### 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|National culture in the three types of market economies

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|United States of America2

The present culture in the United States is dominated by the influence of those who migrated to the country from the sixteenth century onwards. The first wave of migrants fled the European countries because of religious intolerance. Later waves, for example the influx in the first half of the nineteenth century and that at the beginning of the twentieth century, came for economic reasons. The first settlers lived in small independent settlements where they worked in small-scale enterprises. When they fought for independence from Great Britain, they developed a unique American culture, characterized by, amongst other things, freedom from oppression and a deep belief in government by the people. A system of checks and balances should prevent one group from dominating another. The immigrants who settled in the West developed a kind of frontier mentality, involving hard work and individual independence. During $1815-1850$ approximately, a notion of the ‘common man’ emerged. This ‘common man’ had to be protected against the might of the government and the rich. From 1850 onwards, large corporations developed, which led to a widening of inequalities between the rich and the poor and a concentration of power in the hands of a few firms (see also Chapter 8). This trend undermined the social fabric, but the success of some also reinforced the image of a land of abundance and opportunity. From the seventeenth century onwards, successful settlers propagated this image in order to induce further migration from Europe. At times, political forces pushed teachers towards this view (Alesina and Glaeser 2004: 199 and 204). Since the 1930 s, the United States has developed into a super power. First politically and militarily, later as an economic power.

One can easily understand that such a history leads to a preference for the individual, independence, a high degree of accepting uncertainty and risk, and an aversion against the concentration of power. However, striving for the realization of any one of these values can be at the cost of another, which leads to tensions. Hoppes and Rhagat (3007: Table 11.1) mention 12 recurrent themes and tensions in US culture. We will encounter some of these in the next chapters.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Germany4

Germany is a relatively young nation. It was founded in 1871 when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. This new nation has experienced a turbulent history. It was a central player in both the First and Second World War and it was defeated in both cases. Political unrest, hyperinflation, recession, and the coming to power of the Nazis characterized the 1920 s and $1930 \mathrm{~s}$. After the Second World War, the country was first occupied and thereafter divided into two independent nations, and finally reunited in $1990 .$

Largely, this recent history of war and divide can be considered a continuation of the events before the establishment of Das Deutsche Reich. The geographical area of what is now Germany had been torn apart several times and contained many divisions. The first division was that between civilization and barbarism. The Limes – a wall that the Romans built to keep the barbarian Germans out – went through the middle of what is now Germany. A similar division existed between the eastern and western states. Most western states followed the ideas of the French Revolution and democracy. The eastern states were less influenced by these ideas and idealized the state.

Another division in Germany is between adherents of Catholicism and Protestantism. After the Reformation many states became Protestant, a decision made by the ruler of the state. In 1618 , the Thirty Years’ War began between Protestants and Catholics. Although armies from different countries took part in this war, it was almost exclusively fought on the soil of what is now Germany. The states most affected by this war suffered huge losses. Famines, killings, looting, and the plague killed about one-third of the population. One can imagine that these events could result in German angst (anxiety). The hyperinflation of the 1920 s las alsu been broughi forward as a reasun for Corman’s aversion to mncertainty (Issing 20105). It is possible that these experiences have produced a longing for stability (Stabilitätskultur) and a tendency towards conservatism.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|France6

Of the three countries considered in this book, France has by far the longest history as an independent state. This does not imply that this long time of a common history led to a uniform culture. Perhaps it even led to the opposite. France is full of paradoxes, which, according to some, might be explained by the fact that it is a large country (Braudel 1990: 305-307). Ernest Labrousse notes that that part of France which is open to foreign influences is confronted with a France that is strongly inward looking. According to him, the latter consists of the rural areas including small and medium-sized towns (see quote in Braudel 1990: 297). An important paradox is that between authority, freedom, and related values.

Since the Middle Ages and the Counter Reformation, centralized government and industry, submission to hierarchy, lack of autonomy, and a strong civil service have remained French features. However, this style clashes with the values of freedom and fraternity, originally expressed in the French Revolution.
(Castel et al. 2008: 549)
During the last centuries, France has continued to maintain ‘two contrasting traditions; first the aura of elitist aristocratic values, elegance, and grandeur associated with pre-1789 France, and second, the continuation of egalitarian and radical values associated with the French revolution’ (idem: 549).

Throughout their history, the French developed the idea that their national view was not only good for their own civilization but had universal validity. French people have an ambivalent attitude towards authority and employers. When in need, employees turn to their employer and the government. These paternalistic tendencies originate in the pater familias way of organizing

a group (society) so characteristic of the Middle Ages (Siedentop 2014). The national political elite is the highest elite. Since employers often decide things without extensive consultation with the employees, the latter will eventually challenge the authority of the employers (see Section 2.4.2 on cooperation). Trade unions were legalized in 1884 . However, for many years both the state and employers neglected trade unions.

Intellectuals have always held a special place in French society. They have quite an abstract mindset and prefer more general and abstract plans for reform than their Anglo-Saxon counterparts. Prestigious higher education is not provided by universities but by the Grandes écoles. Students have to take a competitive entrance exam. Emphasis is on mathematics and logical and abstract thinking. The graduates of these schools play an important part in society, both in the civil service and in the private sector (see Chapters 5 and 9). This extremely hierarchical nature of the educational system reinforces the existing social cleavages (Piketty 2020: 757).’ Family-owned businesses are an important characteristic of French business. In 1992, 25 out of the 100 leading companies were family controlled.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|France6

(Castel et al. 2008: 549)

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## MATLAB代写

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