### 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|ECON443

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The morality of the market process

In the previous section, we discussed the positive implications of catallactic and non-catallactic competition, the purpose of which was to establish a positive basis for the normative implications of such forms of competition. This positive basis for the morality of the market process can be summarized as follows: there exist mutual gains from productive specialization and trade. In doing so, I illustrate how the institutional conditions of the market process also provide the context within which moral action is made possible, and how interventions into the market process tend to create the possibility of immoral action.

In order to understand the non-normative basis for the normative implications of the market process, we must first begin by stating that, going back to Adam Smith, a consistent analytical approach to positive theorizing has existed among proponents of the free market (though it is not exclusive to them), dubbed by economists Sandra Peart and David Levy as ‘analytical egalitarianism’ (2008). According to this approach, the analytical thrust in explaining differences in economic outcomes across place and time is placed on differences in institutions. Analytical egalitarianism abstracts away from any inherent or observed differences among individuals by treating them, from an analytical standpoint, as natural equals, in order to illustrate how alternative institutional arrangements filter through different manifestations of competition, and as a by-product of such purposive behaviour, different economic, political, and social outcomes. James Buchanan summarizes this approach quite nicely in the following statement: same players, under different rules, generate different games (Buchanan 2008). From an analytically egalitarian standpoint, all individuals are striving to actualize their own potential under the given circumstances they face, and therefore, whether or not they realize this potential will depend upon the free exercise of their agency.

At first blush, analytical egalitarianism may seem to be a highly unrealistic theoretical approach, but in order to further unpack this idea, and illustrate its positive explanatory power for our normative purpose here, let us incorporate James Buchanan’s distinction between ‘natural’ and ‘artifactual’ man (Buchanan 1979). According to Buchanan, self-actualization and human flourishing are defined in the process of one’s own choices through time. The ability of individuals to imagine and become something different from what they already are is a categorical feature of being human. Human flourishing, therefore, is not defined by a set of constraints but is realized in the process of actualizing one’s potential. That being said, this does not deny that individuals are born into a particular historical context, not of their own choosing, defined by inherited physical or biological traits, including race, creed, and gender, but also by the evolved cultural and legal norms into which the individual is born. This inherited aspect of an individual that constrains one’s choice set is the ‘natural’ part of man. This natural aspect of man, however, does not predefine one’s ability to lead a flourishing life but becomes a part of what individuals will become. Within these limits, therefore, by virtue of the fact that individuals must exercise their agency, there is an artifactual aspect of man that is dependent on the freedom to pursue one’s human flourishing.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Liberty and human flourishing

In the previous section, we emphasized the ethical implications of the market process as well as interventions in that process. These implications suggest that ethical primacy in the defence of a liberal market order must be grounded in the self-directed nature of human flourishing. In this section, I develop the political and social manifestations of that argument. I argue that liberty is a necessary condition for self-direction, and therefore paramount in protecting the possibility of human flourishing. In a political/legal framework that protects individual rights, markets are processes of moral discovery (Powell and Candela 2014). Markets can and do emerge in contexts outside of liberalism (Storr 2009: 290). However, only where the moral agency is protected from coercion can the possibility of human flourishing be fully realized. Therefore, the liberal market order is the institutional manifestation of self-direction.

In their most recent book, The Perfectionist Turn (2016), Rasmussen and Den Uyl argue that the ‘moral hero’ of ethical theorizing is not a merely rulefollowing agent, but the insightful entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship in the marketplace overlaps quite well with the self-directed nature of human flourishing. They are not synonymous with Robbinsian maximizing, but with the openended discovery of the means and ends required for a worthwhile life. In the Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle elaborates on his definition of moral virtue in a manner that embodies entrepreneurial characteristics. Exercising moral virtues properly in the context of action means ‘to have them at the right time, about the right things, towards the right people, for the right end, and in the right way, is the mean and best; and this is the business of virtue’ $(2000: 30)$. What this suggests is that human flourishing is a discovery process that integrates particular and contingent knowledge not only through self-reflection but also in association with other individuals, much like the Kirznerian entrepreneur.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Conclusion

Ultimately, the very same institutional foundations for the market process also provide the possibility of human flourishing. The institutional foundations of a free market cannot guarantee that individuals will self-actualize their potential and behave morally, since liberty and responsibility are inseparable. Though liberty implies that individuals are free to behave immorally, it does place costs on such behaviour by disproportionately increasing the gains from the catallactic competition and therefore increasing the scope of human flourishing. The violation of liberty, however, introduces coercion in the form of legal discretion. Such legal discretion is immoral not only because it increases the gains from non-catallactic competition. It is also immoral because the costs of discretion are disproportionately borne by individuals who possess nonpreferred natural characteristics, over which they have no choice. The costs come in the form of forgone opportunities, not only to participate in voluntary association with other individuals but also the forgone opportunity to realize their artifactual self.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Liberty and human flourishing

Rasmussen 和 Den Uyl 在他们最近的著作《完美主义转向》（The Perfectionist Turn，2016 年）中认为，伦理理论化的“道德英雄”不仅仅是遵守规则的代理人，而是富有洞察力的企业家。市场中的企业家精神与人类繁荣的自我导向性质很好地重叠。它们不是罗宾斯最大化的同义词，而是对有价值的生活所需的手段和目的的开放式发现。在 Nichomachean Ethics 中，亚里士多德以体现企业家特征的方式详细阐述了他对道德美德的定义。在行动的背景下正确地运用道德美德意味着“在正确的时间，关于正确的事情，对正确的人，为了正确的目的，以正确的方式拥有道德美德，是中庸之道，也是最好的；这就是美德的事'(2000:30). 这表明，人类的繁荣是一个发现过程，它不仅通过自我反思，而且通过与其他人的联系，整合特定和偶然的知识，就像柯兹纳企业家一样。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。