经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Introduction and motivation

如果你也在 怎样代写市场经济学Market economy这个学科遇到相关的难题,请随时右上角联系我们的24/7代写客服。

市场经济是一种经济体系,其中有两种力量,即供应和需求,指导商品和服务的生产。市场经济不受中央当局(如政府)控制,而是基于自愿交换。

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富,各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

我们提供的市场经济学Market economy及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Introduction and motivation

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Human flourishing, values, virtues, markets, and state intervention

The aim of an economy is to enhance people’s life; to enable them to realize the goals they have set for themselves. All people have more or less the same basic needs: health, food, shelter, and safety. Although these needs are universal, the importance attached to each will depend on the degree to which these needs are already fulfilled. In addition to these basic needs, individuals can strive for immaterial items such as self-expression. The priorities can change over time. Immaterial goals will be ’emphasized after people have attained material security, and because they have attained material security’ (Inglehart 1997: 35). Finally, people think differently about the preferred way of achieving certain goals. Should individuals try to attain goals by themselves or are others also responsible for achieving a better situation?

Opinions of the population and academics differ on the preferred way of organizing a society so that the inhabitants can realize the goals they have set for themselves. As we will see in the rest of the book, views differ on aspects such as the role of markets, virtues, and state intervention. Are markets the best way to coordinate economic activities or are they just one possibility among many others? Must market participants have certain values and virtues in order for a market to function properly, or does the market teach us how to behave? Finally, many agree that the state should guarantee property rights and ensure access to courts. Opinions differ on the degree to which a state should actively participate in firms. Can a state be the owner, or one of the owners, of a company, and if so, only temporarily? As we will see in this book, even within a group of wealthy nations, the dominant views on these matters differ greatly. Before proceeding, we provide some definitions of the key concepts, namely lımnan flumrisling, (fret) narkeเช, જเate interventiun, and virtues.

Human flourishing consists in those things that characterize human life that is thriving, including freedoms as well as achievements, and including societylevel features as well as qualities that pertain to individual lives. It can refer to both the material and non-material aspects of a person’s life. At the individual level, this refers to elements of life through which people flourish, by which they obtain enough food, are healthy, have a home, are safe, and are able to express themselves in the way they prefer. At the macro level, income per capita, the employment rate and the human development index are frequently used measures. The latter includes income per capita, life expectancy, and education. In recent academic literature, human flourishing is often meas ured by subjective well-being, which has two dimensions: happiness and life satisfaction. These two dimensions can also be labelled as ‘feeling good’ and ‘functioning well’ (Huppert and So 2013). Another, more recently developed, indicator is the Better Life Index, developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The aim of this book

This book’s basic assumption is that human beings live in a complex world in which individuals must make sense of other people’s reactions. People’s cognitive capabilities are limited in such a way that considering a broad set of relevant factors in order to interpret events is not possible. It simply takes too much time. Consequently, people use frames and look at the reactions of others to make up their minds. ${ }^{4}$ People use cognitive frames to interpret actions and interactions in this complex world. ${ }^{5}$ These cognitive frames are built during a person’s formative years, when parents and teachers are important in forming a person’s mental frame (Hofstede et al. 2010: 5-10). These educators transmit to the next generation norms, values, virtues, and habits. What exactly they transmit depends on their own education and experience. ${ }^{6}$ The mental frame that children construct will depend on the intergenerationally transmitted morality and on their own experience. Consequently, a person’s cognitive frame depends on vertical and horizontal transmission of values, norms, and virtues (Bisin and Verdier 2011: 341). The former concerns the transmission from generation to generation and the latter the influence of the environment. This environment can be close friends, the village, the neighbourhood in a city, and, at a greater distance, the nation. Each person also influences others and, as a group, they form their surroundings. These interaction processes between generations and between the individual and the group result in dominant ideas of preferred behaviour.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The method used

In order to be able to show that opinions differ between different nations, we have opted for a comparative case study. Such a set-up allows us to thoroughly investigate the positions of academic economists, the population, and political decision-makers. Each of the countries selected for this comparative case study represents a different type of market economy. We focus our research on three Western countries: the United States of America, Germany, and France. These countries are selected because market institutions have been prevalent here for a long time, so that differences cannot be ascribed to transition problems, but are likely a reflection of deeply rooted differences. In addition, these three countries are at a smilar stage of development, so that differences $\mathrm{m}$ attitude and beliefs cannot be ascribed to differences in the level of economic development. ${ }^{9}$ Finally, each of them represents a different type of market economy: the free, also known as liberal, market economy, the coordinated market economy,

and the hierarchical market economy. This typology corresponds with the categorization used in the Varieties of Capitalism (VoC) literature (Hall and Soskice 2001). This literature focuses on the free market economy and coordinated market economy. In 2009, Schneider and Soskice extended this categorization with the category of hierarchical market economies, which, in their article, refers to I atin American countries (Schneider 2009; and Schneider and Soskice 2009). In the present study, the hierarchical market economy refers to Latin European countries, in particular France. The countries associated with the liberal and the coordinated market economy are the same as in the VoC literature. ${ }^{10}$ The categorization of countries is also in accordance with that of other authors, for example Schmidt (2003) and Witt et al. (2018). ${ }^{11}$

The economic ideas are studied by investigating the writings of dominant economists in the countries concerned. The view of the public is derived from large surveys, such as the European Values Study and the World Values Survey and Hofstede’s ground-breaking book Culture’s Consequences. The views of politicians come to the fore in the descriptions of the history of certain policy areas in the three countries concerned. These descriptions do not merely list facts but focus on the arguments for choosing a certain trajectory. These arguments reveal the values of politicians and, in some cases, those of the population or academics. The topics covercd arc thc labour market, financial systems, competition policy, and monetary policy.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Introduction and motivation

市场经济学代考

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Human flourishing, values, virtues, markets, and state intervention

经济的目的是提高人们的生活水平;使他们能够实现为自己设定的目标。所有人或多或少都有相同的基本需求:健康、食物、住所和安全。尽管这些需求是普遍的,但对每个需求的重视程度将取决于这些需求已经得到满足的程度。除了这些基本需求之外,个人还可以争取非物质项目,例如自我表达。优先级会随着时间而改变。非物质目标将“在人们获得物质安全之后得到强调,因为他们已经获得了物质安全”(Inglehart 1997:35)。最后,人们对实现特定目标的首选方式有不同的看法。个人应该尝试自己实现目标,还是其他人也应该为实现更好的情况负责?

对于组织社会的首选方式,民众和学者的意见不同,以便居民能够实现他们为自己设定的目标。正如我们将在本书的其余部分中看到的那样,在市场的作用、美德和国家干预等方面存在不同的观点。市场是协调经济活动的最佳方式,还是只是众多可能性中的一种?市场参与者必须具备一定的价值观和美德才能使市场正常运作,还是市场教会我们如何行事?最后,许多人同意国家应保障财产权并确保诉诸法院。对于国家应在何种程度上积极参与企业,意见不一。一个国家是否可以成为公司的所有者或所有者之一,如果可以,只是暂时的?正如我们将在本书中看到的,即使在富裕国家集团内部,对这些问题的主流观点也大相径庭。在继续之前,我们提供了一些关键概念的定义,即 lımnan flumrisling、(fret) narkeเช、જเate interventiun 和美德。

人类的繁荣在于那些表征人类生活繁荣的事物,包括自由和成就,包括社会层面的特征以及与个人生活有关的品质。它可以指一个人生活的物质和非物质方面。在个人层面,这是指人们通过这些生活要素获得足够的食物、健康、有家、安全并能够以自己喜欢的方式表达自己。在宏观层面,人均收入、就业率和人类发展指数是常用的衡量指标。后者包括人均收入、预期寿命和教育。在最近的学术文献中,人类的繁荣通常由主观幸福感来衡量,它有两个维度:幸福和生活满足。这两个维度也可以标记为“感觉良好”和“运作良好”(Huppert and So 2013)。另一个最近开发的指​​标是经济合作与发展组织 (OECD) 开发的“美好生活指数”。

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The aim of this book

本书的基本假设是,人类生活在一个复杂的世界中,个人必须理解他人的反应。人们的认知能力受到限制,以至于不可能考虑广泛的相关因素来解释事件。它只是需要太多时间。因此,人们使用框架并查看他人的反应来下定决心。4人们使用认知框架来解释这个复杂世界中的行为和交互。5这些认知框架是在一个人的成长阶段建立起来的,此时父母和老师对形成一个人的心理框架很重要(Hofstede et al. 2010: 5-10)。这些教育者将规范、价值观、美德和习惯传递给下一代。他们究竟传播什么取决于他们自己的教育和经验。6儿童构建的心理框架将取决于代际传递的道德和他们自己的经验。因此,一个人的认知框架取决于价值观、规范和美德的纵向和横向传递(Bisin 和 Verdier 2011:341)。前者涉及代代相传,后者涉及环境的影响。这种环境可以是亲密的朋友、村庄、城市的邻里,以及更远的国家。每个人也会影响其他人,作为一个群体,他们形成了他们的环境。这些世代之间以及个人与群体之间的互动过程导致了偏好行为的主导观念。

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The method used

为了能够表明不同国家之间的意见不同,我们选择了比较案例研究。这样的设置使我们能够彻底调查学术经济学家、人口和政治决策者的立场。本比较案例研究选择的每个国家都代表了不同类型的市场经济。我们将研究重点放在三个西方国家:美国、德国和法国。之所以选择这些国家,是因为市场制度在这里盛行已久,因此差异不能归咎于转型问题,而很可能是根深蒂固的差异的反映。此外,这三个国家处于相似的发展阶段,因此存在差异米态度和信念不能归因于经济发展水平的差异。9最后,它们中的每一个都代表了不同类型的市场经济:自由市场经济,也称为自由市场经济,协调市场经济,

和等级分明的市场经济。这种类型学与资本主义品种 (VoC) 文献中使用的分类相对应(Hall 和 Soskice 2001)。该文献侧重于自由市场经济和协调市场经济。2009 年,Schneider 和 Soskice 将这一分类扩展为等级市场经济类别,在他们的文章中,该类别指的是美国国家(Schneider 2009;以及 Schneider 和 Soskice 2009)。在本研究中,等级市场经济指的是拉丁美洲国家,特别是法国。与自由和协调市场经济相关的国家与 VoC 文献中的相同。10国家的分类也与其他作者的分类一致,例如 Schmidt (2003) 和 Witt 等人。(2018 年)。11

通过调查有关国家主要经济学家的著作来研究经济思想。公众的观点来源于大型调查,例如欧洲价值观研究和世界价值观调查以及霍夫斯泰德的开创性著作《文化的后果》。在有关三个国家的某些政策领域的历史描述中,政界人士的观点脱颖而出。这些描述不仅列出了事实,而且侧重于选择特定轨迹的论据。这些论点揭示了政治家的价值观,在某些情况下,也揭示了民众或学者的价值观。主题涵盖劳动力市场、金融体系、竞争政策和货币政策。

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考 请认准statistics-lab™

统计代写请认准statistics-lab™. statistics-lab™为您的留学生涯保驾护航。

金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构,多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务,包括但不限于Essay代写,Assignment代写,Dissertation代写,Report代写,小组作业代写,Proposal代写,Paper代写,Presentation代写,计算机作业代写,论文修改和润色,网课代做,exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中,本科,研究生等海外留学全阶段,辐射金融,经济学,会计学,审计学,管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者,也有海外名校硕博留学生,每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力,专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创,100%专业,100%准时,100%满意。

随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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