经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON30003

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The relationships between targets and instruments

The simplest mechanism for influencing the quantity and quality of retailing resources is to specify contractually the conditions under which the product is to be sold. This is often not enough, however: no Court will adjudicate on the attractiveness or helpfulness of sales assistants; no individual retailer has control over the total number of retail outlets. Resale price maintenance, territorial exclusivity, and selective distribution can all be used to give incentives to increase the resources devoted to retailing a particular product.

Opportunism is made possible by the existence of asset specificity and sunk costs on one side of the relationship and is discouraged by increasing them on the other. Exclusive dealing relationships and territorial exclusivity are both means of increasing the commitment of the two parties to the relationship. Raising the other party’s sunk costs has the same effect.

One way of securing bias is to build it into the terms and conditions of supply – a stockist of my washing machines may be required to devote a certain amount of space to their display. Bias is intrinsic to an exclusive dealing arrangement. The most valuable bias, however, is that provided by a retailer who appears to be independent. Override commissions to travel agents or insurance brokers may achieve this. So may direct payment for promotion of the product. (These are more usually made indirectly through the provision of cheap loans or equipment.)

Market segmentation may be defended by contractual prohibitions on arbitrage, while resale price maintenance may make arbitrage unprofitable. Exclusive dealing arrangements increase search and switching costs for consumers, and may also raise switching costs for retailers, since they tend to increase the extent to which assets are specific to a particular manufacturer. Non-linear price schedules make alternative sourcing on a small scale expensive. Increasing sunk costs which are specific to a particular producer directly increases the costs to retailers of switching supplier. All these devices also have the effect of creating obstacles to new entry.

Vertical restraints can most effectively be used to extend monopoly through a form of exclusive dealing: purchase of the monopoly product is conditional on buying the competitive products from the same supplier. Alternatively, the competitive and monopoly products are often combined in a single bundle.

The matrix of relationships between targets and instruments is shown in table 14.1. The lists are not exhaustive: nor are the entries in the cells of the matrix complete. But the structure illustrates why vertical restraints pose a general problem for competition policy. Some of the objectives of vertical restraints are essentially benign. In respect of the manufacturer’s interest in the absolute conditions of product sale, for example, it is difficult to detect any divergence between the interests of consumers and producers. The situation is, however, very different when measures to discourage entry are concerned. But the difficulty is that there is no one to one mapping between targets and instruments. The same mechanism may serve both innocuous and anticompetitive ends. It follows from this that rules which are based on the form of a particular restraint are likely to be inadequate. Nor is it possible, or sensible, to look at intent: since there are several purposes to any particular action, there is no reason why even a frank respondent should be clear about the relative contributions of his different motives. That requires that public policy should undertake a cost-benefit analysis of the consequences of any particular restraint: but is it realistic to expect that the antitrust authorities will make an assessment of a rule such as McDonald’s hamburgers must be sold under golden arches?

经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The legality of vertical restraints

The basic legal principle is that the Courts will enforce a valid contract. It follows that if the conditions of sale include a vertical restraint, then that restraint binds the purchaser. Exceptionally, the law may make certain restraints ineffective by express provision. This is common, for example, where the manufacturer seeks to escape liability to purchasers of defective products. A seller may also require the purchaser to impose conditions on subsequent purchasers – as is true of the restriction on rebinding books. Transfers of land may often be subject to irrelevant or onerous conditions which were imposed for the first time in transactions which occurred many centuries ago.

Vertical restraints imposed within the European Community fall under the scope of Articles 85 and 86 of the Treaty of Rome. Article 85 prohibits an agreement between undertakings which restricts or distorts competition and has an effect on trade between member states. Article $85(3)$ provides, however, for the exemption of agreements which are of economic benefit. This provision has been used by the Commission to grant block exemption for certain important categories of vertical restraint, particularly the selective distribution agreements between motor manufacturers and their franchisees and the exclusive dealing arrangements between the suppliers of beer and petrol and their retailers.

A vertical restraint may also be an abuse of a dominant position in terms of Article 86. There is no equivalent provision for exemption from Article 86 , and Article 86 has been applied against a range of vertical restrictions, including territorial exclusivity (Grundig), incentive schemes for dealers (Michelin Tyres) and aggregated rebates (Hoffman la Roche).

Some Community states also have domestic legislation which bears on – at least some – kinds of vertical restraint. In the UK, resale price maintenance is generally illegal. Policy towards other forms of restriction broadly follows the European model. A vertical restraint is likely to be an anticompetitive practice in terms of the 1980 Competition Act, which means that if it is found, after investigation by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, to be against the public interest, it can be prohibited. Raleigh’s refusal to supply bicycles other than through specialist retailers fell under these provisions. If they are undertaken by a firm or groups of firms who occupy a monopoly position, vertical restraints may be the subject of specific recommendation following an investigation by the $\mathrm{MMC}$ of the industry as a whole. This was the basis of the recent recommendations made (but not substantially implemented) for loosening the ties between breweries and public houses. The German position is similar. Section 15 of the Restraint of Competition Act (GWB) imposes a general prohibition of resale price maintenance. There are no per se rules about other vertical restraints, but section 18 allows the Cartel Office to declare specific practices illegal.

产业经济学代考

有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON7001

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The meaning of vertical restraints

A vertical restraint is a restriction imposed by manufacturers or wholesalers on those to whom they sell their products. We are subject to such restraints more often than we think. The publishers of most books sold in the UK attempt to impose three vertical restraints. One is a requirement that ‘no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without permission’. It limits the use which the owner may make of the book he has purchased: he may not reproduce or transmit it in any form or by any means.

Another is that the book is sold subject to the standard conditions of the Net Book Agreement. The most important of these conditions prohibits a retailer from selling the book at a price other than that fixed by the publisher. Books are one of the small number of commodities which may legally be subject to this resale price maintenance, as a result of a ruling in 1962 that the net book agreement – an agreement registered under the Restrictive Practices Act – was in the public interest. ${ }^1$

A third restraint prohibits the purchaser from rebinding the paperback edition in hard covers. The price difference between the paperback and hardback editions exceeds the cost of binding. In producing two versions of the same book, the publisher hopes to segment the library market – in which he believes demand is inelastic – from sales to individuals. The restriction is designed to limit arbitrage between these two markets.

Each of these vertical restraints is patently anticompetitive in its intention and effects. The first is designed to prevent other publishers from producing the same book at a lower price – it aims to establish a barrier to entry. The second seeks to limit competition between retailers. The third is intended to support the segmentation of the market and associated price discrimination by the publisher. These objectives entry prevention, limitation of retail competition, and market segmentation – are typical of vertical restraints.

Yet it is apparent that a case can be made that each of these restrictions is of public benefit. If other publishers and readers were free to Xerox books at will, sales would be reduced and publishers would find it difficult to recover the fixed costs of typesetting and royalties to authors which their competitors would not have to incur. Resale price maintenance is harder to defend, but representatives of the Publishers Association succeeded in persuading a sceptical court of senior judges that it was in the public interest. Price discrimination permits books to be published, and made available in student editions, which might otherwise never see the light of day, or otherwise be available only to very few readers. Defer judgement on the merits of these arguments for the moment: note only that they can be made. It is the possibility that vertical restraints can be both restrictive of competition and of general benefit, that has made policy towards them such a difficult issue.

经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Attitudes to vertical restraints

Competition policy has tended to view vertical restraints with considerable suspicion. Several of the landmark cases in the evolution of the antitrust policy of the European Community have been concerned with vertical restraints – such as the incentives offered by Michelin Tyres to its distributors, the aggregated rebate scheme used by Hoffman la Roche to sell its vitamins, territorial restrictions on the sale of Grundig appliances, and the control by United Brands of the European banana market. However, a number of important classes of restraint have secured the block exemption available under Article $85(3)$ from the provisions of the Treaty.

In the US too, vertical restraints have been a principal concern of the competition authorities. In the last fifteen years, however, the interpretation of American antitrust law has undergone major changes and in no area has this change been as radical as in the judicial approach to vertical restraints. Broadly, the Justice Department will now not normally challenge a vertical restraint and a private plaintiff is unlikely to be able to do so with much hope of success. William Baxter – an assistant Attorney General in charge of antitrust policy in the Reagan administration, who both symbolized and was partly responsible for this shift in stance – has been quoted as saying ‘In my view, there is no such thing as a vertical “problem” …. The only possible adverse competitive consequences of vertical arrangements are in their horizontal effects’ (Howard, 1983).

This shift in opinion is the result partly of a general change in intellectual climate.

However, a group associated with the University of Chicago $^2$ has been particularly influential, both through articles and books, and as a result of testimony in particular cases. Their approach begins by noting that the principal interest which the manufacturer of a product has in the conditions under which it is sold is that they should be such as to maximize his sales. This is not often achieved by limiting retail competition. It follows that although vertical restraints may often be anticompetitive in appearance, in some more fundamental sense they facilitate the operation of the competitive process.

Thus if – to take an extreme case – I am a wholesaler or manufacturer of perfume, the environment in which my product is sold is a matter of prime importance. I am selling magic, not simply smells, and magic is not available in discount stores or at cut prices. I therefore insist that my perfume is sold only by attractive sales assistants in luxurious surroundings and if $\mathrm{I}$ facilitate its sale at reduced prices at all, it is only in airport shops where the customer believes (erroneously) that the low price is the result of reduced taxes rather than reduced margins.

Now this view may be mistaken. Purchasers of perfume may be as hard-nosed as purchasers of potatoes and base their choices on a careful assessment of value for money. In that case my strategy will be less profitable than one which does not include vertical restraints. But that is a matter for my commercial judgement and it is no more sensible or reasonable for the competition authorities to insist that I sell my perfume through Woolworths than it is appropriate for them to prescribe the ingredients from which it should be manufactured or the way in which it should be packaged or advertised.

产业经济学代考

有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|ECON3503

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写博弈论Game Theory方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写博弈论Game Theory代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写博弈论Game Theory相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Further Discussions

Game theory attempts to bring mathematical precision to decision-making so that best strategies can be played, even in the arms race between the learner and the adversary. In game theory, we assume the players are rational-they seek to maximize their payoffs or minimize their losses. This assumption is not necessarily valid in real life, especially in cybersecurity domains. What appears irrational to one player may be rational to the opponent player. For example, when we model a game between airport security and terrorists, it may not be a good idea to view the terrorists based on our own experiences. When the opponent is not rational or simply plays poorly, it is important to realize that continuing to play the equilibrium strategy will lead to a losing situation or the loss of opportunity to exploit the opponent’s weaknesses.

Behavioral economists have long questioned the strict assumptions about rationality in existing theories in game theory (Aumann 1997). The actual decision-making by individuals is often irrational even in simple decision problems. Individuals typically fail to select the best response from a set of choice. As a matter of fact, optimization is so difficult that individuals are often unable to come up with their best responses to their opponents’ moves, unlike what the rational decision theory has always assumed. In response, theories that relax the rationality constraints have been proposed among which include: Quantal Response Equilibrium (QRE) (McKelvey and Palfrey 1995), a solution concept that promotes an equilibrium notion with bounded rationality that acknowledges the possibility that players do not always play a best response; Prospect Theory (Kahneman and Tversky 1979; Tversky and Kahneman 1992), a solution that introduces payoffs with respect to a reference point at which there is larger slope for losses than for gains and agents tend to overestimate small probabilities and underestimate large probabilities.

The same debate is applicable to mixed strategy games. In the airport security game, how the airport deploys security patrols depends on the response from the terrorists. If the rationality of the terrorists is predictable, it would be best for the airport to deploy its security patrols randomly by playing a mixed strategy. However, when there is a good reason to believe that the terrorists are not going to play the equilibrium strategy, airport security may be better off by playing pure strategies. Generally speaking, unless the odds are strongly in our favor, playing equilibrium strategies would be our best choice. Nevertheless, we should always keep in mind that our calculation of rationality may lead to different behavior, new rules may need to be defined in the game to take this into consideration.

While there is a growing interest in applying machine learning to different data domains and deploying machine learning algorithms in real systems, it has become imperative to understand vulnerabilities of machine learning in the presence of adversaries. To that end, adversarial machine learning (Kurakin et al. 2016a; Vorobeychik and Kantarcioglu 2018; Shi et al. 2018b) has emerged as a critical field to enable safe adoption of machine learning subject to adversarial effects. One example that has attracted recent attention involves machine learning applications offered to public or paid subscribers via APIs; e.g. Google Cloud Vision (2020) provides cloud-based machine learning tools to build machine learning models. This online service paradigm creates security concerns of adversarial inputs to different machine learning algorithms ranging from computer vision to NLP (Shi et al. 2018c,d). As another application domain, automatic speech recognition and voice controllable systems were studied in terms of the vulnerabilities of their underlying machine learning algorithms (Vaidya et al. 2016; Zhang et al. 2017). As an effort to identify vulnerabilities in autonomous driving, attacks on self-driving vehicles were demonstrated in Kurakin et al. (2016), where the adversary manipulated traffic signs to confuse the learning model.

The manipulation in adversarial machine learning may happen during the training or inference (test) time, or both. During the training time, the goal of the adversary is to provide wrong inputs (features and/or labels) to the training data such that the machine learning algorithm is not properly trained. During the test time, the goal of the adversary is to provide wrong inputs (features) to the machine algorithm such that it returns wrong outputs. As illustrated in Figure 14.1, attacks built upon adversarial machine learning can be categorized as follows.

1. Attack during the test time.
a. Inference (exploratory) attack: The adversary aims to infer the machine learning architecture of the target system to build a shadow or surrogate model that has the same functionality as the original machine learning architecture (Barreno et al. 2006; Tramer et al. 2016; Wu et al. 2016; Papernot et al. 2017; Shi et al. 2017; Shi et al. 2018b). This corresponds to a white-box or black-box attack depending on whether the machine learning model such as the deep neural network structure is available to the adversary, or not. For a black-box attack, the adversary queries the target classifier with a number of samples and records the labels. Then, it uses this labeled data as its own training data to train a functionally equivalent (i.e. statistically similar) deep learning classifier, namely a surrogate model. Once the machine learning functionality is learned, the adversary can use the inference results obtained from the surrogate model for subsequent attacks such as confidence reduction or targeted misclassification.
b. Membership inference attack: The adversary aims to determine if a given data sample is a member of the training data, i.e. if a given data sample has been used to train the machine learning algorithm of interest (Nasr et al. 2018; Song et al. 2018; Jia et al. 2019; Leino and Fredrikson 2020). Membership inference attack is based on the analysis of overfitting to check whether a machine learning algorithm is trained for a particular data type, e.g. a particular type of images. By knowing which type of data the machine learning algorithm is trained to classify, the adversary can then design a subsequent attack more successfully.

博弈论代考

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Further Discussions

1. 在测试时间内攻击。
A。推理（探索性）攻击：对手旨在推断目标系统的机器学习架构，以构建与原始机器学习架构具有相同功能的影子或替代模型（Barreno 等人，2006 年；Tramer 等人，2016 年； Wu 等人 2016 年；Papernot 等人 2017 年；Shi 等人 2017 年；Shi 等人 2018b)。这对应于白盒或黑盒攻击，具体取决于对手是否可以使用深度神经网络结构等机器学习模型。对于黑盒攻击，对手使用大量样本查询目标分类器并记录标签。然后，它使用这个标记数据作为自己的训练数据来训练一个功能等效（即统计相似）的深度学习分类器，即代理模型。
b. 成员推理攻击：对手旨在确定给定数据样本是否是训练数据的成员，即给定数据样本是否已用于训练感兴趣的机器学习算法（Nasr 等人，2018 年；Song 等人，2018 年）。 2018 年；Jia 等人 2019 年；莱诺和弗雷德里克森 2020 年）。Membership inference attack 是基于过度拟合的分析，以检查机器学习算法是否针对特定数据类型（例如特定类型的图像）进行了训练。通过了解训练机器学习算法分类的数据类型，对手可以更成功地设计后续攻击。

有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|ECON90022

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写博弈论Game Theory方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写博弈论Game Theory代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写博弈论Game Theory相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|A Single Leader Multi-followers Stackelberg Game

In a single leader multiple followers (SLMF) game (Basar and Olsder 1999), the leader makes its optimal decision prior to the decisions of multiple followers. The Stackelberg game played by the leader is:
$$\begin{array}{ll} \min _{s^{\ell}, s^} & F\left(s^{\ell}, s^\right) \ \text { s.t. } & G\left(s^{\ell}, s^\right) \leq 0 \ & H\left(s^{\ell}, s^\right)=0 \end{array}$$
where $F$ is the leader’s objective function, constrained by $G$ and $H ; s^{\prime}$ is the leader’s decision and $s^$ is in the set of the optimal solutions of the lower level problem: $$s^ \in\left{\begin{array}{ll} \underset{s_i}{\operatorname{argmin}} & f_i\left(s^t, s_i\right) \ \text { s.t. } & g_i\left(s^{\ell}, s_i\right) \leq 0 \ & h_i\left(s^{\ell}, s_i\right)=0 \end{array}\right} \quad \forall i=1, \ldots, m$$
where $m$ is the number of followers, $f_i$ is the $i^{\text {th }}$ follower’s objective function constrained by $g_l$ and $h_i$

For the sake of simplicity, we assume the followers are not competing among themselves. This is usually a valid assumption in practice since adversaries rarely affect each other through their actions. In a Bayesian Stackelberg game, the followers may have many different types and the leader does not know exactly the types of adversaries it may face when solving its optimization problem. However, the distribution of the types of adversaries is known or can be inferred from past experience. The followers’ strategies and payoffs are determined by the followers’ types. The followers play their optimal responses to maximize the payoffs given the leader’s strategy. The Stackelberg equilibrium includes an optimal mixed strategy of the learner and corresponding optimal strategies of the followers.

Problem Definition Given the payoff matrices $R^{\ell}$ and $R^f$ of the leader and the $m$ followers of $n$ different types, find the leader’s optimal mixed strategy given that all followers know the leader’s strategy when optimizing their rewards. The leader’s pure strategies consist of a set of generalized linear learning models $\langle\phi(x), w\rangle$ and the followers’ pure strategies include a set of vectors performing data transformation $x \rightarrow x+\delta x$.

Given the payoff matrices $R^{\ell}$ and $R^f$ discussed in Section 13.5.3.3 (as shown in Table 13.6), let $r^f$ denote the follower’s maximum payoff, $\mathcal{L}$ and $\mathcal{F}$ denote the indices of the pure strategies in the leader’s policy $s^{\ell}$ and the follower’s policy $s^f$.

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Real Datasets

For the two real datasets we again use spam base (UCI Machine Learning Repository 2019) and web spam (LIBSVM Data 2019). The learning tasks are binary classification problems, differentiating spam or webspam from legitimate e-mail or websites.

Spambase Dataset Recall that in the spam base dataset, the task is to differentiate spam from legitimate e-mail. There are 4601 e-mail messages in the dataset including approximately 1800 spam messages. The dataset has 57 attributes and one class label. Training and test datasets are separate. The results are averaged over 10 random runs. The detailed results are shown in Table 13.8. The $f_{\mathrm{a}}=0$ column is left out for the same reason as explained earlier on the artificial datasets.

This dataset serves as an excellent example to demonstrate the power of the mixed strategy. In the cases where $p=0.1$, that is, when we assume legitimate e-mail is modified $10 \%$ of the time (while spam is always modified), the two equilibrium predictors Equi $^{* 1}$ and Equi ${ }^{* 2}$ exhibit very stable performance in terms of predictive accuracy. Their error rates fluctuate slightly at 0.37 regardless of how aggressively the test data has been modified. On the other hand, $S \mathrm{SM}^{* 1}$ and $S_{V M}{ }^{* 2}$ significantly outperform the equilibrium predictors Equi ${ }^{* 1}$ and Equi $^{* 2}$ and the invariant SVM when $f_{\mathrm{a}} \leq 0.5$. However, the performance of SVM ${ }^{* 1}$ and SVM ${ }^{* 2}$ dropped quickly as the attack gets more intense $\left(f_{\mathrm{a}}>0.5\right)$, much poorer than the equilibrium predictors. The mixed strategy, although not the best, demonstrates superb performance by agreeing with the winning models the majority of the time. The standard SVM has similar performance to the equilibrium predictors, behaving poorly as the attack gets intense. When $p=0.5$, that is, when legitimate e-mail is modified half of the time while all spam is modified, equilibrium predictors still demonstrate very stable performance while the performance of the equilibrium predictors Equi $^{* 1}$ and Equi ${ }^{* 2}$ deteriorates sharply right after the attack factor increases to 0.3 . The mixed strategy, again not the best predictor, demonstrates the most consistent performance among all the predictors given any attack intensity levels.

We also tested the case where the attack factor $f_{\mathrm{a}} \in(0,1)$ is completely random under uniform distribution for each attacked sample on this dataset. The probability of negative data being attacked increases gradually from 0.1 to 0.9 . The results are illustrated in Figure 13.11. Again, we observe similar behavior of all the predictors: stable equilibrium predictors, $\mathrm{SVM}^{* 1}, \mathrm{SVM}^{* 2}$, and SVM progressively deteriorating as $p$ increases. The mixed strategy, although weakened as more negative data is allowed to be modified, consistently lies in between the equilibrium predictors and the $S V M$ predictors.

博弈论代考

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Real Datasets

Spambase 数据集 回想一下，在垃圾邮件基础数据集中，任务是区分垃圾邮件和合法电子邮件。数据集中 有 4601 封电子邮件，包括大约 1800 封垃圾邮件。该数据集有 57 个属性和一个类标签。训练和测试数据 集是分开的。结果取 10 次随机运行的平均值。详细结果如表13.8所示。这 $f_{\mathrm{a}}=0$ 出于与前面在人工数据 集上解释的相同原因，列被遗漏了。

有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON1101

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Descriptive and Normative Economics

The last sentence in the discussion about regularities stated that the study of (micro-) economics allows us to understand the functioning of the economy. This is the result of descriptive or positive economics as approach. The findings are typically expressed as conclusions of models. These models are based on assumptions, and the conclusions follow by strict logic from the assumptions. Mathematics serve as a tool to guarantee stringency. Thus, descriptive economics are based on the rationality of science, and the goal is to find answers that are right or wrong. The model of supply and demand gives us correct answers if and only if the assumptions hold. Descriptive economics work with hypotheses, data collection, falsification, theories, and models.

In normative economics, values play a prominent role. This approach tries to find solutions to everyday problems. When I began writing this book, the COVID-19 pandemic was still taking its toll around the world. Schools or businesses struggled with how to open in the usual way, and that depended on many values – how much weight we give to scientific knowledge, how much we care about the lives of others, how much we fear becoming infected, how important material goods are, how important social contacts are, and more. It should not come as a surprise that there were disagreements on those values. Normative economics gives advise often based on descriptive models by including values.

For example, an answer to the question of how rent controls will affect supply on the housing market and the quality of housing can be answered by descriptive models. In the future we can check whether the predictions were right or wrong. The question of whether rent controls are a good approach in cities where rents continuously increase, so that people with smaller incomes are driven out of desirable neighborhoods, involves ethical values as well as how rent controls affect the supply and cost of housing.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Industrial Organization

Industrial organization focuses on the interaction between firms, industries, and markets. Bain (1968) contributed strongly to what is known as the Harvard tradition with the structure/conduct/performance paradigm (SCP). According to this paradigm, the specific market structure of an industry – with its level of competition, product differentiation, cost, and degree of vertical integration – determines the conduct of firms (pricing, innovation, investment, advertising), and from this follows market performance (efficiency, profit, innovation rate). Director and Stigler, on the other hand, started the Chicago tradition stressing the functioning of markets with enough real or potential competition. This leads to a strong mistrust of government intervention. Success, according to the Chicago tradition, is not a question of SCP with low competition but of excellence of some outstanding firms (Tirole 2000 ).

Important aspects of SCP are monopoly power of a single firm in a market or oligopolistic structures with few competitors. Such structures lead to strategic behavior of the firms when setting prices. They are deviations from the ideal model of a perfectly competitive market, the only one guaranteeing an efficient market outcome. It should be clear that the proponents of the Harvard tradition worry much more about the competition in actual markets than the proponents of the Chicago tradition.

This definition clarifies that game theory can be a preferred means for the analysis of institutions. There are five different types of rules (or regularities):
1) There are conventions observed by self-control.
2) We have ethical rules with which we comply by imperative obligation; Kant’s categorical imperative is an example with regard to generally applicable laws.
3) Others impose the observation of customs.
4) Control by others enforces following private formal rules; organizational rules belong to this group.
5) Law enforcement agencies demand observance of public laws.
The degree of observance of rules or institutions can explain differences in welfare between countries (Acemoglu and Robinson 2012).

Neoclassical economics work with a model of man called homo economicus. This actor knows the future and because of this knowledge can choose the best alternative without spending time or resources. Few economists see this as a realistic description but models like supply and demand provide reasonable results based on the behavior of a homo economicus.

NIE assumes different characteristics for economic actors. They do not know the future and accordingly must rely on incomplete information. In addition, limited rationality describes their behavior and decision-making. They try to act rationally but sometimes fail. Maximising benefits becomes impossible; instead, the actors of NIE employ satisficing, the choice of an acceptable solution (Simon 1955). Furthermore, market exchanges are no longer without price; there are transaction costs (Williamson 1985). Anyone who has been an economic actor will feel much more comfortable with the assumptions of NIE. Behavioral economics nudge the model of man in an even more realistic direction by describing in which ways we fail to behave rationally (Thaler 2015).

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Industrial Organization

SCP 的重要方面是单个公司在市场中的垄断力量或几乎没有竞争对手的寡头垄断结构。这种结构导致公司在设定价格时采取战略行为。它们偏离了完全竞争市场的理想模型，这是唯一能保证有效市场结果的模型。应该清楚的是，哈佛传统的支持者比芝加哥传统的支持者更担心实际市场中的竞争。

1）有自我控制所遵守的约定。
2) 我们有道德规则，我们必须遵守这些规则；康德的绝对命令是关于普遍适用法律的一个例子。
3) 他人实施海关观察。
4) 他人控制强制遵循私人正式规则；组织规则属于这一组。
5) 执法机构要求遵守公法。

NIE 假设经济参与者具有不同的特征。他们不知道未来，因此必须依赖不完整的信息。此外，有限理性描述了他们的行为和决策。他们试图理性行事，但有时会失败。利益最大化变得不可能；相反，NIE 的参与者使用令人满意的方法，选择可接受的解决方案 (Simon 1955)。此外，市场交易不再没有价格；存在交易成本（Williamson 1985）。任何当过经济参与者的人都会对 NIE 的假设感到舒服得多。行为经济学通过描述我们无法理性行事的方式，将人的模型推向更现实的方向（Thaler 2015）。

有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON1001

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Laws and Regularities

Civil engineers, project managers, and economists have quite different views because of their professional backgrounds. Civil engineering students endeavor to understand the world of objects. One of the most important fields they encounter is Newtonian mechanics. Here, Newton’s laws of motion reign supreme assigning absolute values to mass, distance, and time. These laws of motion serve civil engineers well to design complex structures even 350 years after their publication in 1687 (Figure 1.3).

Newton’s thoughts became paradigmatic in defining the term natural law. However, this does not allow us today to think of natural laws as universally applicable. Neither relativity theory nor quantum mechanics are compatible with Newton’s laws. Each theory has its domain; civil engineers work with large bodies at rest and for such problems Newton provides the tools.

Newton’s laws and physics are more generally of fundamental importance in philosophy of science. Here, we find two ways of discovering knowledge, by deduction and induction. There exists an asymmetry between the two. An inductive approach is characterized by observation of data and a subsequent summation into a more general statement. These statements take the form of a universal proposition such as the famous “all swans are white”. A single observation of a black swan gives us irrefutable proof that the universal proposition is wrong. This leads to the principle of falsification (Popper 2002, first published in 1935). As it is not possible to give proof by induction, we must work with hypotheses and their falsification (deductive approach). If hypotheses such as Newton’s laws withstand all serious attempts of falsification, then the hypotheses can be understood as corroborated. After more than 350 years, Newton’s laws are well corroborated within its domain, but we have also learned that they are not universally valid. By falsification, we can never gain absolute knowledge, we are rather edging closer by increasing the verisimilitude (closeness to knowledge). The basic understanding is then that all knowledge is conjectural and hypothetical.

In sum, we do not know a single universally applicable law; assuming their existence is a leap of faith. This shall not discredit a metaphysical discussion of the problem, where we face the validity of arguments. Following this path would lead us deep into ontology, philosophy of the mind, and epistemology. I will not follow that path here.

I would like to describe instead the scientific status of economics. If we accept that laws are based on regularities, then the question of their character arises. Two basic possibilities are imaginable: (i) law of causality and (ii) principle of causality. I can leave open the question of how to understand causality because it does not impact the argument. Typical answers are that nature is organized in the way of causality, that it is a human habit of interpreting the world (Hume), or that it is a way of human thinking (Kant). The idea of verisimilitude opposes the belief that we can understand the causal organization of nature, even if it should exist. Whether it is habitual or cognitive matters little if we take an instrumental view of causality.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Focus and Goals

Mainstream and construction economics concentrate on the efficiency of production. Here, the allocation of goods is important. There is nothing wrong with this concentration as long as we keep in mind that life also has other aspects. An aspect that finds less interest in microeconomics is equity, the distribution of income (Piketty 2013). Sen (1999) stresses personal freedom as a framework to evaluate economic outcomes and not only growth of the gross domestic product, a materialistic stance. He uses five types of freedom for his analysis: (i) political freedom, (ii) economic advantages, (iii) social chances, (iv) transparency, and (v) security. This provides a different focus on equity. If you are interested, you are encouraged to discover the arguments, but this cannot be goal of construction microeconomics.

Economics and especially microeconomics study market efficiency and thus provide specific answers to such questions. Civil engineering also has a focus by specialising in safe and user-friendly design and construction for the built environment. However, I would assert that the reach of economics is more encompassing than that of civil engineering. We need only to think of women and their rights 150 years ago. Their economic freedom was very limited – they were not free to sign contracts. Changes since then have affected not only the economic but also the political and social standing of women. These spheres are interconnected and progress in one entails development in the others. The social acceptance of women engaging in work outside home (Rosie the Riveter) required the right to enter into contracts and the income provided for economic independence. Work requires education, and this is, in turn, a very strong determinant in reducing population growth (Sen 1999). Overpopulation leads to contamination (e.g. $\mathrm{CO}_2$ emissions) of our environment beyond its capacity: Economics are vital. I would follow the thoughts of Stigler (portrait below) that economics touches us all more directly than construction. You may also think of Bill Clinton’s successful campaign slogan in 1992, “It’s the economy, stupidP”

Microeconomics uses mostly neoclassical concepts, while Keynesian economics are influential in macroeconomics. For the travel from microeconomics to construction microeconomics, I will rely on the broad shoulders of many classical and neoclassical economists. You will encounter some of them in the portraits interspersed throughout the book. In recent times, others have widened the neoclassical perspective, namely:

• Coase, North, Williamson (institutional economics)
• Simon, Kahneman, Shiller, Thaler (behavioral economics)
• Tirole, Roth, Shapley (game theory)
• Nash, Milgrom, Wilson (auction theory)
• Akerlof, Spence, Stiglitz (economics of information)

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Focus and Goals

• Coase, North, Williamson（制度经济学）
• Simon、Kahneman、Shiller、Thaler（行为经济学）
• 梯若尔、罗斯、沙普利（博弈论）
• Nash、Milgrom、Wilson（拍卖理论）
• Akerlof、Spence、Stiglitz（信息经济学）

有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|ECON1120

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Pump-Priming Debates in America

It is now apparent that Tinbergen built a strong case for an active economic policy, although he disputed some forms of interventionism, in particular on wages. His theoretical macro-dynamic models as well as his econometric works were guided by the search for useful economic policies that would ensure the stability of the system and the damping out of fluctuations, something that was present since he wrote his thesis in 1929. In the previous section, we saw that he also looked for policies that would help the economy obtain higher levels of production and employment. Tinbergen’s position in Europe ensured a large diffusion of his ideas which were endorsed by many other European econometricians.

The situation in the USA was quite different; although there were many American econometricians, led in particular by Charles Roos at the Cowles Commission, discussions of macro-dynamic models and fiscal policy were scarce during their winter meetings. Most economists remained skeptical of the possibilities offered by public intervention, especially financed by a deficit, viewed as the source of important distorsions. Few of them participated actively in the policies put in place by the New Deal; although Roos became the Research Director of the National Recovery Administration this experience seemed at odds with his models based on the intertemporal maximization of profits ${ }^8$; the NRA itself was disbanded in 1935, after Roosevelt’s first term saw the rise of a coalition of businessmen and conservatives that was largely successful in convincing the Supreme Court to repel many laws of the first New Deal. Roosevelt himself was not in favor of continuing the de facto deficit that characterized his first term (Barber, 1996: 100, 102 ff.) and his second term began with a victory of the “budget-balancers” in the public finance battle, leading to an almost balanced budget in 1937.

This context dramatically changed in the autumn of 1937, when a new recession led in a few months to a $40 \%$ drop in production and a rise of unemployment from $14 \%$ to $19 \%$. While the autumn of 1929 remains today in memories as the beginning of the Great Depression, the crisis in the autumn of 1937 was an even bigger shock for the economists of the time, an “intellectually traumatic” episode (Salant, 1976: 15) in particular because the economy was still far from its full employment level (Barber, 1996: 104-105). It was this crisis and the widely diverging interpretations of its causes that shifted the tide of economists (reinforced by the growing influx of economists from central Europe), and which created the conditions for a return of massive deficits in the span of a few months. ${ }^9$ Hansen became the unofficial leader of the New Economics in America and carried with him the graduate students of Harvard’s economic department. ${ }^{10}$ It was only at this point that a macro-dynamic model integrating Keynesian ingredients was specifically built in the USA to explain and describe the consequences of the changes in fiscal policy during the past few years, with the aim to justify the perpetuation of a high level of expenditures.
Following this shift in attitudes, we find that an important point of contention among economists concerned the effects of budgetary policies: conservative economists defended at best temporary policies that would prime the pump of new investment and foster favorable conditions for profits (necessary for their version of pump-priming to work), before stepping aside to let the private sector work its way out of the depression. But this vision was put in question by the 1937 crisis, and the model developed by Hansen and Samuelson sought precisely to show why a single impulse of expenditures soon followed by the pulling back of the government would not be sufficient. It may seem counterintuitive that Hansen and Samuelson would reject a policy of pump-priming, which is why it is important to insert their opinion in the American debate on this question. We see that Tinbergen had yet another position from the point of view of this debate, because he had justified the possibility of pump-priming with the idea that the coordination between private parties could fail to establish a high equilibrium which could be obtained only after some help from the government and not from the business world.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|The Role of Public Expenditures

Samuelson’s discussion of the interaction between the accelerator and the multiplier was firmly rooted in the previous work of the econometricians. We have already underlined that he viewed his model as “so simple that it provides a useful introduction to the mathematical theory of [Tinbergen’s] work” (Samuelson, 1939a: 78). The second article, published in the Journal of Political Economy, also opened with a discussion of the contributions to the accelerator and the multiplier, their unification by Harrod, Haberler and Hansen, and a presentation of Frisch’s clarifications of the role of depreciation and the necessity of having a determinate model (Samuelson, 1939b: 785, 789). Although the model was very simple, it was still uncommon to find determinate systems relying on dynamic equations and Samuelson thus participated in the first movement of the “macrodynamist” econometricians, which had begun in the early 1930s. The fact that he used it explicitly to discuss the effect of an economic policy reinforces this link.

His model was in part a reaction against the idea, perhaps too simplistic, of the multiplier and the light it shed on government spending, which obscured the “subsidiary relations and processes” (Samuelson, 1939a: 75), in particular the dynamic effects of government spending, with the aim to show that an increase of public expenditures could be the cause of fluctuations in investment. ${ }^{27}$ Samuelson eased into the model by presenting several numerical computations, tables and decomposition by component (consumption, investment and government expenditures) of the trajectory of the economy for different values of the propensity to consume and what he called the “relation,” the name given to the accelerator by Harrod. Pointing out the variety of movements that could arise from this model, he then proceeded to build a formal, determinate system to study its qualitative behavior and showcase the interest of mathematical methods. ${ }^{28}$ The system is made up of two behavioral equations and an equilibrium condition ${ }^{29}$ :
$$\begin{gathered} Y_t=g_t+C_t+I_t, \ C_t=\alpha Y_{t-1}, \ I_t=\beta\left[C_t-C_{t-1}\right] . \end{gathered}$$
Inserting 7.7 in 7.8 and the resulting equation in 7.6 , we obtain a difference equation in $Y$ with two lags:
$$Y_t=g_t+\alpha[1+\beta] Y_{t-1}-\alpha \beta Y_{t-2},$$
so that the knowledge of income in two periods would allow the derivation of the subsequent trajectory of the system.

宏观经济学代考

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|The Role of Public Expenditures

$$Y_t=g_t+C_t+I_t, C_t=\alpha Y_{t-1}, I_t=\beta\left[C_t-C_{t-1}\right]$$

$$Y_t=g_t+\alpha[1+\beta] Y_{t-1}-\alpha \beta Y_{t-2},$$

有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|ECON6002

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Macro-Dynamics Rising to the Challenge of Instability

The idea that instability in the capitalist system of production was so severe that it could lead to a complete collapse of the economic system reflected a series of circumstances specific to the early 1930s. How influential was Tinbergen on other econometricians in proposing in his models this radical interpretation of instability?
Tinbergen was not alone to work on that issue. In 1934, Frisch also seriously considered the possibility of collapse, quite paradoxically because he is often thought of as the apostle of stable linear models (see Chap. 4). In 1935, discussions arising around nonlinear models at the Namur meeting of the Econometric Society showed however that Frisch sought to reinforce the idea that self-stabilizing mechanisms may fail to kick in, which meant that an appropriate political response was necessary.
A first illustration of this is found in Frisch’s 1934 work published in Econometrica in the form of a long monograph on “circulation planning” in which Frisch argued that besides “technical features” related to production, there exists other features related to the “circulation and exchange activity.” These features of a capitalistic economy may be responsible for other movements of the economy and the maladjustments between wants and production. ${ }^{26}$ As the Great Depression continued to have a lasting impact in Europe, Frisch thought that this type of approach was more appropriate to account for the ongoing situation and in particular the possibility that the groups composing the economy could involuntarily undermine each other’s position with the risk of pushing the economy into a never ending recession, due to a lack of information.

In several respects, the model used by Frisch was close to the model that Tinbergen developed in his 1932 pre-advice (Tinbergen, 1932). In both cases, the analysis highlighted the interdependencies between two firms (or two groups in Frisch’s case), but while Tinbergen was interested in emphasizing the possibility of two stable equilibria, a low and a high one, Frisch wanted to show the possibility that the economy may have two opposite “intrinsic tendencies towards contraction and expansion” (Frisch, 1934: 261).

Frisch developed a model in which the two groups which composed the economy exchanged at regular intervals of time, the purchasing power of each group depending on the volume of its sales to the other group in the previous period (each group being assumed to buy the goods he does not produce at constant prices). In the simplest case, Frisch assumed that the amount bought by a group is proportional to the amount of goods the other group managed to sell in the previous period, as expressed by these two equations:
\begin{aligned} & a_t=\alpha b_{t-1}, \ & b_t=\beta a_{t-1}, \end{aligned}
where $a_t$ and $b_t$ are the amounts bought by the two groups respectively at time $t$ and $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are constants representing the sensitivity of the amount of goods produced. Frisch related those coefficients to the degree of optimism or pessimism of both groups depending on the situation. For given initial conditions, the development over time of the production of each group is made up of two components: a cycle of two time periods superimposed on a positive or negative exponential trend depending on the value of $\gamma=\sqrt{\alpha \beta}$. If $\gamma>1$, the cycle is superimposed on a rising trend. If $\gamma<1$, the trend is transient and the economy collapses. Thus the trajectory of the economy depends upon the coefficients representing the mood of both groups. If they are on average in a “spending mood,” meaning that $\gamma$ is higher than one, then the system will expand. If, on the contrary, they are on average in a “saving mood,” i.e. if $\gamma$ is lower than one, “the whole system will gradually dwindle down to nothing” (Frisch, 1934: 263, original emphasis).

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Tinbergen’s Analysis of the Multiplier

The problem of economic policies formed a central part of Tinbergen’s analysis from the onset of his interest in economic questions, as we have already underlined in Chap. 6. Tinbergen had applied his first models to a wide range of questions from wage policies to raw goods and tried to elucidate the mechanisms deemed the most important. After 1935, he began to build and estimate larger models that culminated in the publication of his two-volume study for the League of Nations Tinbergen (1939a, b). Discussions of the best economic policies formed a central part of those larger models, and the importance of these works for the development of economic analysis has been underlined many times. ${ }^2$

While these models had a profound impact on the discipline, we will not treat them in this book because they provide little information on the question of the stability of the economy. Instead, we would like to pay attention to other models developed at the same time by Tinbergen, which he used to answer topical questions and to bring a new perspective on problems often marred by the lack of complete formalisations. A case in point is the treatment by Tinbergen of the multiplier, which he developed in a 1937 paper published in the Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv (Tinbergen, 1937c). The meaningfulness of this paper lies in his theoretical conclusions for economic policies and the light it threw on the possibility of “pump-priming,” which was a subject of important debates in the USA at the same time.

The multiplier had been developed by Keynes and Kahn in the early 1930 s (Kahn, 1931, Keynes, 1933). ${ }^3$ In its simplest form, the idea was that a certain expenditure in the economy can lead to primary effects arising from the spending of the initial expenditure, but also to secondary effects when the workers receiving the primary wave spend their new income in the economy. Kahn’s approach, summarized by Tinbergen, was to argue that when a portion $k$ of the new income $I$ is spent, at a period $n$ after the initial expenditure, the new portion is equal to $k^n$. The addition of each additional income $k I+k^2 I+\cdots+k^n I$ formed a geometric series $\frac{I}{1-k}$, where $\frac{1}{1-k}$ is the Keynesian multiplier. For Tinbergen, this analysis was particularly interesting because it brought forward dynamic considerations, but this remained too crude to really inform economic policies.

Tinbergen believed that this neglected some important influences which he had accounted for in larger models, and that it was also possible to deal with those influences on the basis of smaller models. While there are ten variables in the model, it can be reduced to four main equations, as Tinbergen did himself in another paper (Tinbergen, 1937b). It is then always possible to find the aggregate level of employment from these equations and the employment in both sectors, with a relation given by Tinbergen between the level of employment in the two sectors and profits. All the variables are measured as deviations from their equilibrium value, and the unit of time is assumed to be four months.

宏观经济学代考

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Macro-Dynamics Rising to the Challenge of Instability

Frisch 1934 年在 Econometrica 上以长篇专着的形式发表了这方面的第一个例证，其中 Frisch 认为除了 与生产相关的“技术特征”外，还存在与“流通和交流活动。”资本主义经济的这些特征可能会导致经济的其 他运动以及需求与生产之间的失调。 ${ }^{26}$ 随着大萧条继续对欧洲产生持久影响，Frisch 认为这种方法更适合 解释当前的情况，特别是构成经济的群体可能不由自主地破坏彼此地位的风险由于缺乏信息，将经济推向 永无止境的衰退。

Frisch 开发了一个模型，其中构成经济的两个群体定期交换，每个群体的购买力取决于其在前一时期对另 一群体的销售量 (假设每个群体购买商品他不以不变的价格生产) 。在最简单的情况下，Frisch 假设一组 人购买的数量与另一组人在前一时期设法出售的商品数量成正比，如以下两个方程式所示:
$$a_t=\alpha b_{t-1}, \quad b_t=\beta a_{t-1}$$

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Tinbergen’s Analysis of the Multiplier

Tinbergen 认为这忽略了他在较大模型中考虑的一些重要影响，并且也可以在较小模型的基础上处理这些 影响。虽然模型中有十个变量，但它可以简化为四个主要方程，正如 Tinbergen 在另一篇论文中所做的那 样 (Tinbergen, 1937b)。然后，总是可以从这些方程式和两个部门的就业率中找到总的就业水平，以及 Tinbergen 给出的两个部门的就业水平与利润之间的关系。所有变量均以其均衡值的偏差来衡量，时间单 位假定为四个月。

有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

CS880 Game Theory课程简介

The course may cover topics such as game theory, mechanism design, computational finance, and data analysis. Students may learn how to use programming languages and software tools to build and analyze economic models and simulations, and may also study how to apply these techniques to real-world economic problems.

Overall, this course seems to combine elements of economics, computer science, and mathematics to provide students with a unique set of skills and knowledge for analyzing and designing economic systems in a rapidly changing and increasingly complex world.

PREREQUISITES

Project details and timeline
Project details and ideas can be found here (UW access only).

• Feb 22: Short description of topic, goals and project team due (as part of HW1).
• Mar 22: Up to one page report of progress, reference material, plans for the remainder of the semester. Before this date, please make an appointment with Shuchi to discuss potential topics and references.
• May 3: Final project reports due.
• May 5: Two projects (selected on the basis of the final reports) to be showcased during this lecture.

CS880 Game Theory HELP（EXAM HELP， ONLINE TUTOR）

1. The stage game is shown in Table 1 .
\begin{tabular}{c|c|c|}
\hline & $\mathrm{H}$ & $\mathrm{L}$ \
\hline \hline $\mathrm{H}$ & $(3,1)$ & $(0,0)$ \
\hline $\mathrm{L}$ & $(1,2)$ & $(5,3)$ \
\hline
\end{tabular}
Table 1: Stage game
Consider the infinite repetition of the game in Table 1 with discounted criterion to evaluate payoffs. Find a subgame perfect equilibrium of this game such that
(a) the equilibrium payoff of Players approach $(4,2)$ as $\delta \rightarrow 1$.
(b) the equilibrium payoff of Players approach $(3,2)$ as $\delta \rightarrow 1$.

(a) To find a subgame perfect equilibrium (SPE) that approaches a payoff of $(4,2)$ as $\delta \rightarrow 1$, we need to find a strategy for each player that is optimal at each stage of the game, given that the game will continue indefinitely with some probability $\delta \in [0,1)$. One possible SPE is as follows:

• In the first stage, Player 1 plays H and Player 2 plays L. This yields a payoff of $(3,1)$ for Player 1 and $(0,0)$ for Player 2.
• In all subsequent stages, both players play the following strategy:
• If the previous outcome was (H,L), play (H,L) again.
• If the previous outcome was (L,H), play (L,H) again.
• If the previous outcome was (H,H) or (L,L), play (L,H) with probability $p$ and (H,L) with probability $1-p$, where $p$ is the smallest value that satisfies the condition $\delta \geq \frac{1-p}{1+p}$.
This strategy ensures that both players punish deviations from the outcome (L,H) by playing (L,H) in the next stage, but also allows for occasional cooperation by playing (H,L) with some probability. The value of $p$ ensures that the expected discounted payoff from deviating to (H,H) or (L,L) is less than the payoff from playing (L,H), so there is no profitable deviation.

The equilibrium payoff under this strategy is $(4,2)$ when $\delta \rightarrow 1$, because the players play (L,H) with probability 1 as $\delta$ approaches 1. Note that this is not the only SPE, and there may be other equilibria that also approach $(4,2)$ as $\delta \rightarrow 1$.

If we repeat prisoner’s dilemma game for two periods, how many strategies does each player have in this repeated game?

In a repeated prisoner’s dilemma game, each player has multiple strategies that they can use. One common strategy is called “tit-for-tat,” where a player cooperates in the first period and then in subsequent periods does whatever the other player did in the previous period.

If we repeat the game for two periods, each player has four possible strategies:

1. Cooperate in both periods
2. Defect in both periods
3. Cooperate in the first period and then defect in the second period
4. Defect in the first period and then cooperate in the second period

It’s important to note that the number of possible strategies increases with each additional period in a repeated game, making it more difficult to predict the outcome of the game.

Textbooks

• An Introduction to Stochastic Modeling, Fourth Edition by Pinsky and Karlin (freely
available through the university library here)
• Essentials of Stochastic Processes, Third Edition by Durrett (freely available through
the university library here)
To reiterate, the textbooks are freely available through the university library. Note that
you must be connected to the university Wi-Fi or VPN to access the ebooks from the library
links. Furthermore, the library links take some time to populate, so do not be alarmed if
the webpage looks bare for a few seconds.

Statistics-lab™可以为您提供wisc.edu CS880 Game Theory博弈论课程的代写代考辅导服务！ 请认准Statistics-lab™. Statistics-lab™为您的留学生涯保驾护航。

ECON1110 Microeconomics课程简介

Explanation and evaluation of how the price system operates in determining what goods are produced, how goods are produced, who receives income, and how the price system is modified and influenced by private organizations and government policy.

Forbidden Overlap: Students may not receive credit for both ECON 1110 and HADM 1410. ECON 1110 is not a prerequisite for ECON 1120.

PREREQUISITES

The price system is a mechanism by which prices of goods and services are determined through the interaction of supply and demand in a market. The price system plays a crucial role in determining what goods are produced, how goods are produced, who receives income, and how the price system is modified and influenced by private organizations and government policy.

In a market economy, producers are guided by the signals provided by the price system to determine what goods and services to produce. Prices reflect the relative scarcity of resources and the preferences of consumers. Producers respond to these signals by allocating resources to the production of goods and services that are in high demand, and reducing production of goods and services that are in low demand.

The price system also determines how goods are produced, as producers are incentivized to use the most efficient methods of production that minimize costs and maximize profits. This incentivizes innovation and technological advancements in production methods.

ECON1110 Microeconomics HELP（EXAM HELP， ONLINE TUTOR）

What is the concept of utility? List some examples of utility provided in the book.
What are the two basic assumptions that economists make about individuals and firms?
How does the author answer the question “why did the chicken cross the road”?

1. Utility is a measure of the satisfaction or benefit that an individual derives from consuming a good or service. It is a subjective concept that varies from person to person and from situation to situation. Examples of utility provided in the book could include the pleasure someone gets from eating a delicious meal, the relief someone feels from taking a painkiller, or the sense of accomplishment someone experiences after completing a challenging task.
2. The two basic assumptions that economists make about individuals and firms are:
• Rationality: Individuals and firms are assumed to make rational decisions based on their preferences and constraints. They are assumed to weigh the costs and benefits of their choices and choose the option that maximizes their utility or profit.
• Self-interest: Individuals and firms are assumed to act in their own self-interest and pursue their own goals. They are not assumed to care about the well-being of others, except insofar as it affects their own interests.
1. Advantages of a market economy include:
• Efficiency: Market economies tend to allocate resources efficiently, because prices act as signals that guide producers and consumers towards the most valued uses of resources.
• Innovation: Market economies encourage innovation and entrepreneurship, because individuals and firms can earn profits by introducing new products or services or by finding more efficient ways of producing existing ones.
• Choice: Market economies offer consumers a wide range of choices, because producers compete to offer products that meet consumers’ preferences.

Disadvantages of a market economy include:

• Inequality: Market economies can lead to unequal distribution of income and wealth, because some individuals and firms may be more successful than others.
• Externalities: Market economies may generate negative externalities, such as pollution or congestion, that are not reflected in market prices and can harm people who are not directly involved in the market.
• Instability: Market economies may experience booms and busts, as prices and quantities fluctuate in response to changes in supply and demand.
1. The author does not answer the question “why did the chicken cross the road” in the book, as it is not relevant to the economic concepts being discussed.

Explain why incentives matter.
Explain the term “creative destruction” and give two examples.
Why might you be able to save your face by cutting off your nose (if you are a black rhinoceros)?

1. Incentives matter because they influence the behavior of individuals and firms. People respond to incentives by adjusting their actions in ways that are likely to maximize their benefits or minimize their costs. For example, if the government offers tax credits for investing in renewable energy, companies may be incentivized to invest in renewable energy projects in order to reduce their tax burden. If a company offers bonuses for meeting sales targets, employees may be incentivized to work harder to meet those targets and earn the bonuses. Understanding how incentives affect behavior is important for designing effective policies and strategies.
2. “Creative destruction” is a term coined by economist Joseph Schumpeter to describe the process by which new innovations and technologies replace old ones, leading to economic growth and prosperity in the long run, but often causing short-term disruptions and hardships for workers and firms that are displaced by the new technologies. Two examples of creative destruction are:
• The rise of the automobile industry in the early 20th century led to the decline of the horse-drawn carriage industry, causing many carriage makers and related industries to go out of business. However, the growth of the automobile industry created new jobs and opportunities for workers and suppliers in related industries.
• The advent of the digital age has led to the decline of many traditional industries, such as newspapers and bookstores, as consumers increasingly turn to online sources for news and entertainment. However, the growth of the digital economy has created new jobs and opportunities in fields such as software development and e-commerce.
1. Black rhinoceroses have a unique adaptation that allows them to save their face by cutting off their nose. Specifically, they have a prehensile upper lip that they can use to grasp and strip leaves from thorny plants without injuring their sensitive facial skin. This adaptation allows them to feed on plants that other herbivores may avoid due to their thorns. In some cases, a rhinoceros may accidentally injure its nose on a thorn, and in order to prevent infection and further damage, it may use its lower incisors to cut off the damaged part of the nose. While this may seem extreme, it allows the rhinoceros to continue feeding without risking further injury or infection, and the nose will often heal over time.

Textbooks

• An Introduction to Stochastic Modeling, Fourth Edition by Pinsky and Karlin (freely
available through the university library here)
• Essentials of Stochastic Processes, Third Edition by Durrett (freely available through
the university library here)
To reiterate, the textbooks are freely available through the university library. Note that
you must be connected to the university Wi-Fi or VPN to access the ebooks from the library
links. Furthermore, the library links take some time to populate, so do not be alarmed if
the webpage looks bare for a few seconds.

Statistics-lab™可以为您提供cornell.edu ECON1110 Microeconomics微观经济学课程的代写代考辅导服务！ 请认准Statistics-lab™. Statistics-lab™为您的留学生涯保驾护航。