金融代写|利率理论代写portfolio theory代考|CORPFIN 3501

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

金融代写|利率理论代写portfolio theory代考|TYPES OF MARKETABLE FINANCIAL SECURITIES

There are many ways to categorize financial securities. We have found it useful to use the scheme shown in the following diagram.

An investor can choose to purchase directly any one of a number of different securities, many of which represent a type of claim on a private or government entity. Alternatively, an investor can invest in an intermediary (mutual fund), which bundles a set of direct investments and then sells shares in the portfolio of financial instruments it holds. Because indirect investing involves purchasing shares of bundled direct investments, we discuss indirect investing at the end of this section. Direct investment can be classified by the time horizon of the investment. Investments in debt that have a life of less than one year are usually called money market instruments. These can be further divided according to whether the money market instrument is issued by a government entity or a private entity. Investments with maturities of more than one year are generally called capital market instruments. The latter can be divided according to whether they are debt or equity instruments, and debt instruments can be further divided according to whether they are issued by a government entity or a private entity. The final category of financial assets we discuss is derivative instruments, so called because their payoff depends on (is derived from) the price of one of the primary assets already discussed. We now discuss each of these categories of financial assets in turn.

金融代写|利率理论代写portfolio theory代考|Derivative Instruments

Derivative instruments are securities whose value derives from the value of an underlying security or basket of securities. The instruments are also known as contingent claims because their values are contingent on the performance of underlying assets. The most common contingent claims are options and futures. An option on a security gives the holder the right to either buy (a call option) or sell (a put option) a particular asset or bundle of assets at a future date or during a particular period of time for a specified price. The buyer pays a price for this option but is free not to exercise this option if prices move in the wrong direction. A future is the obligation to buy a particular security or bundle of securities at a particular time for a stated price. A future is simply a delayed purchase of a security. Futures and options are securities that represent side bets on the performance of individual or bundles of securities. There is always a buyer and a seller of an option or a future, and the profit (or loss) to the seller is exactly equal to the loss (or profit) of the buyer. The action of the buyer or seller of options or futures does not affect the cash flows to the corporation, nor does it result in a change in the number or type of securities the corporation has outstanding. Another kind of side bet is referred to as a credit default swap (CDS). These are insurance contracts to protect lenders against credit defaults. Essentially, the lender pays an insurance premium to the issuer of the CDS, who will purchase the asset in the event of a default.

The corporation can issue contingent claims, however, and in this case the value of the corporation is often impacted by the action of holders of its contingent claims. Corporate-issued contingent claims include rights and warrants, which allow the holder to purchase common stocks from the corporation at a set price for a particular period of time, and convertible securities (bonds and preferred stocks), which allow the holder to convert an instrument into common stock under specified conditions. Although these corporate contingent claims have many features in common with other derivative instruments, they differ in that if the holders execute them, it results in a change in the attributes of the corporation (e.g., the receipt of cash and/or change in the nature and size of capital). This means that these contingent claims are more difficult to analyze than those not issued by the corporation.

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MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。