经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|National culture in the three types of market economies

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市场经济是一种经济体系,其中有两种力量,即供应和需求,指导商品和服务的生产。市场经济不受中央当局(如政府)控制,而是基于自愿交换。

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  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|National culture in the three types of market economies

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|United States of America2

The present culture in the United States is dominated by the influence of those who migrated to the country from the sixteenth century onwards. The first wave of migrants fled the European countries because of religious intolerance. Later waves, for example the influx in the first half of the nineteenth century and that at the beginning of the twentieth century, came for economic reasons. The first settlers lived in small independent settlements where they worked in small-scale enterprises. When they fought for independence from Great Britain, they developed a unique American culture, characterized by, amongst other things, freedom from oppression and a deep belief in government by the people. A system of checks and balances should prevent one group from dominating another. The immigrants who settled in the West developed a kind of frontier mentality, involving hard work and individual independence. During $1815-1850$ approximately, a notion of the ‘common man’ emerged. This ‘common man’ had to be protected against the might of the government and the rich. From 1850 onwards, large corporations developed, which led to a widening of inequalities between the rich and the poor and a concentration of power in the hands of a few firms (see also Chapter 8). This trend undermined the social fabric, but the success of some also reinforced the image of a land of abundance and opportunity. From the seventeenth century onwards, successful settlers propagated this image in order to induce further migration from Europe. At times, political forces pushed teachers towards this view (Alesina and Glaeser 2004: 199 and 204). Since the 1930 s, the United States has developed into a super power. First politically and militarily, later as an economic power.

One can easily understand that such a history leads to a preference for the individual, independence, a high degree of accepting uncertainty and risk, and an aversion against the concentration of power. However, striving for the realization of any one of these values can be at the cost of another, which leads to tensions. Hoppes and Rhagat (3007: Table 11.1) mention 12 recurrent themes and tensions in US culture. We will encounter some of these in the next chapters.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Germany4

Germany is a relatively young nation. It was founded in 1871 when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. This new nation has experienced a turbulent history. It was a central player in both the First and Second World War and it was defeated in both cases. Political unrest, hyperinflation, recession, and the coming to power of the Nazis characterized the 1920 s and $1930 \mathrm{~s}$. After the Second World War, the country was first occupied and thereafter divided into two independent nations, and finally reunited in $1990 .$

Largely, this recent history of war and divide can be considered a continuation of the events before the establishment of Das Deutsche Reich. The geographical area of what is now Germany had been torn apart several times and contained many divisions. The first division was that between civilization and barbarism. The Limes – a wall that the Romans built to keep the barbarian Germans out – went through the middle of what is now Germany. A similar division existed between the eastern and western states. Most western states followed the ideas of the French Revolution and democracy. The eastern states were less influenced by these ideas and idealized the state.

Another division in Germany is between adherents of Catholicism and Protestantism. After the Reformation many states became Protestant, a decision made by the ruler of the state. In 1618 , the Thirty Years’ War began between Protestants and Catholics. Although armies from different countries took part in this war, it was almost exclusively fought on the soil of what is now Germany. The states most affected by this war suffered huge losses. Famines, killings, looting, and the plague killed about one-third of the population. One can imagine that these events could result in German angst (anxiety). The hyperinflation of the 1920 s las alsu been broughi forward as a reasun for Corman’s aversion to mncertainty (Issing 20105). It is possible that these experiences have produced a longing for stability (Stabilitätskultur) and a tendency towards conservatism.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|France6

Of the three countries considered in this book, France has by far the longest history as an independent state. This does not imply that this long time of a common history led to a uniform culture. Perhaps it even led to the opposite. France is full of paradoxes, which, according to some, might be explained by the fact that it is a large country (Braudel 1990: 305-307). Ernest Labrousse notes that that part of France which is open to foreign influences is confronted with a France that is strongly inward looking. According to him, the latter consists of the rural areas including small and medium-sized towns (see quote in Braudel 1990: 297). An important paradox is that between authority, freedom, and related values.

Since the Middle Ages and the Counter Reformation, centralized government and industry, submission to hierarchy, lack of autonomy, and a strong civil service have remained French features. However, this style clashes with the values of freedom and fraternity, originally expressed in the French Revolution.
(Castel et al. 2008: 549)
During the last centuries, France has continued to maintain ‘two contrasting traditions; first the aura of elitist aristocratic values, elegance, and grandeur associated with pre-1789 France, and second, the continuation of egalitarian and radical values associated with the French revolution’ (idem: 549).

Throughout their history, the French developed the idea that their national view was not only good for their own civilization but had universal validity. French people have an ambivalent attitude towards authority and employers. When in need, employees turn to their employer and the government. These paternalistic tendencies originate in the pater familias way of organizing

a group (society) so characteristic of the Middle Ages (Siedentop 2014). The national political elite is the highest elite. Since employers often decide things without extensive consultation with the employees, the latter will eventually challenge the authority of the employers (see Section 2.4.2 on cooperation). Trade unions were legalized in 1884 . However, for many years both the state and employers neglected trade unions.

Intellectuals have always held a special place in French society. They have quite an abstract mindset and prefer more general and abstract plans for reform than their Anglo-Saxon counterparts. Prestigious higher education is not provided by universities but by the Grandes écoles. Students have to take a competitive entrance exam. Emphasis is on mathematics and logical and abstract thinking. The graduates of these schools play an important part in society, both in the civil service and in the private sector (see Chapters 5 and 9). This extremely hierarchical nature of the educational system reinforces the existing social cleavages (Piketty 2020: 757).’ Family-owned businesses are an important characteristic of French business. In 1992, 25 out of the 100 leading companies were family controlled.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|National culture in the three types of market economies

市场经济学代考

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|United States of America2

美国目前的文化主要受到从 16 世纪开始移民到美国的人的影响。由于宗教不容忍,第一批移民逃离了欧洲国家。后来的浪潮,例如 19 世纪上半叶和 20 世纪初的涌入,都是出于经济原因。第一批定居者住在小型独立定居点,他们在小型企业工作。当他们为从英国独立而战时,他们发展了一种独特的美国文化,其特点是免于压迫和对人民政府的深信不疑。一个制衡系统应该防止一个群体支配另一个群体。定居西方的移民形成了一种边疆心态,包括努力工作和个人独立。期间1815−1850大约,出现了“普通人”的概念。必须保护这个“普通人”免受政府和富人的影响。从 1850 年开始,大公司的发展导致贫富之间的不平等扩大,权力集中在少数几家公司手中(另见第 8 章)。这种趋势破坏了社会结构,但一些人的成功也强化了富饶和机遇之地的形象。从 17 世纪开始,成功的定居者传播了这一形象,以吸引来自欧洲的进一步移民。有时,政治力量将教师推向这种观点(Alesina 和 Glaeser 2004:199 和 204)。自 1930 年代以来,美国已发展成为超级大国。首先是政治和军事,后来是经济强国。

人们很容易理解,这样的历史导致了对个人的偏好、独立性、高度接受不确定性和风险,以及对权力集中的厌恶。然而,为实现这些价值中的任何一个而努力可能会以另一个为代价,这会导致紧张局势。Hoppes 和 Rhagat(3007:表 11.1)提到了美国文化中 12 个反复出现的主题和紧张局势。我们将在接下来的章节中遇到其中的一些。

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Germany4

德国是一个相对年轻的国家。它成立于 1871 年,当时大多数德意志国家统一为普鲁士主导的德意志帝国。这个新国家经历了动荡的历史。它是第一次世界大战和第二次世界大战的核心参与者,在两次世界大战中都被击败。政治动荡、恶性通货膨胀、衰退和纳粹上台是 1920 年代和1930 s. 第二次世界大战后,该国首先被占领,随后分裂为两个独立的国家,最后在1990.

在很大程度上,最近这段战争和分裂的历史可以被认为是德意志帝国成立之前事件的延续。现在的德国的地理区域曾多次分裂,并包含许多分裂。第一个划分是文明与野蛮之间的划分。石灰——罗马人为阻止野蛮的德国人而建造的一堵墙——穿过了现在的德国中部。东部和西部各州之间也存在类似的分歧。大多数西方国家都遵循法国大革命和民主的理念。东部各州受这些思想的影响较小,并将国家理想化。

德国的另一个分歧是天主教徒和新教教徒之间的分歧。宗教改革后,许多州成为新教,这是由该州的统治者做出的决定。1618年,新教徒和天主教徒之间的三十年战争开始了。尽管来自不同国家的军队参加了这场战争,但它几乎完全是在现在德国的土地上进行的。受这场战争影响最大的国家损失惨重。饥荒、杀戮、抢劫和瘟疫杀死了大约三分之一的人口。可以想象,这些事件可能会导致德国的焦虑(焦虑)。1920 年代的恶性通货膨胀也作为 Corman 厌恶不确定性的原因而被提出(Issing 20105)。

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|France6

在本书讨论的三个国家中,法国作为独立国家的历史最长。这并不意味着这段漫长的共同历史导致了统一的文化。也许它甚至导致了相反的结果。法国充满了悖论,据一些人说,这可能是因为它是一个大国(布劳代尔 1990:305-307)。欧内斯特·拉布鲁斯(Ernest Labrousse)指出,对外国影响开放的法国部分面临着一个强烈内向的法国。据他介绍,后者包括农村地区,包括中小城镇(参见 Braudel 1990 中的引述:297)。一个重要的悖论是权威、自由和相关价值观之间的悖论。

自中世纪和反宗教改革以来,中央集权的政府和工业、服从等级制度、缺乏自主权和强大的公务员制度一直是法国的特征。然而,这种风格与最初在法国大革命中表达的自由和博爱的价值观相冲突。
(Castel et al. 2008: 549)
在过去的几个世纪里,法国一直保持着“两种截然不同的传统;首先是与 1789 年前的法国相关的精英贵族价值观、优雅和宏伟的光环,其次是与法国大革命相关的平等主义和激进价值观的延续”(同上:549)。

纵观他们的历史,法国人发展了这样一种观念,即他们的民族观点不仅有利于他们自己的文明,而且具有普遍的有效性。法国人对权威和雇主的态度很矛盾。有需要时,员工会求助于雇主和政府。这些家长式的倾向源于家长式的组织方式

一个具有中世纪特征的群体(社会)(Siedentop 2014)。国家政治精英是最高精英。由于雇主经常在没有与雇员广泛协商的情况下决定事情,因此后者最终会挑战雇主的权威(参见第 2.4.2 节的合作)。工会在 1884 年被合法化。然而,多年来,国家和雇主都忽视了工会。

知识分子在法国社会中一直占有特殊的地位。与盎格鲁-撒克逊人相比,他们有相当抽象的思维方式,并且更喜欢更笼统和抽象的改革计划。著名的高等教育不是由大学提供,而是由大学校提供。学生必须参加竞争性入学考试。重点是数学以及逻辑和抽象思维。这些学校的毕业生在社会中扮演着重要的角色,无论是在公务员还是在私营部门(见第 5 章和第 9 章)。教育系统的这种极端等级化的性质强化了现有的社会分裂(Piketty 2020:757)。家族企业是法国企业的重要特征。1992 年,100 家领先公司中有 25 家是家族控制的。

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考 请认准statistics-lab™

统计代写请认准statistics-lab™. statistics-lab™为您的留学生涯保驾护航。

金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构,多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务,包括但不限于Essay代写,Assignment代写,Dissertation代写,Report代写,小组作业代写,Proposal代写,Paper代写,Presentation代写,计算机作业代写,论文修改和润色,网课代做,exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中,本科,研究生等海外留学全阶段,辐射金融,经济学,会计学,审计学,管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者,也有海外名校硕博留学生,每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力,专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创,100%专业,100%准时,100%满意。

随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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