### 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Introduction and motivation

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Human flourishing, values, virtues, markets, and state intervention

The aim of an economy is to enhance people’s life; to enable them to realize the goals they have set for themselves. All people have more or less the same basic needs: health, food, shelter, and safety. Although these needs are universal, the importance attached to each will depend on the degree to which these needs are already fulfilled. In addition to these basic needs, individuals can strive for immaterial items such as self-expression. The priorities can change over time. Immaterial goals will be ’emphasized after people have attained material security, and because they have attained material security’ (Inglehart 1997: 35). Finally, people think differently about the preferred way of achieving certain goals. Should individuals try to attain goals by themselves or are others also responsible for achieving a better situation?

Opinions of the population and academics differ on the preferred way of organizing a society so that the inhabitants can realize the goals they have set for themselves. As we will see in the rest of the book, views differ on aspects such as the role of markets, virtues, and state intervention. Are markets the best way to coordinate economic activities or are they just one possibility among many others? Must market participants have certain values and virtues in order for a market to function properly, or does the market teach us how to behave? Finally, many agree that the state should guarantee property rights and ensure access to courts. Opinions differ on the degree to which a state should actively participate in firms. Can a state be the owner, or one of the owners, of a company, and if so, only temporarily? As we will see in this book, even within a group of wealthy nations, the dominant views on these matters differ greatly. Before proceeding, we provide some definitions of the key concepts, namely lımnan flumrisling, (fret) narkeเช, જเate interventiun, and virtues.

Human flourishing consists in those things that characterize human life that is thriving, including freedoms as well as achievements, and including societylevel features as well as qualities that pertain to individual lives. It can refer to both the material and non-material aspects of a person’s life. At the individual level, this refers to elements of life through which people flourish, by which they obtain enough food, are healthy, have a home, are safe, and are able to express themselves in the way they prefer. At the macro level, income per capita, the employment rate and the human development index are frequently used measures. The latter includes income per capita, life expectancy, and education. In recent academic literature, human flourishing is often meas ured by subjective well-being, which has two dimensions: happiness and life satisfaction. These two dimensions can also be labelled as ‘feeling good’ and ‘functioning well’ (Huppert and So 2013). Another, more recently developed, indicator is the Better Life Index, developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The aim of this book

This book’s basic assumption is that human beings live in a complex world in which individuals must make sense of other people’s reactions. People’s cognitive capabilities are limited in such a way that considering a broad set of relevant factors in order to interpret events is not possible. It simply takes too much time. Consequently, people use frames and look at the reactions of others to make up their minds. ${ }^{4}$ People use cognitive frames to interpret actions and interactions in this complex world. ${ }^{5}$ These cognitive frames are built during a person’s formative years, when parents and teachers are important in forming a person’s mental frame (Hofstede et al. 2010: 5-10). These educators transmit to the next generation norms, values, virtues, and habits. What exactly they transmit depends on their own education and experience. ${ }^{6}$ The mental frame that children construct will depend on the intergenerationally transmitted morality and on their own experience. Consequently, a person’s cognitive frame depends on vertical and horizontal transmission of values, norms, and virtues (Bisin and Verdier 2011: 341). The former concerns the transmission from generation to generation and the latter the influence of the environment. This environment can be close friends, the village, the neighbourhood in a city, and, at a greater distance, the nation. Each person also influences others and, as a group, they form their surroundings. These interaction processes between generations and between the individual and the group result in dominant ideas of preferred behaviour.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The method used

In order to be able to show that opinions differ between different nations, we have opted for a comparative case study. Such a set-up allows us to thoroughly investigate the positions of academic economists, the population, and political decision-makers. Each of the countries selected for this comparative case study represents a different type of market economy. We focus our research on three Western countries: the United States of America, Germany, and France. These countries are selected because market institutions have been prevalent here for a long time, so that differences cannot be ascribed to transition problems, but are likely a reflection of deeply rooted differences. In addition, these three countries are at a smilar stage of development, so that differences $\mathrm{m}$ attitude and beliefs cannot be ascribed to differences in the level of economic development. ${ }^{9}$ Finally, each of them represents a different type of market economy: the free, also known as liberal, market economy, the coordinated market economy,

and the hierarchical market economy. This typology corresponds with the categorization used in the Varieties of Capitalism (VoC) literature (Hall and Soskice 2001). This literature focuses on the free market economy and coordinated market economy. In 2009, Schneider and Soskice extended this categorization with the category of hierarchical market economies, which, in their article, refers to I atin American countries (Schneider 2009; and Schneider and Soskice 2009). In the present study, the hierarchical market economy refers to Latin European countries, in particular France. The countries associated with the liberal and the coordinated market economy are the same as in the VoC literature. ${ }^{10}$ The categorization of countries is also in accordance with that of other authors, for example Schmidt (2003) and Witt et al. (2018). ${ }^{11}$

The economic ideas are studied by investigating the writings of dominant economists in the countries concerned. The view of the public is derived from large surveys, such as the European Values Study and the World Values Survey and Hofstede’s ground-breaking book Culture’s Consequences. The views of politicians come to the fore in the descriptions of the history of certain policy areas in the three countries concerned. These descriptions do not merely list facts but focus on the arguments for choosing a certain trajectory. These arguments reveal the values of politicians and, in some cases, those of the population or academics. The topics covercd arc thc labour market, financial systems, competition policy, and monetary policy.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。