to automate the preparation of data and while this task is not specific to EDL, we will cover it in later chapters.

• Feature Engineering – is the process of extracting relevant features in data using prior domain knowledge. With experts picking and choosing relevant features based on their intuition and experience. Since domain experts are expensive and opinionated, automating this task reduces costs and improves standardization. Depending on the AutoML tool feature engineering may be included in the process.
• Model Selection – as AI/ML has advanced there are now hundreds of various model types that could be used to solve similar problems. Often data scientists will spend days or weeks just selecting a group of models to further evaluate. Automating this process speeds up model development and helps the data scientist affirm they are using the right model for the job. A good AutoML tool may choose from dozens or hundreds of models including DL variations or model ensembles.
• Model Architecture – depending on the area of $\mathrm{AI} / \mathrm{ML}$ and deep learning, defining the right model architecture is often critical. Getting this right in an automated way alleviates countless hours of tuning architecture and rerunning models. Depending on the implementation some AutoML systems may vary model architecture, but this is typically limited to well-known variations.
• Hyperparameter Optimization – the process of fine-tuning a model’s hyperparameters can be time-consuming and error-prone. To overcome this, many practitioners rely on intuition and previous experience. While this has been successful in the past, increasing model complexity now makes this task untenable. By automating HP tuning we not only alleviate work from the builders but also uncover potential flaws in the model selection or architecture.
• Validation Selection – there are many options for evaluating the performance of a model. From deciding on how much data to use for training and testing to visualizing the output performance of a model. Automating the validation of a model provides a robust means to recharacterize model performance when data changes and makes a model more explainable long term. For online AutoML services, this is a key strength that provides a compelling reason to employ such tools.

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|What is Automated Machine Learning, AutoML?

AutoML 或自动化机器学习是一种工具或一组工具，用于自动化和增强构建一种我/米大号. 它不是一种特定的技术，而是一种方法和策略的集合，其中进化算法或进化优化方法将被视为一个子集。它是一个可以在整个过程中使用的工具一种我/米大号工作流程如图 1.3 所示。

• 特征工程——是使用先验领域知识从数据中提取相关特征的过程。专家根据他们的直觉和经验挑选和选择相关特征。由于领域专家的费用昂贵且固执己见，因此自动化此任务可降低成本并提高标准化程度。根据 AutoML 工具的不同，特征工程可能包含在该过程中。
• 模型选择——随着 AI/ML 的进步，现在有数百种不同的模型类型可用于解决类似的问题。数据科学家通常会花费数天或数周的时间来选择一组模型进行进一步评估。自动化此过程可加快模型开发并帮助数据科学家确认他们正在使用正确的模型来完成工作。一个好的 AutoML 工具可能会从数十个或数百个模型中进行选择，包括 DL 变体或模型集成。
• 模型架构——取决于区域一种我/米大号和深度学习，定义正确的模型架构通常是至关重要的。以自动化方式正确完成此操作可以减少无数小时的架构调整和重新运行模型。根据实现的不同，一些 AutoML 系统可能会改变模型架构，但这通常仅限于众所周知的变体。
• 超参数优化——微调模型超参数的过程可能既耗时又容易出错。为了克服这个问题，许多从业者依靠直觉和以往的经验。虽然这在过去是成功的，但现在增加的模型复杂性使这项任务变得难以维持。通过自动化 HP 调整，我们不仅可以减轻构建者的工作量，还可以发现模型选择或架构中的潜在缺陷。
• 验证选择——有许多选项可用于评估模型的性能。从决定用于训练和测试的数据量到可视化模型的输出性能。自动验证模型提供了一种强大的方法，可以在数据发生变化时重新表征模型性能，并使模型在长期内更易于解释。对于在线 AutoML 服务，这是一个关键优势，它提供了使用此类工具的令人信服的理由。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|STAT3007

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写深度学习deep learning方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写深度学习deep learning代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写深度学习deep learning相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Subdifferentials

The directional derivative of $f$ at $\boldsymbol{x} \in \operatorname{dom} f$ in the direction of $\boldsymbol{y} \in \mathcal{H}$ is defined by
$$f^{\prime}(x ; y)=\lim _{\alpha \downarrow 0} \frac{f(x+\alpha y)-f(x)}{\alpha}$$ if the limit exists. If the limit exists for all $y \in \mathcal{H}$, then one says that $f$ is Gãteaux differentiable at $\boldsymbol{x}$. Suppose $f^{\prime}(\boldsymbol{x} ; \cdot)$ is linear and continuous on $\mathcal{H}$. Then, there exist a unique gradient vector $\nabla f(\boldsymbol{x}) \in \mathcal{H}$ such that
$$f^{\prime}(\boldsymbol{x} ; \boldsymbol{y})=\langle\boldsymbol{y}, \nabla f(\boldsymbol{x})\rangle, \quad \forall \boldsymbol{y} \in \mathcal{H}$$
If a function is differentiable, the convexity of a function can easily be checked using the first- and second-order differentiability, as stated in the following:

Proposition $1.1$ Let $f: \mathcal{H} \mapsto(-\infty, \infty]$ be proper. Suppose that $\operatorname{dom} f$ is open and convex, and $f$ is Gâteux differentiable on $\operatorname{dom} f$. Then, the followings are equivalent:

1. $f$ is convex.
2. (First-order): $f(\boldsymbol{y}) \geq f(\boldsymbol{x})+\langle\boldsymbol{y}-\boldsymbol{x}, \nabla f(\boldsymbol{x})\rangle, \quad \forall \boldsymbol{x}, \boldsymbol{y} \in \mathcal{H}$.
3. (Monotonicity of gradient): $\langle\boldsymbol{y}-\boldsymbol{x}, \nabla f(\boldsymbol{y})-\nabla f(\boldsymbol{x})\rangle \geq 0, \quad \forall \boldsymbol{x}, \boldsymbol{y} \in \mathcal{H}$.
If the convergence in (1.48) is uniform with respect to $\boldsymbol{y}$ on bounded sets, i.e.
$$\lim _{\boldsymbol{0} \neq \boldsymbol{y} \rightarrow \mathbf{0}} \frac{f(\boldsymbol{x}+\boldsymbol{y})-f(\boldsymbol{x})-\langle\boldsymbol{y}, \nabla f(\boldsymbol{x})\rangle}{|\boldsymbol{y}|}=0$$

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Linear and Kernel Classifiers

Classification is one of the most basic tasks in machine learning. In computer vision, an image classifier is designed to classify input images in corresponding categories. Although this task appears trivial to humans, there are considerable challenges with regard to automated classification by computer algorithms.

For example, let us think about recognizing “dog” images. One of the first technical issues here is that a dog image is usually taken in the form of a digital format such as JPEG, PNG, etc. Aside from the compression scheme used in the digital format, the image is basically just a collection of numbers on a twodimensional grid, which takes integer values from 0 to 255 . Therefore, a computer algorithm should read the numbers to decide whether such a collection of numbers corresponds to a high-level concept of “dog”. However, if the viewpoint is changed, the composition of the numbers in the array is totally changed, which poses additional challenges to the computer program. To make matters worse, in a natural setting a dog is rarely found on a white background; rather, the dog plays on the lawn or takes a nap in the living room, hides underneath furniture or chews with her eyes closed, which makes the distribution of the numbers very different depending on the situation. Additional technical challenges in computer-based recognition of a dog come from all kinds of sources such as different illumination conditions, different poses, occlusion, intra-class variation, etc., as shown in Fig. 2.1. Therefore, designing a classifier that is robust to such variations was one of the important topics in computer vision literature for several decades.

In fact, the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) [7] was initiated to evaluate various computer algorithms for image classification at large scale. ImageNet is a large visual database designed for use in visual object recognition software research [8]. Over 14 million images have been hand-annotated in the project to indicate which objects are depicted, and at least one million of the images also have bounding boxes. In particular, ImageNet contains more than 20,000 categories made up of several hundred images. Since 2010, the ImageNet project has organized an annual software competition, the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC), in which software programs compete for the correct classification and recognition of objects and scenes. The main motivation is to allow researchers to compare progress in classification across a wider variety of objects. Since the introduction of AlexNet in 2012 [9], which was the first deep learning approach to win the ImageNet Challenge, the state-of-the art image classification methods are all deep learning approaches, and now their performance even surpasses human observers.

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Subdifferentials

$$f^{\prime}(x ; y)=\lim _{\alpha \downarrow 0} \frac{f(x+\alpha y)-f(x)}{\alpha}$$

$$f^{\prime}(\boldsymbol{x} ; \boldsymbol{y})=\langle\boldsymbol{y}, \nabla f(\boldsymbol{x})\rangle, \quad \forall \boldsymbol{y} \in \mathcal{H}$$

1. $f$ 是凸的。
2. (第一个订单) : $f(\boldsymbol{y}) \geq f(\boldsymbol{x})+\langle\boldsymbol{y}-\boldsymbol{x}, \nabla f(\boldsymbol{x})\rangle, \quad \forall \boldsymbol{x}, \boldsymbol{y} \in \mathcal{H}$.
3. (梯度的单调性) : $\langle\boldsymbol{y}-\boldsymbol{x}, \nabla f(\boldsymbol{y})-\nabla f(\boldsymbol{x})\rangle \geq 0, \quad \forall \boldsymbol{x}, \boldsymbol{y} \in \mathcal{H}$. 如果 (1.48) 中的收敛是一致的 $\boldsymbol{y}$ 在有界集上，即
$$\lim _{\boldsymbol{0} \neq \boldsymbol{y} \rightarrow 0} \frac{f(\boldsymbol{x}+\boldsymbol{y})-f(\boldsymbol{x})-\langle\boldsymbol{y}, \nabla f(\boldsymbol{x})\rangle}{|\boldsymbol{y}|}=0$$

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|COMP5329

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写深度学习deep learning方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写深度学习deep learning代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写深度学习deep learning相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Some Definitions

Let $\mathcal{X}, \mathcal{Y}$ and $Z$ be non-empty sets. The identity operator on $\mathcal{H}$ is denoted by $I$, i.e. $I x=x, \forall x \in \mathcal{H}$. Let $\mathcal{D} \subset \mathcal{H}$ be a non-emply sel. The set of the fixed points of an operator $\mathcal{T}: D \mapsto D$ is denoted by
$$\operatorname{Fix} \mathcal{T}={x \in \mathcal{D} \mid \mathcal{T} x=x}$$
Let $\mathcal{X}$ and $\mathcal{Y}$ be real normed vector space. As a special case of an operator, we define a set of linear operators:
$$\mathcal{B}(\mathcal{X}, \mathcal{Y})={\mathcal{T}: \mathcal{Y} \mapsto \mathcal{Y} \mid \mathcal{T} \text { is linear and continuous }}$$
and we write $\mathcal{B}(\mathcal{X})=\mathcal{B}(\mathcal{X}, \mathcal{X})$. Let $f: \mathcal{X} \mapsto[-\infty, \infty]$ be a function. The domain of $f$ is
$$\operatorname{dom} f={\boldsymbol{x} \in \mathcal{X} \mid f(\boldsymbol{x})<\infty}$$
the graph of $f$ is
$$\operatorname{gra} f={(\boldsymbol{x}, y) \in \mathcal{X} \times \mathbb{R} \mid f(\boldsymbol{x})=y},$$
and the epigraph of $f$ is
$$\text { eنi } f={(x, y) . x \in X, y \in \mathbb{R}, y \geq f(x)} \text {. }$$

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Convex Sets, Convex Functions

A function $f(\boldsymbol{x})$ is a convex function if $\operatorname{dom} f$ is a convex set and
$$f\left(\theta \boldsymbol{x}{1}+(1-\theta) \boldsymbol{x}{2}\right) \leq \theta f\left(\boldsymbol{x}{1}\right)+(1-\theta) f\left(\boldsymbol{x}{1}\right)$$
for all $x_{1}, x_{2} \in \operatorname{dom} f, 0 \leq \theta \leq 1$. A convex set is a set that contains every line segment between any two points in the set (see Fig. 1.3). Specifically, a set $C$ is convex if $\boldsymbol{x}{1}, \boldsymbol{x}{2} \in \mathcal{C}^{\prime}$, then $\theta \boldsymbol{x}{1}+(1-\theta) \boldsymbol{x}{2} \in \mathcal{C}$ for all $0 \leq \theta \leq 1$. The relation between a convex function and a convex set can also be stated using its epigraph. Specifically, a function $f(x)$ is convex if and only if its epigraph epi $f$ is a convex set.

Convexity is preserved under various operations. For example, if $\left{f_{i}\right}_{i \in I}$ is a family of convex functions, then, $\sup {i \in I} f{i}$ is convex. In addition, a set of convex functions is closed under addition and multiplication by strictly positive real numbers. Moreover, the limit point of a convergent sequence of convex functions is also convex. Important examples of convex functions are summarized in Table $1.1$.

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Some Definitions

$\operatorname{Fix} \mathcal{T}=x \in \mathcal{D} \mid \mathcal{T} x=x$

$\mathcal{B}(\mathcal{X}, \mathcal{Y})=\mathcal{T}: \mathcal{Y} \mapsto \mathcal{Y} \mid \mathcal{T}$ is linear and continuous

$$\operatorname{dom} f=\boldsymbol{x} \in \mathcal{X} \mid f(\boldsymbol{x})<\infty$$

$$\operatorname{gra} f=(\boldsymbol{x}, y) \in \mathcal{X} \times \mathbb{R} \mid f(\boldsymbol{x})=y,$$

$$\text { eui } f=(x, y) . x \in X, y \in \mathbb{R}, y \geq f(x)$$

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Convex Sets, Convex Functions

$$f(\theta \boldsymbol{x} 1+(1-\theta) \boldsymbol{x} 2) \leq \theta f(\boldsymbol{x} 1)+(1-\theta) f(\boldsymbol{x} 1)$$

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|COMP30027

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写深度学习deep learning方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写深度学习deep learning代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写深度学习deep learning相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Metric Space

A metric space $(\mathcal{X}, d)$ is a set $\chi$ together with a metric $d$ on the set. Here, a metric is a function that defines a concept of distance between any two members of the set, which is formally defined as follows.

Definition 1.1 (Metric) A metric on a set $X$ is a function called the distance $d$ : $\mathcal{X} \times \mathcal{X} \mapsto \mathbb{R}{+}$, where $\mathbb{R}{+}$is the set of non-negative real numbers. For all $x, y, z \in \mathcal{X}$, this function is required to satisfy the following conditions:

1. $d(x, y) \geq 0$ (non-negativity).
2. $d(x, y)=0$ if and only if $x=y$.
3. $d(x, y)=d(y, x)$ (symmetry).
4. $d(x, z) \leq d(x, y)+d(y, z)$ (triangle inequality).
A metric on a space induces topological properties like open and closed sets, which lead to the study of more abstract topological spaces. Specifically, about any point $x$ in a metric space $\mathcal{X}$, we define the open ball of radius $r>0$ about $x$ as the set
$$B_{r}(x)={y \in \mathcal{X}: d(x, y)0 such that B_{r}(x) is contained in U. The complement of an open set is called closed. ## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Banach and Hilbert Space An inner product space is defined as a vector space that is equipped with an inner product. A normed space is a vector space on which a norm is defined. An inner product space is always a normed space since we can define a norm as |f|= \sqrt{\langle\boldsymbol{f}, \boldsymbol{f}\rangle}, which is often called the induced norm. Among the various forms of the normed space, one of the most useful normed spaces is the Banach space. Definition 1.7 The Banach space is a complete normed space. Here, the “completeness” is especially important from the optimization perspective, since most optimization algorithms are implemented in an iterative manner so that the final solution of the iterative method should belong to the underlying space \mathcal{H}. Recall that the convergence property is a property of a metric space. Therefore, the Banach space can be regarded as a vector space equipped with desirable properties of a metric space. Similarly, we can define the Hilbert space. Definition 1.8 The Hilbert space is a complete inner product space. We can easily see that the Hilbert space is also a Banach space thanks to the induced norm. The inclusion relationship between vector spaces, normed spaces, inner product spaces, Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces is illustrated in Fig. 1.1. As shown in Fig. 1.1, the Hilbert space has many nice mathematical structures such as inner product, norm, completeness, etc., so it is widely used in the machine learning literature. The following are well-known examples of Hilbert spaces: • l^{2}(\mathbb{Z}) : a function space composed of square summable discrete-time signals, i.e.$$
l^{2}(\mathbb{Z})=\left{x=\left.\left{x_{l}\right}_{l=-\infty}^{\infty}\left|\sum_{l=-\infty}^{\infty}\right| x_{l}\right|^{2}<\infty\right} .
$$## 深度学习代写 ## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Metric Space 度量空间 (\mathcal{X}, d) 是一个集合 \chi 连同一个指标 d 在片场。这里，度量是定义集合中任意两个成员之间距离概念的函 数，其正式定义如下。 定义 1.1 (度量) 集合上的度量 X 是一个叫做距离的函数 d: \mathcal{X} \times \mathcal{X} \mapsto \mathbb{R}+ ，在哪里 \mathbb{R}+ 是一组非负实数。对所 有人 x, y, z \in \mathcal{X} ，该函数需要满足以下条件: 1. d(x, y) \geq 0 (非消极性) 。 2. d(x, y)=0 当且仅当 x=y. 3. d(x, y)=d(y, x) (对称)。 4. d(x, z) \leq d(x, y)+d(y, z) (三角不等式)。 空间上的度量会引发诸如开集和闭集之类的拓扑性质，从而导致对更抽象的拓扑空间的研究。具体来说，关 于任何一点 x 在度量空间 \mathcal{X} ，我们定义半径的开球 r>0 关于 x 作为集合 \ \$$
$\mathrm{B}{-}{\mathrm{r}}(\mathrm{x})=\left{\mathrm{y} \backslash\right.$ in Imathcal ${\mathrm{X}}: \mathrm{d}(\mathrm{x}, \mathrm{y}) 0$ suchthat $\mathrm{B}{-}{\mathrm{r}}(\mathrm{x})$ iscontainedin 美元。开集的补集称为闭集。

## 计算机代写|深度学习代写deep learning代考|Banach and Hilbert Space

• $l^{2}(\mathbb{Z})$ : 由平方和离散时间信号组成的函数空间，即

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|DEEP LEARNING TECHNIQUES FOR THE PREDICTION OF EPILEPSY

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写深度学习deep learning方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写深度学习deep learning代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写深度学习deep learning相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Deep learning helps simulation techniques with various computing layers to gain several stages of abstraction for data representations. These techniques have vastly enhanced the position in voice detection, visual target recognition, particle identification as well as a variety of other fields including drug discovery as well as genomics. Deep learning uses the backpropagation method to show how a computer can adjust the input variables that are employed to measure the value in every layer from the description in the subsequent layer revealing detailed structure in huge volumes of data [1]. Deep learning is perhaps the highest accuracy, supervised as well as time and cost-effective machine learning method. Deep learning is not a limited learning methodology rather it encompasses a wide range of methods that can be employed in a wide range of complex situations [2].

Let’s start with a definition of intelligence. Intelligence is defined as the ability to learn and solve issues. Its primary goal is to create computers so clever that they can act intelligently in the same way that humans do. If a computer learns new information, it can intelligently solve real-world problems based on previous experiences. As we all know, intelligence is the capacity to learn and solve issues, and intelligence is attained via knowledge, which is attained in part via information, which is attained via prior experiences and experiences obtained through training. Finally, by combining all of the elements, we can conclude that artificial intelligence can obtain knowledge and apply it to execute tasks intelligently based on their previous experiences. Reasoning, learning, problem solving, and perception are all aspects of intelligence. Artificial intelligence systems are required to minimize human workload. Natural Language Processing (NLP), Speech Recognition, Healthcare, Vision Systems, and Automotive are just a few of the applications. An agent and its surroundings make up an Artificial Intelligence system. The environment is perceived by sensors, and the environment is reacted to by effectors. An intelligent agent sets objectives and is extremely interested in achieving them. Artificial Intelligence has developed some tools to help handle tough and complicated issues, including neural networks, languages, search and optimization, and uncertain reasoning, among others.

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|MACHINE LEARNING

Machine learning is the subset of artificial intelligence (AI). Machine learning, as the name implies, is the capacity of a machine to learn. Machine learning is a branch of computer science that allows computers to learn and solve problems without being explicitly programmed. Here, we create a machine that performs duties similar to those performed by humans to decrease human labor. It is a branch of research that enables computers to learn new things using information fed to them and to produce more efficient output using that information. It is employed in a variety of professions and has gained notoriety in a variety of sectors. It is a fantastic technology that allows machines or computers to learn and solve complicated problems.

The term “deep learning” comes first from artificial neural networks [3]. A convolutional neural network is perhaps the most essential of the several deep learning networks since it considerably encourages the growth of image analysis. Generative adversarial network as a novel deep learning model offers up new boundaries for the study as well as application of deep learning which has lately received a lot of attention [4].

The biggest thrilling utilization of backpropagation since it was initially developed was for recurrent neural networks (RNNs) simulation. RNNs are also preferred for functions that need sequential inputs, like expression and vocabulary. It produces the output based on previous computation by using sequential information. Recurrent Neural Networks are similar to neural networks, however, they do not function in the same way. As humans, we do not think from the ground up. For example, if we’re watching a movie, we may guess what will happen next based on what we know about the prior one. A typical neural network, on the other hand, is unable to predict the next action in the film. Recurrent Neural Networks can address challenges like these. In a recurrent neural network, there is a loop in the network that keeps the data. It can take more than one input vector and produce more than one output vector. Recurrent neural networks use memory cells that are capable to capture information about long sequences. RNNs are extremely strong dynamic structures, although teaching them has proven difficult because backpropagated gradients expand or retreat at every time stage, causing them to burst or disappear over several time stages [7].

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK

The neural network image processing group was the first to create the convolutional neural network. Convolutional neural networks are a type of deep neural network used in deep learning to analyze pictures.

Convolutional neural networks are extensively employed in image identification, object identification, picture classifications, and face identification, among other applications. Convolution takes an input picture, works on it, and then uses the values to categorize it (either cat or dog, pen or pencil). ConvNets are developed to accommodate data in the form of several arrays, such as a color image made up of three $2 \mathrm{D}$ arrays representing pixel elevations in each of the color channels. As attribute extractors, a CNN uses two operations as convolution and pooling. As in a multi-layer perceptron, the output of this series of operations is bound to a completely connected layer. Convolutional neural networks are often used on text in Natural Language Processing. There are two types of pooling used: max-pooling and average-pooling. When we use CNN for text instead of images, we display the text with a 1-Dimensional string. CNN is mostly used in sentence classification in NLP tasks. Microsoft earlier released a range of optical character recognition software, as well as handwriting recognition software, specifically focuses on ConvNet [5]. ConvNets were still used to recognize objects in real photographs, such as faces as well as legs, and even to recognize faces in the early 1990 s [6].

Generative adversarial network (GAN) is a novel deep learning concept that includes a unique neural network model that trains generator as well as discriminator at the same time. The generator’s job is to know and understand the probability distribution of actual images and afterward add random noise to them to make false images, whereas the discriminator’s job is to determine whether a source variable is genuine or not [17]. The discriminator, as well as generator, has been tweaked to enhance their performance. The generative adversarial network training process is unique in that it has been using backpropagation to train as well as utilizes the confrontation of two neural networks as training metric, significantly reducing the training problem as well as improving the training effectiveness of the induced model. A generative adversarial network provides an opportunity to learn deep representation without having to label your training data extensively [18]. One of the most often used generative adversarial network applications is computer vision [19].

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|MACHINE LEARNING

“深度学习”一词首先来自人工神经网络 [3]。卷积神经网络可能是几个深度学习网络中最重要的，因为它极大地促进了图像分析的发展。生成对抗网络作为一种新颖的深度学习模型，为深度学习的研究和应用提供了新的界限，最近受到了很多关注[4]。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|DEEP LEARNING APPROACHES FOR THE PREDICTION oF BREAST CANCER

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写深度学习deep learning方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写深度学习deep learning代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写深度学习deep learning相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|DEEP LEARNING APPROACHES FOR THE PREDICTION oF BREAST CANCER

Breast cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the cells of the breast and is a fairly prevalent disease in women. Breast cancer, like lung cancer, is a life-threatening condition for women. A promising and significant tool is automated computer technologies, particularly machine learning, to facilitate and improve medical analysis and diagnosis. Due to the great dimensionality and complexity of this data, cancer diagnosis using gene expression data remains a challenge. There is still ambiguity in the clinical diagnosis of cancer and the identification of tumor-specific markers, despite decades of study. In this study, we discuss various feature extraction techniques on different kinds of datasets. We also discuss various deep learning approaches for cancer detection and the identification of genes important for breast cancer diagnosis.

Cancer is a deadly disease. According to a survey, thousands of people die due to cancer every year. It is the largest cause of death in the world. It is basically a disease in which there is abnormal growth of body cells which spreads to different parts of the body. If this disease is detected in the initial stage, then this disease can be cured. Cancer basically develops due to cell growth. It originates in one part of the body and has the ability to penetrate various organs. Possible symptoms of cancer are lumps, prolonged cough, abnormal bleeding, exercise weight gain etc. Tumors are formed by most malignancies, but not all tumors are malignant. Tumors do not spread to all parts of the body. It is an abnormal growth of body tissue-when abnormal cells are stored somewhere in the body, a group of tissues is formed, which we call a tumor. These cells continue to grow abnormally and add more and more cells to their group, irrespective of the body’s desire. These tumor cells are solid and fluid-filled. That process takes the form of growing cancer. This is known as metastasis. Cancer metastases are the leading cause of death-Carcinoma, melanoma, leukemia sarcoma and lymphoma are the most common cancers. Carcinomas arise in the skin, lungs, breasts, pancreas and other organs and glands. Lymphomas are lymphocyte malignancies. Leukemia [6] is a type of blood cancer. Melanomas are malignancies that develop in the cells that produce skin pigment. Breast cancer mainly occurs in women, but it is not that men cannot fall prey to it.

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|RELATED WORK

A support vector machine (SVM) with a dot-product kernel was utilised. Sahiner et al. [2] devised a method for extracting speculation and circumscribing margin features. Both features were quite accurate in describing bulk margins using BI-RADS descriptors. Weatherall et al. [4] proposed a method with a score of $0.93$. The tumour size correlation coefficient between MRI and pathologic analysis was the best. When compared to histologic measurement, the correlation coefficients for physical exam and x-ray mammography (available for 17 patients) were $0.72$ and $0.63$, respectively. The MRI accuracy was unaffected by the extent of cancer residua. To see how well different imaging modalities might reliably describe the extent of a breast cancer whose location was already established. As a result, data on 20 post-chemotherapy breast cancer patients aged 32 to 66 years old was collected retrospectively. Yeung et al. [5] proposed to determine the estimations of residual tumour via each modality; the preoperative clinical and imaging records were evaluated. These results were compared to the pathologist’s report’s histologic measurements of the live tumour. Because of the enormous number of genes, the high quantity of noise in gene expression data, and the complexity of biological networks, it is necessary to thoroughly evaluate the raw data and utilise the relevant gene subsets. Other approaches, such as principal component analysis (PCA), have been proposed for reducing the dimensionality of expression profiles in order to help group important genes in the context of expression profiles. Bengio et al. [6] proposed Auto encoders are strong and adaptable because they extract both linear and nonlinear connections from input data. As opposed to decreasing the dimension in one step, the SDAE encoder reduces the dimensionality of the gene expression data stack by stack, resulting in less information loss. Golub et al. [8] present microarray or RNA-seq data are thoroughly explored as a classification and grouping of gene expression. Using gene expression profiles and supervised learning algorithms, numerous ways for classifying cancer cells and healthy cells have been developed. In the analysis of leukaemia cancer cells, a self-organizing map (SOM). The phases depicted in Figure 1 are followed by the majority of image processing algorithms. The screen film mammographic images must be scanned before they can be processed. One of the advantages of digital mammography is that the picture can be processed immediately. The first stage in image processing is picture pre-processing. To reduce noise and improve image quality, it must be conducted on digitised pictures. The majority of digital mammogram pictures are of high quality. If the picture is an MLO view, removing the backdrop region and the pectoral muscle from the breast area is also part of the pre-processing stage. The objective of the segmentation procedure is to discover areas of suspicious interest (ROIs), including abnormalities. In the feature extraction process, the features are computed from the attributes of the region of interest. A significant difficulty in algorithm design is the feature selection step, in which the best collection of features is chosen for preventing false positives and identifying lesion types. Choosing a smaller feature subset that delivers the highest value for a classifier performance function is referred to as feature selection. Finally, the classification stage reduces false positives and categorises lesions based on predetermined criteria.

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES

In the field of computer vision or image analysis, features play an important role in identifying useful information. The component picture is subjected to several picture pre-processing techniques, such as binarization, normalisation, thresholding, scaling, and so on, before picture feature extraction.

Feature extraction is the process of decreasing the amount of resources needed to explain a huge amount of data. One of the primary issues in completing complicated data analysis is the number of variables involved. GF (General features) and DSF (domain-specific features) are two types of features. FE approaches like statistical approaches can be used to extract some aspects that are not clearly recognised.

First order statistics (FOS), Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM), Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Neighbourhood Gray Tone Difference Matrix (NGTDM), and Statistical Feature Matrix are all examples of this (SFM). As illustrated in Table 2, signal processing FE approaches include law mask features, whereas transform domain approaches include Gabor wavelet, Fourier Power Spectrum (FPS) features, and discrete wavelet transform.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|Metrics for Evaluation

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写深度学习deep learning方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写深度学习deep learning代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写深度学习deep learning相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|Following metrics are used for evaluation

Accuracy: It is defined as the percentage of correct predictions made by a classifier compared to the actual value of the label. It can also be defined as the average number of correct tests in all tests [13]. To calculate accuracy, we use the equation:
$$\text { Accuracy }=(T N+T P) /(T N+T P+F N+F P) .$$
Here, TP, TN, FP, and FN mean true positives, false negatives, false positives, and false negatives. True positive is a condition where if the class label of a record in a dataset is positive, the classifier predicts the same for that particular record. Similarly, a true negative is a condition where if the class label of a record in a dataset is negative, the classifier predicts the same for that particular record. False-positive is a condition where the class label of a record in a dataset is negative, but the classifier

predicts the class label as positive. Similarly, a false negative is a condition where the class label of a record in a dataset is positive. Still, the classifier predicts the class label as negative for that record [13].

Sensitivity: It is defined as the percentage of true positives identified by the classifier while testing. To calculate it, we use the equation:
Sensitivity $=(T P) /(T P+F N) .$
Specificity: It is defined as the percentage of true negatives which are rightly identified by the classifier during testing. To calculate it we use the equation:
$$\text { Specificity }=(T N) /(T N+F P) .$$

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|Databases Available

Although several databases of fundus images are available publicly, the creation of quality retinal image databases is still in progress to train deep neural networks.

• DRIVE [14] (Digital Retinal Image for vessel Extraction) – This database contains 40 images collected from 400 samples of age 25 to 90 in the Netherland. Out of 40,7 shows mild DR, whereas others are normal. Each set, i.e., training and testing, includes 20 images of different patients. For every image, manual segmentation known as truths or gold standards of blood vessels is provided.
• STARE [15] (Structured Analysis of Retina) – This database contains 20 retinal fundus images taken using a fundus camera. Datasets are divided into two classes or categories, one contains normal images, and the other includes images with various lesions. CHASE [16] – contains 28 images of $1280 * 960$ pixels, taken from multi-ethnic children in England.
• Messidor and Messidor-2 [17] – These databases contain 1200 and 1748 images of the retina, respectively, taken from both eyes. Messidor- 2 is an extension of the Messidor database taken from 874 samples.
• EyePACS-1 [18] – This database contains macula-centred images of 9963 subjects taken from different cameras in May-October 2015 at EyePACS screening sites.
• APTOS [19] (Asia Pacific Tele-Ophthalmology Society) contains 3662 training images and 1928 testing images. Images are available with the ground truths classified based on severity of DR rating on a scale of 0 to 4 .
• Kaggle [20] – contains 88,702 images of the retina with different resolutions and are classified into 5 DR stages. Many images are of bad quality, and also some of the ground truths have incorrect labelling.
• IDRID [21] (Indian Diabetic Retinopathy Image Dataset) contains 516 retinal fundus images captured by a retinal specialist at an Eye Clinic located in Nanded, Maharashtra, India.
• DIARETDBI [22] contains 89 retinal fundus images of size $1500^{*} 1152$ pixels, including 5 normal images and all other 84 DR images.
• $\quad D D R[23]$ (Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy) – contains 13,637 retinal fundus images showing five stages of DR. From the dataset, 757 images show DR lesions.
• Others like E-ophtha [24], HRF [25], ROC [26], and DR2 [27] etc.

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|Process of Detection of DR Using Deep Learning

There are various numbers of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning methods available for detecting Diabetic Retinopathy. Deep learning is one technique widely used in medical imaging applications like image classification, image segmentation, image retrieval, image detection, and registration of images. For the detection and classification of diabetic retinopathy, Deep Learning techniques or deep neural networks have been widely used. Deep neural networks produce outstanding results in the removal of default features and isolation. Unlike machine learning methods, the performance of deep learning methods increases with an increase in the number of training datasets because of an increase in learned features. There is a various number of deep neural networks like CNN (Convolutional Neural Network), RNN (Recurrent Neural Network), LSTM (Long Short Term Memory), GRU (Gated Recurrent Unit), Autoencoders, RBM (Restricted Boltzmann Machine), DBN (Deep Belief Network), DSN (Deep Stacking Network), Self-Organizing Maps, etc. Still, CNN has been widely used in medical imaging and is highly effective [11]. Deep networks are much more powerful by using strategies such as the dropout function that helps the network produce relevant results even when few features are missing in the test dataset. In addition, ReLUs (Direct Line Units) function is used as a transfer function in CNNs that helps in effective training as they do not disappear too much like the sigmoid function and tangent function used by standard ANNs. The basic architecture of CNN is that it works in different layers like Convolutional layers, pooling layers, fully connected layers, Dropout, and Activation function at last. In the convolution layer, different types of filters are used to extract features from the image. The subsampling (or pooling) layer acts as feature selection and makes the network potent to changes in size and orientation of the image. Average pooling and max pooling are mostly used in the pooling layer. A fully connected layer is used to define the whole input image. Several pretrained CNN architectures are present at the moment on ImageNet, such as LeNet, AlexNet, VGG, ResNet, GoogleNet, and more.

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|Following metrics are used for evaluation

准确性 =(吨ñ+吨磷)/(吨ñ+吨磷+Fñ+F磷).

特异性 =(吨ñ)/(吨ñ+F磷).

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|Databases Available

• DRIVE [14]（用于血管提取的数字视网膜图像）——该数据库包含从荷兰 25 至 90 岁的 400 个样本中收集的 40 张图像。在 40,7 中显示轻度 DR，而其他则正常。每组，即训练和测试，包括20张不同患者的图像。对于每张图像，都提供了称为血管真相或黄金标准的手动分割。
• STARE [15]（视网膜结构分析）——该数据库包含 20 张使用眼底照相机拍摄的视网膜眼底图像。数据集分为两类或类别，一类包含正常图像，另一类包含具有各种病变的图像。CHASE [16] – 包含 28 张图片1280∗960像素，取自英格兰的多种族儿童。
• Messidor 和 Messidor-2 [17] – 这些数据库分别包含 1200 和 1748 张从双眼拍摄的视网膜图像。Messidor-2 是从 874 个样本中提取的 Messidor 数据库的扩展。
• EyePACS-1 [18] – 该数据库包含 2015 年 5 月至 2015 年 10 月在 EyePACS 筛查站点从不同相机拍摄的 9963 名受试者的黄斑中心图像。
• APTOS [19]（亚太远程眼科学会）包含 3662 张训练图像和 1928 张测试图像。图像提供了根据 DR 等级的严重程度分类的基本事实，范围为 0 到 4。
• Kaggle [20] – 包含 88,702 张不同分辨率的视网膜图像，分为 5 个 DR 阶段。许多图像质量很差，而且一些基本事实的标签也不正确。
• IDRID [21]（印度糖尿病视网膜病变图像数据集）包含 516 张视网膜眼底图像，由位于印度马哈拉施特拉邦南德的一家眼科诊所的视网膜专家拍摄。
• DIARETDBI [22] 包含 89 个大小的视网膜眼底图像1500∗1152像素，包括 5 个正常图像和所有其他 84 个 DR 图像。
• DDR[23]（糖尿病视网膜病变的诊断）——包含 13,637 张视网膜眼底图像，显示 DR 的五个阶段。从数据集中，757 张图像显示 DR 病变。
• 其他如 E-ophtha [24]、HRF [25]、ROC [26] 和 DR2 [27] 等。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|DEEP LEARNING IN THE DETECTION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写深度学习deep learning方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写深度学习deep learning代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写深度学习deep learning相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|DEEP LEARNING IN THE DETECTION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

A few years back, we would have never thought of deep learning applications to develop virtual assistants (like Alexa, Siri, and Google Assistant) and self-driving cars. But now, these developments are part of

our daily lives. Deep learning is fascinating to us with its ongoing actions, such as fraud detection and pixel restoration.

Although deep learning is achieving quite impressive results in realworld applications, it is essential to note that it is not magic to achieve those results; large amounts of data are required. Furthermore, learning from this amount of data is a very time-consuming and computationally demanding process.

Nevertheless, it is terrible how these algorithms can “learn” without telling the model what to look for – it learns based on experience and the examples given. And as mentioned, progress in this area has been made to develop surprising and valuable applications that we will discuss next.
Deep Learning is a very vast field to discuss and do research on. There are hundreds of applications present at the moment that use deep learning methods. Hundreds of fascinating applications will come in the future, like MIT is working on future prediction using deep learning methods.

Deep learning is widely used in the medical field-computer vision techniques like image segmentation, image classification, etc. Using different deep learning architectures (such as CNN, RNN, LSTM) can detect any disease from other image datasets. Deep learning helps medical experts diagnose disease more accurately with minimum error and allows them to treat it better, thus leading to better decisions.

This chapter will discuss eye disease, which can cause blindness known as Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). Early detection of DR is a critical task, and deep learning helps in its early detection.

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes is a condition that occurs in the human body when the pancreas fails to produce the required insulin or when the body fails to process it properly. As it advances, it starts affecting the circulatory system of the human body, including the retina. It causes damage to the retinal blood vessels, leading to diabetic retinopathy by decreasing the

patient’s vision. This disease can cause permanent blindness to the affected person if appropriate treatment is not provided in the early stages.

The abnormal shift in blood sugar level starts happening in diabetes mellitus. Generally, glucose is converted into energy in the human body that helps to perform normal human functions. But in the worst-case scenario, there is an abnormal blood sugar level, and the excess blood sugar causes hyperglycemia. Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR) and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR) are two main stages of DR, as shown in Figure 2. NPDR is a condition in which the retina becomes inflamed (a case of macular edema) because of the accumulation of glucose that leads to leakage of blood vessels in the eyes. In a severe condition, retinal vessels might get blocked completely, which causes macular ischemia. There are different levels in NPDR in which sometimes the patient suffers from blurred vision or loses sight partially or entirely. PDR occurs in the advanced stage of diabetes, in which extra blood vessels start growing in the retina (a case of neovascularization). These new blood vessels are very narrow and brittle, tend to cause haemorrhages, and lead to partial or complete loss of vision.

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|Severity Levels of DR

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group (ETDRS) and International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy (ICDR) [12] has given different levels of severity of DR defined as under:

• Level 0- No retinopathy.
• Level 1- Mild NPDR- the presence of at least one microaneurysm with or without other lesions.
• Level 2- Moderate NPDR- the presence of many microaneurysms and retinal haemorrhages with or without cotton wool spots.
• Level 3- Severe $N P D R$ – the presence of many haemorrhages and micro-aneurysms in four quadrants of the retina, cotton wool spots in two or more quadrants and Intra-retinal microvascular abnormalities in one or more quadrants.
• Level 4- PDR- it is an advanced stage of DR where new narrow and brittle or weak blood vessels are present with a high risk of leakage, and it can cause severe vision loss and sometimes even blindness. Figure 4 shows images of different levels of severity in DR.

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|Severity Levels of DR

• 0 级 – 无视网膜病变。
• 1级-轻度NPDR-存在至少一个微动脉瘤，有或没有其他病变。
• 2 级 – 中度 NPDR – 存在许多微动脉瘤和视网膜出血，伴有或不伴有棉絮斑。
• 3级 – 严重ñ磷DR– 在视网膜的四个象限中存在许多出血和微动脉瘤，在两个或更多象限中存在棉绒斑，在一个或多个象限中存在视网膜内微血管异常。
• 4级-PDR-这是DR的晚期阶段，出现新的狭窄、脆弱或脆弱的血管，具有很高的渗漏风险，可能导致严重的视力丧失，有时甚至失明。图 4 显示了 DR 中不同严重程度的图像。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。