## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON1001

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Do Assumptions Matter

If assumptions shall not be realistic, then maybe one can conclude that assumptions do not matter at all. This position has, in fact, been put forward by (Friedman, 1953, p. 14), one of the most influential economists of his time. He proposed that “Truly important and significant hypotheses will be found to have ‘assumptions’ that are wildly inaccurate descriptive representations of reality, and, in general, the more significant the theory, the more unrealistic the assumptions (in this sense).”

There is some debate as to whether Friedman adheres to the extreme position that assumptions do not matter at all (called instrumentalism) or not but, for the sake of argument, consider this position and see where it leads. According to an instrumentalist’s view, one should judge a theory according to the validity and usefulness of the hypotheses, whereas the assumptions are irrelevant. Does this position make sense? Look at the following model.
Model 3
Assumption: Seatbelts reduce the likelihood of fatal accidents. Hypothesis: Seatbelts reduce the likelihood of fatal accidents.
Model 3 looks like a pretty nonsensical waste of time and is an example of a circular argument, but why does one find it intuitively unconvincing? The hypothesis can be empirically tested and it has been confirmed by the data. Therefore, according to an instrumentalist’s view, a theory that is built on this model passes the test of usefulness. The idea that assumptions are completely irrelevant is, of course, flawed because it prevents one from learning anything about the causal mechanisms that drive the hypotheses, if one cannot rule out the trivial model where hypotheses and assumptions coincide. Even if one’s mind can never grasp the true causal mechanism, and thus one has to be satisfied with crude narratives and heuristics, declaring the assumptions irrelevant leaves one with only cookbooks.

Instrumentalism is an extreme position and there are reasons to assume that Friedman’s own position is more balanced. He argues that the role of a positive science “is the development of a ‘theory’ or ‘hypothesis’ that yields valid and meaningful (i.e., not truistic) predictions about phenomena not yet observed.” It can be argued that the term “truistic” refers to models of the above type that are only uninteresting tautologies. In the end, scientific theory building has a subjective component, because the balance between, on the one hand, meaningful simplifications of the assumptions and of the supposed causal mechanisms, and, on the other hand, the explanatory power of the hypotheses cannot be precisely nailed down. It is the art and craft of experienced scientists to see if a theory is “in balance” in this sense.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|An Example

To illustrate the role assumptions play in models, I will introduce the concept of the production-possibility frontier that will reappear in Chap. 2. In a modern, complex economy, there are millions of people, who all go to work, consume goods, enjoy their friends and families, and so on. This maze of interactions would be impossible to analyze without simplifying assumptions that make it comprehensible to the scientist’s mind. One question, which is relevant to economists, is about the tradeoffs the economy faces when it produces goods and services. Goods and services are produced by all kinds of resources, using tools and skills. The productionpossibility frontier abstracts from all these complexities. In the simplest case, one makes the assumption that the economy can produce exactly two goods, 1 and 2 , whose quantities are drawn along the axes of Fig. 1.1.

The quantity of good 1 is drawn along the abscissa (horizontal axis) and the quantity of good 2 along the ordinate (vertical axis). The downward-sloping graph in the figure is the production-possibility frontier for goods 1 and 2 . The graph shows the various combinations of the two goods that can be produced in the economy, in a given period of time. This illustration of production possibilities relies on drastically simplifying assumptions, but it has two great advantages: it is easy to grasp and it allows for analyzing some of the basic trade-offs a society faces. The graph must be downward sloping, because scarcity implies that an increase in the production of one good must have opportunity costs: an increase in the production of one necessitates a reduction in the production of the other good. The slope of the function is a measure of the opportunity costs, because it measures by how much the production of one good must be reduced, if one produces an additional (small) unit of the other good. It remains to be shown how useful this tool actually is. The purpose of this simple model is to illustrate what the role of simplifying assumptions means.

# 微观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|BEA470

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Theories and Models

In mainstream economics, at least, theories have models as their “logical backbones.” A model is a collection of assumptions and hypotheses that are linked by the rules of logic and mathematics. A model makes several assumptions about an aspect of reality and derives hypotheses from these assumptions in a logically consistent way. To understand the difference between theories and models, look at the following example.

Assume one wants to develop a theory about the functioning of the price mechanism on markets. In order to do so, one thinks about, for example, the way individuals sell and buy their stuff and how these buying and selling decisions explain the formation of prices. This structured way of thinking is one of the models underlying one’s theory.

The crucial function of a model, in the context of theory formation, is to make sure that the key causal mechanisms underlying a theory are made explicit and logically consistent. Look at the following model to understand why:
Model 1
Assumption 1: All human beings are in the streets.
Assumption 2: Peter is a human being.
Hypothesis: $\quad$ Peter is sitting at my home.
“Model 1” is a model because it has a set of assumptions and a hypothesis, but the hypothesis does not follow logically from the assumptions. In this case, the model is logically inconsistent, even though the hypothesis might be correct empirically (Peter is sitting right next to me). The point is that the assumptions cannot explain my observation, which makes the model useless for any theory. A consistent model is therefore a necessary condition for a good theory.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The Virtue of Thriftiness

An important criterion for good models is simplicity, frugality, or thriftiness. The idea is often referred to as Ockham’s razor (named for an English Franciscan Friar in the fourteenth century), which states that, among competing models, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected. However, this concept is much older. Aristotle (2004), in his Posterior Analytics, stated that, “we may assume the superiority ceteris paribus [all things being equal] of the demonstration which derives from fewer postulates or hypotheses.” Ockham’s razor is widely accepted among economists. (Solow, 1997, p. 43) summarizes the self-image of the profession in a very concise way: “Today, if you ask a mainstream economist a question about almost any aspect of economic life, the response will be: suppose we model that situation and see what happens. […] A model is a deliberately simplified representation of a much more complicated situation. [..] The idea is to focus on one or two causal or conditioning factors, exclude everything else, and hope to understand how just these aspects of reality work and interact.”

Ockham’s razor necessarily implies that the assumptions of a model should not be realistic in the naïve sense that the assumptions shall fit reality. Scientific theory building necessarily reduces complexity to make a situation comprehensible for the human mind. Robinson (1962) found a nice expression for the problems implied by models built on “realistic” assumptions: “[a] model which took account of all the variegation of reality would be of no more use than a map at the scale of one to one.” However, the epistemic problem goes even deeper, as illustrated by the novel Tristram Shandy by Sterne (2003). The book is the autobiography of the protagonist, which is so detailed that it takes the author 1 year to write down a single day of his life. From this perspective, the map is even more detailed than the territory and the level of detail one considers adequate must be based on a subjective value judgment.
Maps have to simplify in order to be useful. On the other hand, is there a “right” way to simplify? The answer to this question must also be “no,” because it depends on what one wants to do with the map. If one is driving a car, contour lines are not essential and may easily distract attention from other more important information. However, if one is planning to hike in the mountains, contour lines are crucial. Therefore, a good simplification depends on its purpose.

# 微观经济学代考

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Theories and Models

“模型 1”是一个模型，因为它有一组假设和一个假设，但假设并没有从逻辑上推导出假设。在这种情况下，模型在逻辑上是不一致的，即使假设在经验上可能是正确的（彼得就坐在我旁边）。关键是这些假设无法解释我的观察，这使得该模型对任何理论都毫无用处。因此，一个一致的模型是一个好的理论的必要条件。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON2516

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Some Methodological Remarks

There are cookbooks and scientific theories. In a cookbook, one learns that it takes a hot pan, eggs, flour, milk, baking soda, and a pinch of salt to make pancakes. If one follows the recipe, one ends up with a tasty meal, but one does not really understand why. A scientific theory tells one how heat changes the molecular structure of proteins present in egg white, how baking soda reacts with acids, and how gluten builds elastic networks. This knowledge may not inform one about how to make a pancake, but it can tell one a lot about the deeper reasons why the recipe works. Moreover, one can use this information to develop new innovative recipes. Both cookbooks and scientific theories complement each other: understanding the physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms underlying the transformation of ingredients into meals helps one improve recipes, and the evolved recipes are a source of inspiration for scientific discoveries.

Economics comes in the form of both cookbooks and scientific theories. A stockbroker may just “follow his/her gut” about profitable picks. He/she has no explicit theories about the functioning of capital markets in the back of his/her mind, which informs him/her about the future development of stocks. Like an experienced cook, he/she just “feels” or “sees” which stocks will be profitable. Scientific reasoning would require trying to understand the mechanisms that make one stock successful and the other a failure. Alternatively, take the manager of a firm as an example. When he/she sets up the organization of the firm and the compensation packages for the employees, he/she might follow custom and his/her intuition. The scientific approach to organization and compensation would be to develop theories about the consequences or organizational designs and the incentive effects of different ways to compensate employees. These theories might not be directly applicable to a specific problem, but, over time, they feed into the “culture” of a society and shape the intuitions of decision-makers. John Maynard Keynes made this point quite poignantly: “The ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed, the world is ruled by little else. Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influences, are usually slaves of some defunct economist.”

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|True and Reasonable Theories

I used the term scientific theory in the last subchapter. For the purposes of this text, a theory is defined as a relatively broad conceptual approach that makes reasonable conjectures about causal relationships in the world.

When is a conjecture reasonable and why does one find the word “reasonable” instead of “true” in the above statement? Given the limitations of one’s sense organs and one’s mind, it is impossible to say that a conjecture is true in the sense that it is in total accordance with reality. A nice way to briefly grasp the epistemic problems that come with a naïve idea of truth is a short elaboration of the so-called Münchhausen trilemma. The basic problem is that scientific reasoning requires that one is prepared to provide proof for any of one’s statements. However, such a proof can only be given by means of another statement, which must also be provable. The Münchhausen trilemma makes the point that one has the choice between exactly three unsatisfactory options to deal with this situation:

• Infinite regress: Each proof requires a further proof, ad infinitum. This process will, of course, never end, such that one never “breaks through” to the truth. It is, understandably, impossible to give an example for an infinite regress.
• Circularity: The statement and the proof support each other, maybe in a complex chain of arguments. An example is a flawed interpretation of the theory of evolution that defines the species that fits best in an environment as the one that survives, and then one argues that the species one observes must fit best into its environment.
• Dogmatism: One finally reaches a stage in the process of statement and proof, where the underlying assumptions have no further justification. A wonderful example of dogmatism is the second sentence of the US Declaration of Independence, even if it is not a scientific theory: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” (Franklin et al. 2015)

For all practical intents and purposes, only dogmatism is an option. That means that truth cannot be achieved by a process of scientific reasoning but necessarily relies on an intuition that must be nurtured by other sources. Dogmatism, for the same reason, also implies that every scientific theory must start from value judgments about the basic self-evident principles. Coming back to the discussion about theories, calling a conjecture reasonable bites the trilemma-bullet by requiring the much more moderate standard of being consensual. Wittgenstein (1972), 94 and 110 expressed this beautifully: “But I did not get my picture of the world by satisfying myself of its correctness; nor do I have it because I am satisfied of its correctness. No: it is the inherited background against which I distinguish between true and false. […] As if giving grounds did not come to an end sometime. But the end is not an ungrounded presupposition: it is an ungrounded way of acting.” In order to reach a consensus among experts, one must at least reach an agreement of the different dogmas that (perhaps subconsciously) taint one’s own perspective.

# 微观经济学代考

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|True and Reasonable Theories

• 无限回归：每个证明都需要进一步的证明，无穷无尽。当然，这个过程将永远不会结束，以至于一个人永远不会“突破”到真相。可以理解，不可能给出无限倒退的例子。
• 循环性：陈述和证明相互支持，可能在一个复杂的论证链中。一个例子是对进化论的错误解释，该理论将最适合环境的物种定义为存活下来的物种，然后有人认为观察到的物种必须最适合其环境。
• 教条主义：一个人最终在陈述和证明过程中达到了一个阶段，在这个阶段，基本假设没有进一步的理由。教条主义的一个很好的例子是美国独立宣言的第二句话，即使它不是科学理论：“我们认为这些真理是不言而喻的，人人生而平等，造物主赋予他们拥有某些不可剥夺的权利，其中包括生命、自由和追求幸福的权利。” （富兰克林等人，2015 年）

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|BU1003

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Prices Rise When the Government Prints Too Much Money

In Zimbabwe in March 2007 inflation was reported to be running at 2,200 per cent. That meant that a good priced at the equivalent of Z $\$ 2.99$in March 2006 would be priced at Z$\$68.77$ just a year later. In February 2008 , inflation was estimated at 165,000 per cent. Five months later it was reported as $2,200,000$ per cent. In July 2008 , the government issued a Z $\$ 100$billion note. At that time, it was just about enough to buy a loaf of bread. Estimates for inflation in Zimbabwe in July 2008 put the rate of growth of prices at$231,000,000$per cent. In January 2009 , the government issued$Z \$10,20,50$ and 100 trillion dollar notes – a trillion is 1 followed by 12 zeros. This episode is one of history’s most spectacular examples of inflation, an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy. It is not the only example of inflation that is out of control, however. Weimar Germany in the early 1920s, the Balkans in the mid-1990s and, more recently, Venezuela in 2018, all experienced hyperinflation. In Venezuela, inflation was reported by Steve Hanke of Johns Hopkins University in the United States as being over 4,000 per cent.

High inflation is a problem because it imposes various costs on society; keeping inflation at a low level is a goal of economic policymakers around the world. In almost all cases of high or persistent inflation, a causal factor is the growth in the quantity of money. When a government creates large quantities of the nation’s money, without any corresponding increase in output or productivity, the value of the money falls. In the period outlined above, the Zimbabwean government was issuing money in ever higher denominations. It is generally accepted that there is a relationship between the growth in the quantity of money and the rate of growth of prices.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Economics as a Science

One of the debates about economics is the extent to which it is a ‘science’. Science is a process; it is related to the discovery and creation of new knowledge and understanding but also relies on existing knowledge and understanding. Science is ongoing. The knowledge and understanding associated with the process are constantly evolving as new discoveries help improve our knowledge and understanding of the world around us.

Of course, we tend to think of science from the perspective of physics, chemistry and biology, which many people have studied at school. These subjects are referred to as ‘natural sciences’, because they are associated with the study of physical things and the natural world. When studying natural phenomena, it is often possible to conduct controlled experiments. This means that researchers can vary an object of interest and observe what happens to other variables and objects. The experiment can be repeated, and data gathered, which can help in the explanation of events and to establish cause and effect.

Other discipline areas cannot carry out experiments in the same way. Economics is one of those disciplines. Economics studies decision-making and the effect of decision-making on a wide range of topic areas, but central to the study is human beings. Controlled experiments which can be carried out in the natural sciences cannot be carried out in the same way in economics. Economics is referred to as a ‘social science’ because it deals with human beings as individuals and in groups. The process of knowledge creation and development in social sciences can take on different nuances compared to the natural sciences, but there are processes and methods which are common to both.

# 微观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON106

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Governments Can Sometimes Improve Market Outcomes

An economy can allocate some goods and services through the price mechanism, but markets do not always lead to efficient or equitable outcomes. In some cases, goods and services would not be provided by a market system because it is not practicable to do so, and in other cases market-based allocations might be deemed undesirable, with either too few or too many goods and services consumed. The capitalist system and markets rely on laws and regulations to ensure that property rights are enforced.

Governments provide goods and services which might not be provided in sufficient quantities in a market system and set the legal and regulatory framework within which firms and households can operate. Government intervention in markets may aim to promote efficiency and equity. That is, most policies aim either to enlarge the economic cake, or change the way in which the cake is divided, or even try to achieve both. Market systems do not always ensure that everyone has sufficient food, decent clothing and adequate health care. Many public policies, such as income tax and the social security system, are designed to achieve a more equitable distribution of economic well-being.

When markets do allocate resources, the resulting outcomes might still be deemed inefficient. Economists use the term ‘market failure’ to refer to a situation in which the market on its own fails to produce an efficient allocation of resources. One possible cause of market failure is an externality, which is the uncompensated impact, both negative and positive, of one person’s actions on the well-being of a bystander (a third party). For instance, the classic example of a negative externality is pollution. Another possible cause of market failure is market power, which refers to the ability of a single person or business (or group of businesses) to unduly influence market prices or output. In the presence of market failure, well-designed public policy can enhance economic efficiency.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Microeconomics and Macroeconomics

Since roughly the 1930 s, the field of economics has been divided into two broad subfields. Microeconomics is the study of how households and firms make decisions and how they interact in specific markets. Macroeconomics is the study of economy-wide phenomena. The Nobel Prize winning economist Ragnar Frisch is credited with being the first to use the two terms (along with the term ‘econometrics’ incidentally), and the Cambridge economist Joan Robinson, an associate of Keynes, was one of the first to define macroeconomics, referring to it as ‘the theory of output as a whole’.

Microeconomics might involve the study of the effects of a congestion tax on the use of cars in a city centre, the impact of foreign competition on the European car industry, or the effects of attending university on a person’s lifetime earnings. A macroeconomist might study the effects of borrowing by national governments, the changes over time in an economy’s rate of unemployment or alternative policies to raise growth in national living standards.

Microeconomics and macroeconomics are closely intertwined. Because changes in the overall economy arise from the decisions of millions of individuals, it is impossible to understand macroeconomic developments without considering the associated microeconomic decisions. For example, a macroeconomist might study the effect of a cut in income tax on the overall production of goods and services in an economy. To analyze this issue, they must consider how the tax cut affects the decisions of households concerning how much to spend on goods and services.

Despite the inherent link between microeconomics and macroeconomics, the two fields are distinct. Because microeconomics and macroeconomics address different questions, they sometimes take quite different approaches and are often taught in separate courses.

# 微观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON2516

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Trade Can Make Everyone Better Off

The United States and China are competitors with Europe in the world economy because US and Chinese firms produce many of the same goods as European firms. It might be thought that if China increases its share of world trade at the expense of Europe this might be bad news for people in Europe. This might not be the case.

Trade between Europe and the United States and China is not like a sports contest, where one side wins and the other side loses (a zero-sum game). In some circumstances trade between economies can make all better off. Households, firms and countries have different resource endowments; individuals have talents and skills that allow them to produce some things more efficiently than others; some firms have experience and expertise in the production of goods and services; and some countries, like Spain, are blessed by plenty of sunshine which allows their farmers to grow high quality soft fruit. Trade allows individuals, firms and countries to specialize in the activities they do best. With the income they receive from specializing they can trade with others who are also specializing and can improve their standard of living as a result.

However, while trade can provide benefits and winners, there are also likely to be costs and losers. The economic development of some countries in the last 50 years has meant that many people have access to cheap, good quality goods and services as a result of the export of these goods and services. For workers and employers in these industries in developed economies, the competition from developing countries might mean that they find themselves without work or must close their businesses. In some situations, it is difficult for these people to find alternative work, and whole communities can be greatly affected by the changes being experienced. They may not agree that ‘trade can benefit everyone’.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The Capitalist Economic System

The economic problem highlights three questions that any society must answer. What goods and services should be produced, how they are to be produced and who will get what is produced are determined by the economic system. An economic system is the way in which resources are organized and allocated to provide for the needs of an economy’s citizens. In many countries of the world, a capitalist economic system based on markets is the primary way in which the three questions are addressed. A capitalist economic system incorporates the principles of the private ownership of factors of production to produce goods and services which are exchanged through a price mechanism. Production is operated primarily for profit.

Capitalist economic systems have proved capable of raising the standard of living of millions of people over the last 200 years. We can measure the standard of living in terms of the income that people earn which allows them to purchase the goods and services they need to survive and enjoy life. While capitalist systems have increased living standards for many, it is not the case that everyone in society benefits equally. Capitalism has meant that some people and countries have become very rich whereas others remain poor. The existence of the profit motive provides an incentive for entrepreneurs to take risks to organize factors of production. This dynamism in capitalist systems not only leads to developments in technology and capital efficiency which help generate profits for the individuals and firms concerned but also increases knowledge and information in society as a whole, which further contributes to economic development.

Critics of capitalist systems argue that they are inherently unstable and lurch from boom to bust. In addition, capitalist systems favour those who have acquired ownership of factor inputs. Ownership of factor inputs can result in the exploitation of workers. Owners of factors of production can wield considerable economic and political power which can distort resource allocation. Karl Marx spent a large part of his life seeking to understand and analyze the capitalist system and develop theories to explain why it exploited workers and was unstable.

# 微观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON106

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Looking at an Optimal Choice Diagram

The graph in Figure $5.1$ (a) shows the quantity of food consumed $(x)$ on the horizontal axis and the quantity of clothing $(y)$ on the vertical axis. It also shows three of the consumer’s indifference curves $\left(U_1, U_2\right.$, and $\left.U_3\right)$. Suppose the consumer’s weekly income is $\$ 40$and the price of clothing is$P_y=\$4$ per unit.

Consider the consumer’s choices of food and clothing for three different prices of food. First, suppose the price of food is $P_x=\$ 4$. The budget line that the consumer faces when$P_x=\$4, P_y=\$ 4$, and$I=\$40$ is labeled $B L_1$ in the figure. The slope of $B L_1$ is $-P_x / P_y=-4 / 4=-1$. The consumer’s optimal basket is $A$, indicating that her optimal weekly consumption is 2 units of food and 8 units of clothing.

Finally, suppose the price of food falls to $P_x=\$ 1$. The budget line rotates out to$B L_3$, which has a slope of$-P_x / P_y=-1 / 4$. The consumer’s optimal basket is$C$, with a weekly consumption of 16 units of food and 6 units of clothing. One way to describe how changes in the price of food affect the consumer’s purchases of both goods is to draw a curve connecting all of the baskets that are optimal as the price of food changes (holding the price of clothing and income constant). This curve is called the price consumption curve.${ }^6$In Figure$5.1$(a), the optimal baskets$A$,$B$, and$C$lie on the price consumption curve. Observe that the consumer is better off as the price of food falls. When the price of food is$\$4$ (and she chooses basket $A$ ), she reaches the indifference curve $U_1$. When the price of food is $\$ 2$(and she chooses basket$B$), her utility rises to$U_2$. If the price of food falls to$\$1$, her utility rises even farther, to $U_3$.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE SUBSTITUTION EFFECT

Suppose that a consumer buys two goods, food and clothing, that both goods have a positive marginal utility, and that the price of food decreases. The substitution effect is the amount of additional food the consumer would buy to achieve the same level of utility. Figure $5.6$ shows three optimal choice diagrams that illustrate the steps involved in finding the substitution effect associated with this price change.
Step 1. Find the initial basket (the basket the consumer chooses at the initial price $P_{x_1}$ ). As shown in Figure 5.6(a), when the price of food is $P_{x_1}$, the consumer faces budget line $B L_1$ and maximizes utility by choosing basket $A$ on indifference curve $U_1$. The quantity of food she purchases is $x_A$.
Step 2. Find the final basket (the basket the consumer chooses after the price falls to $\left.P_{x_1}\right)$. As shown in Figure 5.6(b), when the price of food falls to $P_{x_2}$, the budget line rotates outward to $\mathrm{BL}2$, and the consumer maximizes utility by choosing basket $C$ on indifference curve $U_2$. The quantity of food she purchases is $x_C$. Thus, the overall effect of the price change on the quantity of food purchased is $x_c-x_A$. Predictably, the consumer realizes a higher level of utility as a result of the price decrease, as shown by the fact that the initial basket $A$ lies inside the new budget line $B L_2$. Step 3. Find an intermediate decomposition basket that will enable us to identify the portion of the change in quantity due to the substitution effect. We can find this basket by keeping two things in mind. First, the decomposition basket reflects the price decrease, so it must lie on a budget line that is parallel to $B L_2$. Second, the decomposition basket reflects the assumption that the consumer achieves the initial level of utility after the price decrease, so the basket must be at the point where the budget line is tangent to indifference curve $U_1$. As shown in Figure $5.6$ (c), these two conditions are fulfilled by basket $B$ (the decomposition basket) on budget line $B L_d$ (the decomposition budget line). At basket $B$, the consumer purchases the quantity of food $x{B^*}$ Thus, the substitution effect accounts for the consumer’s movement from basket $A$ to basket $B$ – the portion of the overall effect on the quantity of food purchased that can be attributed to the substitution effect is $x_B-x_A$.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE SUBSTITUTION EFFECT

Step 1. 找到初始篮子 (消费者以初始价格选择的篮子 $P_{x_1}$ ). 如图 5.6(a)所示，当食品价格为 $P_{x_1}$ ，消费者面临预 算线 $B L_1$ 并通过选择篮子来最大化效用 $A$ 在无差异曲线上 $U_1$. 她购买的食物数量是 $x_A$.
Step 2. 找到最终的篮子 (价格下跌到之后消费者选择的篮子 $P_{x_1}$ ). 如图 5.6(b)所示，当食品价格下降到 $P_{x_2}$ ，预 算线向外旋转到 $\mathrm{BL} 2$ ，消费者通过选择篮子来最大化效用 $C$ 在无差异曲线上 $U_2$. 她购买的食物数量是 $x_C$. 因 此，价格变化对购买食品数量的总体影响是 $x_c-x_A$. 可以预见的是，由于价格下降，消费者实现了更高水平的 效用，正如最初的笽子 $A$ 位于新预算线内 $B L_2$. 第 3 步。找到一个中间分解篮子，使我们能够识别由于替代效应 引起的数量变化部分。我们可以通过记住两件事来找到这个篮子。首先，分解篮子反映了价格下降，所以它必须 位于平行于 $B L_2$. 其次，分解篮子反映了消费者在价格下降后达到初始效用水平的假设，所以笽子一定在预算线 与无差异曲线相切的点 $U_1$. 如图 $5.6(\mathrm{c})$ 、篮子满足这两个条件 $B$ (分解篮子) 在预算线上 $B L_d$ (分解预算线) 。 在篮下 $B$ ，消费者购买食物的数量 $x B^*$ 因此，替代效应解释了消费者从购物篮中的移动 $A$ 上篮 $B$ – 可归因于替代 效应的对购买食品数量的总体影响部分是 $x_B-x_A$.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON20002

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|FUTURE VALUE AND PRESENT VALUE

To illustrate how we might compare a prize of $\$ 100$received today with a prize of$\$120$ received a year from now, suppose that you could invest the $\$ 100$prize in an account that yielded an annual interest rate of 5 percent$(r=0.05)$and there are no other investment options offering a better return. After 1 year, your account would have grown in value to$\$100(1.05)=\$ 105$. This amount-$\$105$-is the future value of $\$ 100$one year from now at an interest rate of 5 percent. In general, the future value of an amount$C$received$t$periods from now when the interest rate per period is$r$is the amount of money that you would have$t$periods from now if you put$S C$into an account that earned an interest rate of$r$each period. The formula for the future value of an amount is $$C(1+r)^t$$ This formula holds because your interest is compounded as you keep the money in the account: • During the first period, you earn interest equal to$r$on the$\$C$ in your account, so by the end of the first period your account will have grown to $C(1+r)$.
• During the second period, you earn interest equal to $r$ on the $\$(1+r) C$in your account, so by the end of the second period your account will have grown to$C(1+r)+r C(1+r)$, which equals$C(1+r)^2$. • During the third period, you earn interest equal to$r$on the$\$(1+r)^2 C$ in your account, so by the end of the second period your account will have grown to $C(1+r)^2+r C(1+r)^2$, which equals $C(1+r)^2(1+r)$ or $C(1+r)^3$.
Repeating this logic for $t$ periods gives us the formula for future value.
Note that, in our example, the future value of the $\$ 100$prize in 1 year is less than the$\$120$ prize received in a year. Thus, we conclude that $\$ 120$received a year from now is more valuable than$\$100$ received immediately.

This approach is based on a comparison of future values. We can also compare their values in the present. Let’s ask: How much would you need to invest in your account today at an interest rate of 5 percent in order to have exactly $\$ 120$one year from now? The answer would be to solve the following equation for$C: $$C(1.05)=\mathrm{S} 120$$ or \begin{aligned} C &=\frac{\ 120}{(1.05)} \ &=\ 114.28 \end{aligned} This amount-\114.28-is the present value of $\$ 120$received 1 year from now at an interest rate of 5 percent. In general, the present value of an amount$C$received$t$periods from now when the interest rate per period is$r$is the amount of money that you would need to invest today in an account that earns an interest rate of$r$each period so that$t$periods from now you would have$\$C$.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|PRESENT VALUE, FUTURE VALUE

The concepts of present value and future value play a role in the analysis of optimal consumption choice over time discussed in Section 4.3. First, let’s consider the consumer’s budget line. As Figure $4.15$ shows, the horizontal intercept of the consumer’s budget line is equal to
$$I_1+\frac{I_2}{1+r}$$
This tells us that given the consumer’s anticipated flow of income, this year and next year, the most that the consumer could spend this year is equal to the present value of this year’s income and next year’s income. The consumer could achieve this level of current consumption by borrowing an amount equal to his entire future income.
The vertical intercept of the consumer’s budget line is
$$I_2+I_1(1+r)$$
This tells us that the most the consumer could spend next year is the future value of this year’s income and next year’s income. The consumer could achieve this level of future consumption by saving all of his income this year and consuming an amount next year equal to his next year’s income, plus his savings, plus his accumulated interest on that savings.

Note that the slope of the budget line is $-(1+r)$. This tells us that the consumer must give up $1+r$ dollars of future consumption in order to achieve one additional dollar of current consumption. In other words, one additional dollar of current consumption requires that the consumer sacrifice the future value of one dollar of future consumption.

Now, let’s think about the consumer’s optimal level of current and future consumption and explore under what circumstances a consumer is likely to be a borrower or a saver. The consumer would find it optimal to borrow money if the point of tangency defining its optimal basket was to the southeast of point $A$ on the budget line, as shown in Figure 4.15. To explore the circumstances under which this is likely to be the case, we will make a simplifying assumption, namely, that the consumer’s utility function is given by the formula
$$U\left(C_1\right)+\frac{U\left(C_2\right)}{1+\rho}$$
where $U(C)$ is a utility function that indicates the utility the consumer receives from consuming $C$ dollars worth of a composite good within a given year. In other words, we assume that the consumer’s utility is the present value of the utility from consumption this year and next year using a discount rate of $\rho$. This discount rate is referred to as the consumer’s rate of time preference and is a measure of the consumer’s impatience. The higher the value of the consumer’s $\rho$, the more impatient the consumer is, that is, the smaller is the utility the consumer derives from consumption in the future.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|FUTURE VALUE AND PRESENT VALUE

• 在第二个期间，您嗛取的利息等于 $r$ 在 $\$(1+r) C$在您的帐户中，因此到第二个时期结束时，您的帐户将 增长到$C(1+r)+r C(1+r)$, 等于$C(1+r)^2$. • 在第三期，您嗛取的利息等于$r$在$\$(1+r)^2 C$ 在您的帐户中，因此到第二个时期结束时，您的帐户将增长 到 $C(1+r)^2+r C(1+r)^2$ ，等于 $C(1+r)^2(1+r)$ 或者 $C(1+r)^3$.
重复此逻辑 $t$ periods 为我们提供了末来价值的公式。
请注意，在我们的示例中， $\$ 100$一年内的奖金少于$\$120$ 一年内获得的奖品。因此，我们得出结论 $\$ 120$年后收到的比现在更有价值$\$100$ 立即收到。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON2516

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Some Methodological Remarks

There are cookbooks and scientific theories. In a cookbook, one learns that it takes a hot pan, eggs, flour, milk, baking soda, and a pinch of salt to make pancakes. If one follows the recipe, one ends up with a tasty meal, but one does not really understand why. A scientific theory tells one how heat changes the molecular structure of proteins present in egg white, how baking soda reacts with acids, and how gluten builds elastic networks. This knowledge may not inform one about how to make a pancake, but it can tell one a lot about the deeper reasons why the recipe works. Moreover, one can use this information to develop new innovative recipes. Both cookbooks and scientific theories complement each other: understanding the physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms underlying the transformation of ingredients into meals helps one improve recipes, and the evolved recipes are a source of inspiration for scientific discoveries.

Economics comes in the form of both cookbooks and scientific theories. A stockbroker may just “follow his/her gut” about profitable picks. He/she has no explicit theories about the functioning of capital markets in the back of his/her mind, which informs him/her about the future development of stocks. Like an experienced cook, he/she just “feels” or “sees” which stocks will be profitable. Scientific reasoning would require trying to understand the mechanisms that make one stock successful and the other a failure. Alternatively, take the manager of a firm as an example. When he/she sets up the organization of the firm and the compensation packages for the employees, he/she might follow custom and his/her intuition. The scientific approach to organization and compensation would be to develop theories about the consequences or organizational designs and the incentive effects of different ways to compensate employees. These theories might not be directly applicable to a specific problem, but, over time, they feed into the “culture” of a society and shape the intuitions of decision-makers. John Maynard Keynes made this point quite poignantly: “The ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed, the world is ruled by little else. Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influences, are usually slaves of some defunct economist.”

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|True and Reasonable Theories

I used the term scientific theory in the last subchapter. For the purposes of this text, a theory is defined as a relatively broad conceptual approach that makes reasonable conjectures about causal relationships in the world.

When is a conjecture reasonable and why does one find the word “reasonable” instead of “true” in the above statement? Given the limitations of one’s sense organs and one’s mind, it is impossible to say that a conjecture is true in the sense that it is in total accordance with reality. A nice way to briefly grasp the epistemic problems that come with a naïve idea of truth is a short elaboration of the so-called Münchhausen trilemma. The basic problem is that scientific reasoning requires that one is prepared to provide proof for any of one’s statements. However, such a proof can only be given by means of another statement, which must also be provable. The Münchhausen trilemma makes the point that one has the choice between exactly three unsatisfactory options to deal with this situation:

• Infinite regress: Each proof requires a further proof, ad infinitum. This process will, of course, never end, such that one never “breaks through” to the truth. It is, understandably, impossible to give an example for an infinite regress.
• Circularity: The statement and the proof support each other, maybe in a complex chain of arguments. An example is a flawed interpretation of the theory of evolution that defines the species that fits best in an environment as the one that survives, and then one argues that the species one observes must fit best into its environment.
• Dogmatism: One finally reaches a stage in the process of statement and proof, where the underlying assumptions have no further justification. A wonderful example of dogmatism is the second sentence of the US Declaration of Independence, even if it is not a scientific theory: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” (Franklin et al. 2015)

For all practical intents and purposes, only dogmatism is an option. That means that truth cannot be achieved by a process of scientific reasoning but necessarily relies on an intuition that must be nurtured by other sources. Dogmatism, for the same reason, also implies that every scientific theory must start from value judgments about the basic self-evident principles. Coming back to the discussion about theories, calling a conjecture reasonable bites the trilemma-bullet by requiring the much more moderate standard of being consensual. Wittgenstein (1972), 94 and 110 expressed this beautifully: “But I did not get my picture of the world by satisfying myself of its correctness; nor do I have it because I am satisfied of its correctness. No: it is the inherited background against which I distinguish between true and false. [… ] As if giving grounds did not come to an end sometime. But the end is not an ungrounded presupposition: it is an ungrounded way of acting.” In order to reach a consensus among experts, one must at least reach an agreement of the different dogmas that (perhaps subconsciously) taint one’s own perspective.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|True and Reasonable Theories

• 无限回归：每个证明都需要进一步的证明，无穷无尽。当然，这个过程将永远不会结束，以至于一个人永远不会“突破”到真相。可以理解，不可能给出无限倒退的例子。
• 循环性：陈述和证明相互支持，可能在一个复杂的论证链中。一个例子是对进化论的错误解释，该理论将最适合环境的物种定义为存活下来的物种，然后有人认为观察到的物种必须最适合其环境。
• 教条主义：一个人最终在陈述和证明过程中达到了一个阶段，在这个阶段，基本假设没有进一步的理由。教条主义的一个很好的例子是美国独立宣言的第二句话，即使它不是科学理论：“我们认为这些真理是不言而喻的，人人生而平等，造物主赋予他们拥有某些不可剥夺的权利，其中包括生命、自由和追求幸福的权利。” （富兰克林等人，2015 年）

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON106

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Economists in Washington

President Harry Truman once said that he wanted to find a one-armed economist. When he asked his economists for advice, they always answered, “On the one hand,…. On the other hand, ….”

Truman was right that economists’ advice is not always straightforward. This tendency is rooted in one of the Ten Principles of Economics: People face trade-offs. Economists are aware that trade-offs are involved in most policy decisions. A policy might increase efficiency at the cost of equality. It might help future generations but hurt the current generation. An economist who says that all policy decisions are easy is an economist not to be trusted.

Truman was not the only president who relied on economists’ advice. Since 1946 , the president of the United States has received guidance from the Council of Economic Advisers, which consists of three members and a staff of a few dozen economists. The council, whose offices are just a few steps from the White House, has no duty other than to advise the president and to write the annual Economic Report of the President, which discusses recent developments in the economy and presents the council’s analysis of current policy issues.

The president also receives input from economists in many administrative departments. Economists at the Office of Management and Budget help formulate spending plans and regulatory policies. Economists at the Department of the Treasury help design tax policy. Economists at the Department of Labor analyze data on workers and those looking for work to help formulate labor-market policies. Economists at the Department of Justice help enforce the nation’s antitrust laws.

Economists are also found outside the executive branch of government. To obtain independent evaluations of policy proposals, Congress relies on the advice of the Congressional Budget Office, which is staffed by economists. The Federal Reserve, the institution that sets the nation’s monetary policy, employs hundreds of economists to analyze developments in the United States and throughout the world.

The influence of economists on policy goes beyond their role as advisers: Their research and writings can affect policy indirectly. Economist John Maynard Keynes offered this observation:

The ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed, the world is ruled by little else. Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from intellectual influences, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist. Madmen in authority, who hear voices in the air, are distilling their frenzy from some academic scribbler of a few years back.

These words were written in 1935, but they remain true today. Indeed, the “academic scribbler” now influencing public policy is often Keynes himself.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Why Economists’ Advice Is Not Always Followed

Economists who advise presidents and other elected leaders know that their recommendations are not always heeded. Frustrating as this can be, it is easy to understand. The process by which economic policy is actually made differs in many ways from the idealized policy process assumed in economics textbooks.

Throughout this text, whenever we discuss policy, we often focus on one question: What is the best policy for the government to pursue? We act as if policy were set by a benevolent king. Once the king figures out the right policy, he has no trouble putting his ideas into action.

In the real world, figuring out the right policy is only part of a leader’s job, sometimes the easiest part. After a president hears from his economic advisers what policy they deem best, he turns to other advisers for related input. His communications advisers will tell him how best to explain the proposed policy to the public, and they will try to anticipate any misunderstandings that might make the challenge more difficult. His press advisers will tell him how the news media will report on his proposal and what opinions will likely be expressed on the nation’s editorial pages. His legislative affairs advisers will tell him how Congress will view the proposal, what amendments members of Congress will suggest, and the likelihood that Congress will pass some version of the president’s proposal into law. His political advisers will tell him which groups will organize to support or oppose the proposed policy, how this proposal will affect his standing among different groups in the electorate, and whether it will change support for any of the president’s other policy initiatives. After weighing all this advice, the president then decides how to proceed.

Making economic policy in a representative democracy is a messy affair, and there are often good reasons why presidents (and other politicians) do not advance the policies that economists advocate. Economists offer crucial input to the policy process, but their advice is only one ingredient of a complex recipe.

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。