## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|POGO8064

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The future implications of education for individuals

One of the most important economic decisions made by individuals is whether to invest in further education beyond high school. While most students would prefer to hang out at the beach or go on an overseas holiday than be stuck in a classroom, many choose to sacrifice some enjoyment now in order to extend their education and improve their workforce skills. This should expand their job options and may result in an increased income in the future.
$\mathrm{~ R e ̄ c e ̂ n t ~ e v i d e ̂ n c e ̂ ~ e u g g e ̄ e t e ~ t h a ̄ t ~ e ̂ d u c a t i o n , ~ p a a r t i c u l a}$ individuals’ earning potential. According to the 2018 Graduate Outcomes Survey, new graduates with a bachelor’s degree are paid $\$ 61,000$a year in their first year. While this is 40 per cent below the average annual eamings for all Australian full-time workers, research shows graduates earn around 50 per cent more than those with only high school qualifications. Dentistry graduates enjoy the highest median starting salary$(\$83,700)$, followed by medicine $(\$ 73,000)$, social work$(\$65,600)$, education $(\$ 65,500)$and engineering$(\$65,000)$.

The survey also noted that university graduates enjoyed better job prospects. Around $72.9$ per cent of university graduates were able to find full-time employment, compared to only $62.6$ per cent of non-university graduates. The overall employment rate (including part-time work) was also notably higher at $87.2$ per cent for university graduates, compared to $81.6$ per cent for non-graduates.

Furthermore, the completion of higher education or Vocational Education and Training qualification is increasingly a prerequisite for access to, and successful participation in, the labour market. In 2018 the then Department of Jobs and Small Business forecasted that 90 per cent of the 886,000 new jobs expected to be created by 2023 will require a post-school qualification.

A decision to invest in education may mean sacrifice in the short term, but it will pay off in the future.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The economic factors underlying choices

In the process of making economic choices, all participants in the economy must weigh up a range of factors relating to their short- and long-term objectives. The following section reviews some of the factors that affect the economic decision-making process for individuals, businesses and governments.

The economic choices made by individuals are shaped by a variety of factors, including their age, income, expectations, future plans and family circumstances. Personality factors will also influence economic decision making; for example, some people are keen to embrace change and risk, while others will avoid risk and prefer security.

Whatever their level of income, individuals must make a choice about how much of that income they will save and how much they will spend. This will, of course, be influenced by their income level, as well as a range of other factors, such as age, the performance of any assets they hold and their expectations of whether their income is likely to rise or fall in the future.

Plans in relation to education, work, family and retirement also play a substantial role in influencing economic decision making. The decision to undertake further education may involve forgoing income for several years, although in most cases it will be rewarded with higher income in the longer run. In the meantime, the individual’s ability to consume will be restricted by their limited income. When a couple decides to start a family, they may have to cut down on personal expenditure and one partner may have to go without an income, perhaps for several years. The decision to retire involves adjusting to a much lower income when more free leisure time may give an individual more opportunities to consume.

Firms face choices in many aspects of their business operations. In pricing its products, a business may choose a higher price, hoping that this will maximise profits and only have a small impact on the level of sales. The pricing decisions that businesses make are also based on their marketing strategy – whether they are trying to sell a product to the mass market or target a more exclusive group of consumers.

In making decisions relating to production and resource use, businesses will seek to minimise their costs and maximise quality. This may sometimes involve difficult choices; for example, a business may face higher costs in the purchase of better-quality equipment, but the equipment may have a longer operating life and require less maintenance. Businesses will generally choose the cheapest available resources, but if the supply of a cheaper resource is not assured, they may choose to pay slightly more for an input that has a more reliable supply. Businesses may also need to consider ethical issues, such as the importance of the natural environment. For example, a business may consider whether it is willing to pay a higher price for using recycled paper rather than using non-recycled paper.
Businesses can also face complex choices in how they manage industrial relations issues. Businesses can choose to employ people on wage levels set by industrial awards; they can negotiate wage agreements with their whole workforce; or they can negotiate individual contracts with their staff. They also face choices about whether they will encourage union representation or involvement from employees in decision making.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The future implications of education for individuals

R和̄C和̂n吨 和在一世d和̂nC和̂ 和在GG和̄和吨和 吨H一个̄吨 和̂d在C一个吨一世○n, p一个一个r吨一世C在l一个个人的收入潜力。根据2018年毕业生成果调查，具有学士学位的应届毕业生获得报酬$61,000他们第一年的一年。虽然这比所有澳大利亚全职工人的平均年收入低 40%，但研究表明，毕业生的收入比只有高中学历的人高出约 50%。牙科毕业生享有最高的起薪中位数($83,700), 其次是医学($73,000)， 社会工作($65,600)， 教育($65,500)和工程($65,000).

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|ECON7200

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The production possibility frontier

The production possibility frontier can be used to demonstrate how opportunity costs arise when individuals or the community make choices. The production possibility frontier (sometimes also known as the production possibility curve) shows the various combinations of two alternative products that can be produced, given technology and a fixed quantity of resources, when all resources are used to their full capacity.

The following example of a production possibility frontier is based on a number of simplifying assumptions, including:

• the economy produces only two goods – oil and leather
• the state of technology is constant
• the quantity of resources available remains unchanged, and
• all resources are fully employed.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|A simple production possibility frontier

Given the above assumptions, we can construct a production possibility schedule. Figure $1.1$ shows the production possibilities that would result if all our resources were used and were divided between the production of oil and leather. By graphing the data in figure 1.1, we can construct the production possibility frontier in figure 1.2.
The production possibility frontier shows all the possible combinations of production of oil and leather at a given point in time. We may choose to produce only oil and no leather (point A on the diagram), or just leather and no oil (point B), or any combination of oil and leather between these two extremes. Society must choose which combination is most desirable.

The production possibility frontier shows the maximum an economy can produce at a given point in time. All points on the frontier itself represent points at which the economy is operating at full productive capacity – that is, all resources are fully employed. If the economy were producing at a point inside the curve, it would be producing less than its maximum possible output and resources would not be fully employed.

When society wants to change its production combination, there is a cost involved – the opportunity cost. This can be illustrated by the following example. Assume that the economy is producing at point A on the production possibility frontier ( 160 units of oil and no leather) but wanted to move to point B (120 units of oil and 20 units of leather). In order to get the 20 units of leather we would have to give up 40 units of oil. Therefore, the opportunity cost of obtaining the 20 units of leather is 40 units of oil.

We can calculate the opportunity cost of obtaining each individual unit of leather by dividing up the 40 oil units given up by the 20 leather units gained. Thus, for each unit of leather, we must give up 2 units of oil. In other words, the opportunity cost of leather is 2 units of oil.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|New technology and the frontier

However, the production possibility frontier does not always remain the same. With the application of new technology, we may be able to develop more efficient methods of production. This might allow us to produce a higher quantity of a good with the same resources. This can be represented by an outward shift of the production possibility frontier.

Applying this to the previous example, an improvement in technology, such as enhanced oil extraction methods, increases the maximum production level to 200 units of oil with the same level of resources as before. Figure $1.3$ shows the new production possibility frontier.

Anything that increases the availability of production inputs will change the production possibility frontier. This includes discovery of new resources, or an expansion of the population through immigration, which would increase the number of people available for work. As a result of these new inputs, we would be able to produce more of both goods. This would also push the production possibility frontier outward, as shown in figure 1.4.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The production possibility frontier

• 经济只生产两种商品——石油和皮革
• 技术状态是不变的
• 可用资源的数量保持不变，并且
• 所有资源都得到充分利用。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|ECON7400

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The economic problem and the role of choices

Historically, experts in economics have wrestled with one fundamental issue above all else: how to solve what we call the economic problem. That is, how can a society satisfy the unlimited wants (of individuals or the community) with the limited resources available? It can be summarised as follows:

• Our wants are unlimited.
• Resources are scarce – that is, the resources we have to draw from to satisfy our wants are limited.
• Since we cannot satisfy all our wants with our limited resources, we must choose between them.
• Therefore, we need to rank our preferences – we will choose our highest-preference wants, and leave some wants unsatisfied.

The study of economics is essentially about attempting to solve the economic problem trying to allocate our limited resources for the satisfaction of our unlimited and competing wants. It is a study of choices, in which each decision we make involves choosing one option but deciding against an alternative.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Understanding wants

People in all countries need to obtain goods and services for their daily lives. Goods such as food and shelter, and services such as health and education, are essential for our lives. While these are basic needs essential for human survival, individuals also want a whole range of other goods and services to make their lives easier, or give them pleasure. Economics assumes that humans pursue maximum self-interest, meaning that we have unlimited wants and limited means to satisfy them. Economics does not attempt to change the fact that we may be greedy. Rather, it attempts to help us work out which wants are our highest priority, and how we can organise production in order to satisfy the maximum number of our wants.

Wants can be defined as the material desires of individuals or the community. They are items that provide some pleasure or satisfaction when they are consumed. Economists say that individuals derive utility (which broadly means satisfaction or pleasure) from the consumption of goods and services. People have desires for the basic necessities of life, such as food or shelter, which we can further classify as needs, as well as for non-essential items, such as a home theatre system, an overseas holiday or expensive clothing.

Individual wants are the desires of each person. An individual’s desire depends on personal preferences, but can be influenced by broader social trends. The number of individual wants that can be satisfied differs from person to person, depending on their ability to purchase goods and services (that is, their level of income). Individuals who have low incomes are affected by the economic problem more severely than those on higher incomes. People who have low incomes can satisfy fewer of their wants. They may not even be able to cover the cost of basic needs such as food, housing and clothing. The less income a person has, the fewer wants they can satisfy.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Opportunity cost

Whenever we satisfy one want, we are giving up the opportunity of satisfying an alternative want. The real cost of satisfying a want is, therefore, not the money we pay for it, but the next-best alternative want that we have to forgo. This cost is known as the opportunity cost (it is also sometimes referred to as the economic cost or real cost).
Opportunity costs can be applied to the individual, the business firm and the government:

• The individual consumer, with limited resources (represented by her limited income) may have to choose between satisfying her desire for a car and an overseas holiday. If she chooses the car, the real cost is the overseas travel that she has to forgo.
• The business firm must also make a choice in the allocation of its scarce resources. An entrepreneur who decides to produce a computer gives up the opportunity to produce something else – such as electrical appliances – with those resources.
• The government has limited resources that it can use to satisfy community wants. If the government allocates resources to constructing a new fleet of submarines, it may be at the expense of a new motorway or airport.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The economic problem and the role of choices

• 我们的欲望是无限的。
• 资源是稀缺的——也就是说，我们为了满足我们的需求而必须使用的资源是有限的。
• 由于我们无法用我们有限的资源满足我们所有的需求，我们必须在它们之间做出选择。
• 因此，我们需要对我们的偏好进行排序——我们将选择我们最偏好的需求，而留下一些不满足的需求。

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Opportunity cost

• 资源有限（以她的有限收入为代表）的个人消费者可能不得不在满足她对汽车的渴望和出国度假之间做出选择。如果她选择了汽车，真正的成本是她不得不放弃的海外旅行。
• 商业公司还必须在分配其稀缺资源时做出选择。决定生产计算机的企业家放弃了利用这些资源生产其他产品（例如电器）的机会。
• 政府可用于满足社区需求的资源有限。如果政府分配资源来建造新的潜艇舰队，可能会以牺牲新的高速公路或机场为代价。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|ECON7400

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The starting point: What are the questions

Economic thinking is often closely associated with market thinking, to the point that economics itself might be defined as the science of markets. Considering the connection of markets and values thus involves the crucial question of the normativity of economic discourse. The positions of economists on the normativity of economics are very diverse.

For example, Duncan Foley, in his Adam’s Fallacy, argues that economics is built on the premise that one can indeed separate ‘an economic sphere, with its presumed specific principles of organization, from the much messier, less determinate, and morally more problematic issues of politics, social conflict, and values’ (Foley 2006: xiii). But in fact, Foley claims, ‘the economic way of thinking is just as value-laden as any other way of thinking about society’:

at its most … interesting level, economics is a speculative philosophical discourse, not a deductive or inductive science. … The most important feature of Adam Smith’s work is not what it tells us concretely about how the economy works … but its discussion of how we should feel about capitalist economic life and what attitude it might be reasonable for us to take toward the complicated and contradictory experience it affords us.
(Foley 2006: xiv-xv)
Contrast this assertion with the recent overview of economics suggested by Dani Rodrik who limits the normative content of the market mechanism to the notion of Pareto efficiency:

What are these market values? Deep down there is really only one: efficiency. All that an economist can claim about a market … is that it yields an efficient allocation of resources in a precise sense: there is no feasible way to make some people richer without making others poorer. Any economist who makes a broader argument about the fairness, justice, or moral worth of markets that is based on economics proper is simply engaged in malpractice.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Economics and economists in France

In France, the autonomization and institutionalization of economics (especially from law) has been a lengthy process. ${ }^{3}$ Perhaps ironically, the events of 1968 that shattered the liberal consensus in economics education (prevalent at the law departments) also contributed to the institutional support of a more autonomous and depoliticized, technical economic science. ${ }^{4}$

After the war, the idea of free markets in France was relegated to the background. Most economists and policymakers were convinced that more government intervention was needed to solve the immediate pressing problems of the post-war reconstruction. The state became a central reference point. ‘In 1945 , the state was celebrated in much the same way that the sovereignty of the nation had been celebrated in 1789’ (Rosanvallon 1989: 187). Note that in practice, the state interventionism in that period did not mean the enlargement of the welfare system, but rather, the focus on industrial growth (Prasad 2005).
The French tradition of interventionism and, generally, the confidence in the power of the state to intervene have always played a major role both in the history of ideas and in the policy debate, beginning at least with Colbert. Even the Physiocrats, to whom we attribute the famous formula of laissezfaire, never doubted that the state (the monarch) should overlook the working of the economy and guarantee that the natural law is not violated. Rosanvallon (1989) argues that some sort of interventionism was so natural for France that

Keynesian ideas initially seemed to be an uninteresting commonplace, something unworthy of attention, because domestic policies had been Keynesian avant la lettre.

What role did economics play in this new consensus? After the war, French economic science was a fractured set of very different approaches and traditions. Most conspicuously, neoclassical (‘marginalist’) economists, as well as emerging adherents of Keynes, were not represented in the universities, but rather taught at engineering schools (Grandes écoles) and/or worked as administrators for the government or state corporations (Arena 2000 ; Benamouzig and Lebaron 2018). This, along with the long-standing French tradition of economic engineering (Etner 1987 ), defined their role in French economic thought and policy.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Implementing markets and mediating

Maurice Allais, the key figure in post-war French economic science, incorporated in his work many elements that are significant for our context. He was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in economics for ‘pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources.’ In this formulation, and in its extension, the idea of ‘maximum efficiency’ (‘how to promote the greatest feasible economic efficiency while ensuring a distribution of income that would be generally acceptable” ${ }^{8}$ ), we see the priorities for the economists working in this tradition. ${ }^{9}$

Allais himself formulated what is now known as theorems of welfare economics, linking the competitive market equilibrium with the notion of Pareto efficiency. By no means did this resolve the complex problems of how just the markets can be in their functioning and in their outcomes. However, it reflected the general intuition – very influential in standard economics – that ‘perfect’ markets create some kind of ‘good’ state: the society at large would prefer a Pareto-superior state over a Pareto-inferior one.

The students of Allais developed these ideas in different directions. In particular, Gerard Debreu, who went to work in the United States, made decisive contributions to the general equilibrium theory and became one of the founding fathers of rigorous economic analysis, while Marcel Boiteux, another bright mathematical economist, left ‘pure’ science and engaged in implementing the ideas of Allais in practice. ${ }^{10}$

The paths of these two scholars demonstrate the dual nature of the engineering approach to economic matters in France. On the one hand, French economists tried to be as rigorous as possible in formulating economic problems and in creating formal models to deal with them. On the other hand, they were very much driven by some kind of a normative vision, the one proposed by Allais. In fact, as Drèze (1964) admits in the first important overview of the work done at that time, most of the theory done by these economists was of normative nature.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The starting point: What are the questions

（Foley 2006：xiv-xv）

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Implementing markets and mediating

Allais 的学生从不同的方向发展了这些想法。尤其是赴美工作的杰拉德·德布鲁对一般均衡理论做出了决定性的贡献，成为严谨经济分析的奠基人之一，而另一位才华横溢的数理经济学家马塞尔·博伊特则离开了“纯”科学和致力于在实践中实施阿莱的思想。10

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|ECON7200

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The rise of the social market economy after the Second World War

While the moral underpinnings of ordoliberally inspired economic and social science stem from the practical experiences with an unfree political system and the failure of a democratic experiment (The Weimar Republic), the implementation of ordoliberal ideas after the war followed somewhat different values. Given the enormous success of the ‘German Economic Miracle’, ${ }^{8}$ one is tempted to believe that the process unfolded without setbacks, opposition, or considerable efforts to push through the desired policies. This would be a grave misunderstanding of the matter, and the following section will thus demonstrate how the early efforts to implement ordoliberal ideas in practical policymaking were frequently met with resistance and thus often had to be, and were, tailored to fit certain popular beliefs and societal demands. The section will lay out in which sense not only economic thinking itself is influenced by moral values and social forces, but how the policy conclusions drawn from economic analysis need to be marketed, sold, and modified in political discourse and practice. The emergence of the social market economy in Germany post-Sccond World War represcnts a concisc illustration of how policy changes may unfold in a coordinated market economy.

The colloquially told story about the birth of the social market economy and the German economic miracle goes something like this: the economy was in shambles after the war, there was an excessive money surplus, prices were controlled, and life was generally miserable. Out of all this came Ludwig Erhard, a hero-like figure, who single-handedly freed the economy from price controls when the Allied Powers introduced currency reform in 1948 . From this moment onwards, everything went smoothly, Germans became rich and ‘lived happily ever after.’

As the somewhat sarcastic tone of the first lines indicates, this account lacks nuance considerably: while the existence of an ‘economic miracle’ can be called into question, we will instead focus on the often-portrayed seamlessness of the process and instead demonstrate that a lot of ‘convincing’ was necessary before the social market economy could be introduced. Problems started soon after the lifting of price controls in June 1948 , with the prices of some gonds (particularly eggs) rising rapidly. This led to outrage and a rejection of the newly introduced market economy by wide segments of the population, casting doubt on the possibility of the implemented reforms being kept up in the long term. It sensitized the ordoliberals towards the prime importance of public opinion being favourable towards the idea of a market economy.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Flourishing, virtue, and the good life in ordoliberalism

The chapter now turns to a thorough discussion of the normative and cultural underpinnings of economies, as viewed by the ordoliberals. We might best approach the matter by thinking through the relationship between markets, virtues, and the idea of a good life in ordoliberal thought. Chapter 3 has illustrated that in the free market tradition, markets are seen as promoters of virtues, which, if consistently applied and lived, will enable what can be dubbed ‘the good life.’ As we shall see, the ordoliberal view differs considerably from this. The notion of what constitutes a good life stands at the beginning of the ordoliberal analysis and is something to be defined by the analyzing economist, who for this purpose also has to be a sociologist or cultural critic. Therefore, markets are merely a way and not the source of achieving the goal of a good life for most people. However, their functioning, and thus also the degree to which they will be able to promole a good life for most people, is dependent on the presence of certain virtues to mediate market activities. ${ }^{12}$ According to the ordoliberal account, the degree to which these virtues are present will determine the attainment of the good life for most.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Non-market prerequisites of the market

It has long been established that the focus on the surrounding frameworks of a market economy, the ‘edges of the market’, is one of the most pronounced characteristics of the ordoliberal approach. At the policy level, this chiefly comes down to a somewhat limited, but strong, state which guarantees the sustainability of the legal order and does not let itself be dominated by special interests.

Additionally, state institutions must actively prevent the formation of cartels and monopolies or, in the case that they already exist, attempt their break-up. In the presence of too much economic power influencing economic processes, a free and welfare-enhancing economic order cannot be realized. The most concise representation of this can be found in Eucken’s seven ‘constituting principles’ and four ‘regulating principles’ of a market economy, according to which certain prerequisites (like private property, freedom to contract, or stable money) have to be met before economic activity can ever unfold on markets (Eucken 1952 [2004]). Once it is underway, principles such as ‘monopoly control’ or ‘distribution of incomes’ serve as the regulating principles.

However, it has often been overlooked that in the ordoliberals’ estimation there also exist non-economic, we might say cultural or moral, prerequisites to successful market interaction, that can neither be created by the market itself nor always be provided by governments (though they can often help people to provide them). Among the elements where government action could potentially lead to conditions that are more favourable are equality of opportunity and some rudimentary knowledge about economic processes on the part of the general population, i.e., the promotion of economic education. With respect to the former, all ordoliberals take a stance that differs markedly from most other liberal approaches to economics, most drastically to what they themselves would refer to as ‘paleoliberalism’, i.e., Ludwig von Mises, for instance. For them, some form of material equality is seen as necessary for the beneficial functioning of a market economy and a prohibitively high inheritance tax as a prerequisite for successfully fighting the problem of economic concentration (Rüstow $1950[2001]$ ). However, they also viewed a more egalitarian distribution of incomes and wealth as morally superior to its more unequal counterpart. All in all, they thought that a society producing extremely non-egalitarian outcomes, and even more so starting positions, will, apart from being less desirable from a normative viewpoint, also create problems for the long-term viability of a market order and a free society. Additionally, the ordoliberals worried about widespread ignorance on the part of the people of their time about the economic order they were actually living in. Consider Eucken on the matter: ‘The economic order remains unknown to man in essential traits – as decisive as it is for his existence’ (Eucken 1952 [2004]: 194). While it would, of course, be unrealistic to make every citizen an informed expert about the economic order that they inhabit, the ordoliberals took seriously the ‘social question’ and in a way also the charges of ‘alienation’ in modern mass societies. Economic policy, they thought, can help to overcome these various deficiencies and provide the basis for the widespread use and acceptance of the market system.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|POGO8064

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Introduction and setting the stage

This volume aims at carving out the relationship between economic and normative thinking in different kinds of market economies. The present chapter is devoted to demonstrating this intricate interplay with regard to the school of German ordoliberalism. We highlight the normative and moral aspects of thinking about markets practised in the ordoliberal tradition in three ways. First, we draw on the historical genesis of the ordoliberal framework during the days of National Socialism and their practical implementation in Germany after the Second World War. Second, we describe ordoliberal thinking about the role of culture, social norms, and values for economic outcomes. Finally, we also link the latter aspects to current research in ‘contextual economics.’
The chapter’s set-up is as follows. After having given a (very) brief description of the main tenets of ordoliberalism, we use Section $4.3$ to inquire into the historical emergence of ordoliberal ideas and thus review the role of the ordoliberal economists’ experience during the Nazi dictatorship. We highlight the way in which the concept of freedom, and thus their self-conception as a liberal school of thought, gains importance for the ordoliberals during the dark days of National Socialism. In addition, we show how practical experiences led them to integrate mechanisms for the preservation of liberty into their frameworks for the successful ordering of social and economic structures. Section $4.4$ deals with the time immediately following the Second World War and the implementation of ordoliberal ideas into practical policies: the emergence of the social market economy. This chapter shows how the ordoliberals attempted to adapt their vision of a well-ordered society to the particular problems and societal demands present in Germany at the time. We show how their responding to the particular circumstances resulted in an open-minded, nondogmatic form of liberalism that does not understand itself as a fixed set of dogmas. Finally, Section $4.5$ highlights another aspect where values, worldviews, and practices converge in the ordoliberal account, namely the conviction that many of the social problems experienced in modern societies are ultimately not economic, but reside in the area that ‘lies beyond supply and demand’, as Wilhelm Röpke (Röpke 1958 [2009]: 131) put it. With this conviction in mind, the nature of ordoliberal proposals for policy reform, as well as the contemporary understanding of ordoliberalism as a contextual approach to economics, becomes understandable. Section $4.6$ concludes.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|A (very) brief introduction to ordoliberalism

For this project, ordoliberalism stands as a representation of a typical school of thought for the ‘coordinated market tradition’ prevalent in Germany. With all its peculiarities, ordoliberalism is commonly regarded as the German variety of neoliberalism (Riha 1986; Barry 1989; Kolev 2015; Gray 2009; Biebricher 2017). Ordoliberalism mostly dates back to an interdisciplinary research group of economists and legal scholars, the so-called Freiburger Schule (Freiburg School). It was founded at the University of Freiburg in the 1930 s by the economist Walter Eucken (1881-1950) and two jurists, Franz Böhm (1895-1977) and Hans Grobmann-Doerth (1894-1944). As the name implies, ordoliberalism emphasizes above all the necessity of basic principles for the establishment of an economic order, which must be created and maintained by the state as a legal framework in order to guarantee a free, prosperous, and humane society. Considering this to be the main characteristic of ordoliberalism and as a contrast to other liberal currents, further important scholars beyond the Freiburg School are: Alexander Riistow (1885-1963), Wilhelm Röpke (1899–1966), Alfred Müller-Arnack (1901-1978), and Ludwig Erhard (1897-1977).

While ordoliberalism as such had a rather little impact on the progress of economics as a scientific discipline in Germany after the Second World War, it neverthcless cxcrted considerablc influcnce on policymaking (cf. Hessc 2010). It is particularly interesting to see that ordoliberal teachings were frequently ‘merged’ with and engrossed by other, sometimes quite different, approaches to political economy. Among these, Karl Schiller’s’ ‘Globalsteuerung’, which tried to harmonize the concerns of ordoliberalism with the Keynesian approach, is probably most prominent, even though the combination of ‘Ordnungspolitik’ and ‘Prozesspolitik’ must ultimately be seen as not having gained solid ground in Germany (cf. Hagemann 2017). But Helmut Kohl’s chancellorship, too, around the time of Gemman Unification was – at least as far as his rhetoric is concerned – very much influenced by the ordoliberal creed. ${ }^{2}$ In more recent times, ordoliberally inspired arguments have helped legitimize Agenda 2010 , one of the most comprehensive welfare state reforms ever undertaken in an industrialized country striving to embed social assistance, unemployment insurance, and activating labour market policies in a rules-based approach (Hien 2013). This illustrates the ordoliberal grounding of what is often referred to as ‘the third way’: a project of renewal for Furopean Social Democracy initiated by the British Prime Minister Tony Blair and German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder in 1999 (cf. Blair and Schröder 1999). It sought to combine the advantages of a competitive market order with an efficient and functional welfare state by grounding the latter in a set of rules in order to ensure their compatibility. Lastly, the decisive ordoliberal underpinnings of the German take on monetary policy have also become visible during the Euro-crisis, of which Chapter 9 in this volume gives a brief account.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The emergence of ordoliberalism during the dark days of National Socialism

As we have shown elsewhere (Fritz et al. 2021), ordoliberalism’s roots are somewhat atypical for a self-styled ‘liberal’ approach to economics. While the single greatest influence in terms of economic thinking can be seen in the Younger German Historical School (Schefold 1995 and Häuser 1994) – hardly a contender in the competition for the most ‘liberal’ approach to political economy – the philosophical underpinnings of liberal thought also do not centre on the ‘usual suspects’ of liberal philosophy. Classics such as Locke or Hume are all but neglected in most of the ordoliberals’ accounts, ${ }^{4}$ while their philosophical roots can clearly be identified with phenomenology ${ }^{5}$ and (neo-) Kantian approaches (Klump and Wörsdorfer 2009). If one adds to that the frequent and overly explicit delimitation to ‘laissez faire-liberalism’, other liberal economists and Adam Smith (Horn 2019), one might actually be tempted to ask whether ordoliberalism is indeed a liberal school of thought without liberal roots (Fritz et al. 2021). We answer the question about the ordoliberals’ nonaffiliation with liberalism in the negative, but point to the formative effect of the experiences of the ordoliberals during the time of the Nazi dictatorship. As such, ordoliberalism’s founding and the search for rules for a harmonious and peaceful coexistence that is so characteristic of the ordoliberal approach both have their origin in highly normative and moral issues: the rejection of and fight against the Nazi dictatorship.

The issue can be illustrated with the ordoliberals’ publication history: their early writing was clearly centred on narrow economic questions such as business cycle (Röpke 1929), trade theory (Rüstow 1925), or detailed descriptions of various business segments (Eucken 1914 and 1921), very much in the tradition of the German Historical School. However, their scope and aim changed in the $1930 \mathrm{~s}$ and $40 \mathrm{~s}$ and increasingly linked economic questions to matters of political organization and social philosophy. ${ }^{6}$ In addition, the very concept of ‘freedom’ and clear statements about the desirability of its maintenance can only be found from this period onwards. The practical experiences with a very concrete loss of freedom lead to a deeper reflection about the prerequisites of an economic and social order that will reliably prevent such restraints in the future. The achievement of this aim requires extending the realm of analysis from merely economic topics to broader issues as is evident from the titles of their publications at the time: ‘The Social Crisis of Our Time’ (Röpke 1947a), ‘Civitas Humana’ (Röpke 1944 [1979]), ‘Changes in State-Structures and the Crisis of Capitalism’ (Eucken 1926), or ‘Freedom and Domination: A Historical Critique of Civilization’ (Rüstow 1980). These titles do not sound like titles of economics textbooks, and that is certainly not what they were.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|ECON443

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The morality of the market process

In the previous section, we discussed the positive implications of catallactic and non-catallactic competition, the purpose of which was to establish a positive basis for the normative implications of such forms of competition. This positive basis for the morality of the market process can be summarized as follows: there exist mutual gains from productive specialization and trade. In doing so, I illustrate how the institutional conditions of the market process also provide the context within which moral action is made possible, and how interventions into the market process tend to create the possibility of immoral action.

In order to understand the non-normative basis for the normative implications of the market process, we must first begin by stating that, going back to Adam Smith, a consistent analytical approach to positive theorizing has existed among proponents of the free market (though it is not exclusive to them), dubbed by economists Sandra Peart and David Levy as ‘analytical egalitarianism’ (2008). According to this approach, the analytical thrust in explaining differences in economic outcomes across place and time is placed on differences in institutions. Analytical egalitarianism abstracts away from any inherent or observed differences among individuals by treating them, from an analytical standpoint, as natural equals, in order to illustrate how alternative institutional arrangements filter through different manifestations of competition, and as a by-product of such purposive behaviour, different economic, political, and social outcomes. James Buchanan summarizes this approach quite nicely in the following statement: same players, under different rules, generate different games (Buchanan 2008). From an analytically egalitarian standpoint, all individuals are striving to actualize their own potential under the given circumstances they face, and therefore, whether or not they realize this potential will depend upon the free exercise of their agency.

At first blush, analytical egalitarianism may seem to be a highly unrealistic theoretical approach, but in order to further unpack this idea, and illustrate its positive explanatory power for our normative purpose here, let us incorporate James Buchanan’s distinction between ‘natural’ and ‘artifactual’ man (Buchanan 1979). According to Buchanan, self-actualization and human flourishing are defined in the process of one’s own choices through time. The ability of individuals to imagine and become something different from what they already are is a categorical feature of being human. Human flourishing, therefore, is not defined by a set of constraints but is realized in the process of actualizing one’s potential. That being said, this does not deny that individuals are born into a particular historical context, not of their own choosing, defined by inherited physical or biological traits, including race, creed, and gender, but also by the evolved cultural and legal norms into which the individual is born. This inherited aspect of an individual that constrains one’s choice set is the ‘natural’ part of man. This natural aspect of man, however, does not predefine one’s ability to lead a flourishing life but becomes a part of what individuals will become. Within these limits, therefore, by virtue of the fact that individuals must exercise their agency, there is an artifactual aspect of man that is dependent on the freedom to pursue one’s human flourishing.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Liberty and human flourishing

In the previous section, we emphasized the ethical implications of the market process as well as interventions in that process. These implications suggest that ethical primacy in the defence of a liberal market order must be grounded in the self-directed nature of human flourishing. In this section, I develop the political and social manifestations of that argument. I argue that liberty is a necessary condition for self-direction, and therefore paramount in protecting the possibility of human flourishing. In a political/legal framework that protects individual rights, markets are processes of moral discovery (Powell and Candela 2014). Markets can and do emerge in contexts outside of liberalism (Storr 2009: 290). However, only where the moral agency is protected from coercion can the possibility of human flourishing be fully realized. Therefore, the liberal market order is the institutional manifestation of self-direction.

In their most recent book, The Perfectionist Turn (2016), Rasmussen and Den Uyl argue that the ‘moral hero’ of ethical theorizing is not a merely rulefollowing agent, but the insightful entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship in the marketplace overlaps quite well with the self-directed nature of human flourishing. They are not synonymous with Robbinsian maximizing, but with the openended discovery of the means and ends required for a worthwhile life. In the Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle elaborates on his definition of moral virtue in a manner that embodies entrepreneurial characteristics. Exercising moral virtues properly in the context of action means ‘to have them at the right time, about the right things, towards the right people, for the right end, and in the right way, is the mean and best; and this is the business of virtue’ $(2000: 30)$. What this suggests is that human flourishing is a discovery process that integrates particular and contingent knowledge not only through self-reflection but also in association with other individuals, much like the Kirznerian entrepreneur.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Conclusion

Ultimately, the very same institutional foundations for the market process also provide the possibility of human flourishing. The institutional foundations of a free market cannot guarantee that individuals will self-actualize their potential and behave morally, since liberty and responsibility are inseparable. Though liberty implies that individuals are free to behave immorally, it does place costs on such behaviour by disproportionately increasing the gains from the catallactic competition and therefore increasing the scope of human flourishing. The violation of liberty, however, introduces coercion in the form of legal discretion. Such legal discretion is immoral not only because it increases the gains from non-catallactic competition. It is also immoral because the costs of discretion are disproportionately borne by individuals who possess nonpreferred natural characteristics, over which they have no choice. The costs come in the form of forgone opportunities, not only to participate in voluntary association with other individuals but also the forgone opportunity to realize their artifactual self.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Liberty and human flourishing

Rasmussen 和 Den Uyl 在他们最近的著作《完美主义转向》（The Perfectionist Turn，2016 年）中认为，伦理理论化的“道德英雄”不仅仅是遵守规则的代理人，而是富有洞察力的企业家。市场中的企业家精神与人类繁荣的自我导向性质很好地重叠。它们不是罗宾斯最大化的同义词，而是对有价值的生活所需的手段和目的的开放式发现。在 Nichomachean Ethics 中，亚里士多德以体现企业家特征的方式详细阐述了他对道德美德的定义。在行动的背景下正确地运用道德美德意味着“在正确的时间，关于正确的事情，对正确的人，为了正确的目的，以正确的方式拥有道德美德，是中庸之道，也是最好的；这就是美德的事'(2000:30). 这表明，人类的繁荣是一个发现过程，它不仅通过自我反思，而且通过与其他人的联系，整合特定和偶然的知识，就像柯兹纳企业家一样。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The morality of the market process and the normative implications of catallactic competition

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Trust

Trust is a frequently used cultural variable. It is measured by the dichotomous item whether ‘most people can be trusted or whether you cannot be too careful’ from the World Values Survey. Table $2.1$ shows the percentages of people answering yes to the question. Trust appears to be highest in the United States and the lowest in France. The German score is closer to the United States’ score than to the French score. The Global Preferences Survey measures trust by means of the question: ‘I assume that people have only the best intentions.’ The order of these scores is similar to the WVS measure. Only Germany has a lower rank than in the WVS measure.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The free market tradition: A critical assessment

In the wake of the collapse of centrally planned economies in Central and Eastern Europe, one of the most well-respected and outspoken socialists of his time, Robert Heilbroner, wrote in The New Yorker that capitalism had been triumphant over socialism (1989). He later declared that Ludwig von Mises, the great Austrian economist of the twentieth century, ‘had been right’ in his assessment of the inefficiency of socialism (Heilbroner 1990). As early as 1920 , Mises had argued that economic calculation under socialism would be impossible. By abolishing private property in the means of production, exchange ratios in the form of money prices would not emerge to calculate the scarcity of capital goods relative to their alternative consumer uses. Therefore, socialism would be unable to organize production more efficiently compared to capitalism (Mises 1920 [1975], 1922 [1951], 1949 [1966]).

Though the debate over economic calculation under socialism has been settled, Mises had also been right about something else: ‘A social system, however beneficial, cannot work if it is not supported by public opinion’ (1949[1966]: 865). It is because capitalism is still regarded as being inherently unjust ${ }^{2}$ that it has not yet been fully vindicated (Kirzner 1989 [2016]: 5). For example, in a recent article, philosopher Joseph Heath has declared the following: ‘The one thing that can be said with certainty, however, is that the way wages are set in a market economy strikes most people as morally counterintuitive, if not positively unjust’ (Heath 2018: 3).

Indeed, Mises’ critique of socialism was neither a normative critique of the declared ends of socialism (1920 [1975]: 120), nor a normative defence of the moral superiority of capitalism. Rather, it was a positive critique regarding the internal consistency between the stated end of socialism, namely, to deliver advanced material production to the benefit of the least advantaged in society, and the means by which to achieve this end, namely, to abolish private property in the means of production. Mises had been trying to illustrate that socialisn would fail on its own terns, no natter how benevolent or motivated central planners would be about meeting their stated ends. That said, it would be false to conclude that either Mises or the broader free market tradition of which he was part, were silent or otherwise bereft of sympathy towards the economic and social conditions of the poor working class of society. If anything, free market economists from at least the time of Adam Smith have consistently shared the same ends as its critics, including the elimination of exploitation of the poor and least advantaged in society. Smith went so far as to argue that the economic and moral superiority of capitalism was dependent upon eliminating artificial barriers that prevented the least advantaged in society from realizing their full potential.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Cattalactic vs. non-catallactic competition

Before turning to the normative implications of competition in the market process, it is first important to provide a positive analysis of the institutional basis for the market process as well as its consequences. I use the word ‘institutional’ to emphasize that the distinguishing characteristic of the market process is not competition based on laissez-faire. While this statement may seem controversial, a simple ‘unpacking’ of the words ‘competition’ and ‘laissez-faire’ will lead us to understand, first, why such a characterization is highly misleading, and, second, what distinguishes the market process from other forms of economic and social interaction.

First, competition, at its most fundamental level, is nothing more than $a$ process of conflict resolution, and, therefore, is a universal attribute of all human interaction across time and place. Given the fundamental pervasiveness of scarcity, every form of economic and social interaction is inherently competitive in that individuals must resolve how to fulfil their own individual ends, which are always greater than the means to achieve such ends (Alchian 1965; Alchian and Allen 1972). No economic or social system, such as capitalism, communism, or fascism, can abolish scarcity, and therefore cannot eliminate competition. While competition is ubiquitous, the manner in which competition manifests itself is institutionally contingent (Boettke 2012). Therefore, to characterize a free market economy as a ‘competitive system’ implies nothing about the unique manifestation of competition in the market process.

Secondly, this brings us the distinguishing institutional characteristic of a free market economy, which is catallactic competition within a legal framework of well-defined and well-enforced exchangeable private property rights. To argue that a free market economy is a laissez-faire economy implies that markets operate within an institutional vacuum, without any account of the rules governing what forms of competition are sanctioned and those that are prohibited by formal and informal rules. ${ }^{3}$ As F. A. Hayek has stated on this point:
a government that is comparatively inactive but does the wrong things may do much more to cripple the forces of a market economy than one that is more concerned with economic affairs but confines itself to actions which assist the spontaneous forces of the economy.
$(1960: 222)$

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Governance

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Trust

Trust is a frequently used cultural variable. It is measured by the dichotomous item whether ‘most people can be trusted or whether you cannot be too careful’ from the World Values Survey. Table $2.1$ shows the percentages of people answering yes to the question. Trust appears to be highest in the United States and the lowest in France. The German score is closer to the United States’ score than to the French score. The Global Preferences Survey measures trust by means of the question: ‘I assume that people have only the best intentions.’ The order of these scores is similar to the WVS measure. Only Germany has a lower rank than in the WVS measure.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Cooperation

Whether differences in opinion or interest lead to a conflict depends on whether one is willing to cooperate instead of seeking confrontation. The business leaders’ opinions on the degree of cooperation in labour employment relations are used as an indicator of willingness to cooperate. It appears that the United States and Germany have a relatively high degree of cooperation in labour relations (Table $2.1$ at the bottom). For France, however, cooperation is much less. Labour relations there are often very conflictive and violent. A good example is a board meeting of Air France on October 5, 2015. The board discussed the need to cut costs. During the board’s discussions, a group of angry employees stormed the fence and took control of the board room where the managers were meeting. […] a short time later it was clear that some managers had been physically assaulted. Human resources manager Xavier Broseta was in a particularly bad way, losing not only his glasses but also his jacket and shirt. He escaped his attackers by fleeing and scaling a fence, still wearing his tie but minus his shirt. One union leader later said that Broseta had ‘narrowly escaped being lynched.’ (van Laer 2020: 25)

During the financial crisis of 2008 , similar scenes were ohserved. In some cases, employees locked managers in their offices, blaming the latter for factories having to be closed or for employees being fired because of financial problems. The protests by the Yellow Vests in 2018 and 2019 are evidence of

the same phenomenon. Van Laer (2020: 24-29) ascribes this cleavage between managers and employees to the fact that managers in large French companies are recruited from the alumni of the Grandes écoles (see also Piketty 2020: 757, and Chapters 5 and 7). This is a group of in-crowds, who pass jobs to each other without any serious investigation of the qualifications needed.

Arriving at a deal can also be facilitated if leaders are willing to delegate authority to subordinates. This can increase the speed by which a solution can be found; more people can work towards finding a solution. In addition, a solution offered is more easily accepted if the various parties involved have had a say in the process. Once again France stands out as the country where, according to business leaders, the willingness to cooperate is relatively low (Table 2.1).

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Views on market mechanisms

The different waves of the World Values Survey contain questions directly referring to the organization or possible outcomes (distribution of income and wealth) of a market economy. The three countries’ scores on each of these indicators are presented in Table 2.3. As expected, the United States’ scores indicate a preference for competition, private ownership, and responsibility taken by the people themselves. Consistent with these scores, hard work is considered important for success. These scores reflect the high degree of individualism in the United States and the belief that people are responsible for their own success (see also Alesina and Glaeser 2004). Of the three countries concerned, the inhabitants of Germany are most in favour of the government owning firms and taking responsibility. The respondents in the Unitcd States care less than those in Germany and France for equality in income. French respondents are most inclined to think that one can only get rich at the expense of others.

In this chapter, we have sketched each of the three countries’ history and their scores on measures of dominant values of the population at large. From the information thus provided, we conclude that the culture of the United States stimulates individual initiative and accepts uncertainty. German culture favours competition less but still accepts it. Uncertainty is a phenomenon the Germans dislike to a great extent. France is a hierarchical country. The elite is expected to behave in a different way from the common people and their scores differ on many items from those of lower classes. The low level of willingness to cooperate combined with the hierarchical approach can easily set the scene for conflicts. This is one of France’s paradoxes: employees expect help from employers but distrust them too.

This chapter brings Part I of this book to an end: the stage is set. This part has described the developments in economics motivated by, amongst other things, the fall of the Berlin Wall. It noted that these developments have increased interest in the place of norms and values in the functioning of an economy, but that at the same time the position of the economist has remained that of an impartial observer. The aim of this book is to show the relationship between values and norms in economic theories, the population at large, and the consequences for the functioning of economies. Chapter 2 has provided an overview of the dominant views of the population and brief descriptions of historical events that may have inculcated these values. Part II will discuss in more detail the positions of the three schools of economic thought associated with each country, namely the free market tradition (Chapter 3 ), the ordoliberal school in Germany (Chapter 4), and the French school of economic engineers (Chapter 6). Where appropriate, we will link these descriptions to the population’s values as presented in the present chapter.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Cooperation

2008年金融危机期间，也出现过类似的场景。在某些情况下，员工将经理锁在办公室里，指责后者是工厂不得不关闭或员工因财务问题被解雇的原因。2018 年和 2019 年黄背心的抗议活动证明了

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Individualism

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写市场经济学Market economy方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写市场经济学Market economy代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写市场经济学Market economy相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Uncertainty and risk

Uncertainty is a basic feature of life that results from the fact that time goes only one way. We are caught in a present that is just an infinitesimal borderline between past and future. We have to live with a future that moves away as fast as we try to approach it, but into which we project our present hopes and fears (Hofstede 2001: 145 and 146).

Uncertainty is associated with anxiety. Uncertainty differs from risk. In both cases, the outcome is unknown; however, under uncertainty the outcome’s probability distribution is unknown, whereas it is known under risk. A distribution can be unknown because a certain type of event, a crisis for example, happens very rarely. On the other hand, for events that occur frequently one can calculate a distribution for the outcomes of these events. A distribution can also be obtained if physical circumstances enforce it, for example, the chance that throwing a dic will deliver a ccrtain integral number. Emotionally, uncertainty and risk are very different. Loncertainty is related tn anxiety and hath are diffuse feelings. Risk is related to fear and both risk and fear are focused on something specific. This difference implies that in the case of risk, agents have the feeling that they have some control over the outcome, whereas that is not the case for uncertainty. ${ }^{8}$

Hofstede (2001: Ch. 4) has developed the cultural dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance, which measures the attitude of the inhabitants of a country towards uncertainty. The higher a country’s score on this dimension, the more uncertainty-averse the people in that country are. This dimension ranges from 8 (Singapore) to 112 in Greece. Its mean is 65 , which corresponds to the score for Germany. France scores higher, 86, and the United States lower, 46 (Table 2.1, row 2). The ranks illustrate that on this cultural dimension the differences between the three countries are quite large. The inhabitants of the United States accept uncertainty much more easily than those of Germany and France.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The attitude towards concentration of power

The hierarchical market economy distinguishes itself from the other two types in that the society’s design explicitly makes a difference between the ruler and the subordinates. In these societies, a hierarchical system is in place in which an elite (the state, in France) has to take care of the other members. In practice, this means a concentration of power and wealth in the hands of a few. Such a system can only operate if the majority in society accepts the role of the elite. An implicit social contract has to be in force by which the population allows power to rule (see Rousseau’s famous Du Contract Social $(2001[1762])$ ).

Hofstede’s cultural dimension Power Distance measures the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power and wealth is distributed unequally. The scores range from 11 (Austria) to 104 (Malaysia), with a mean of 57 . Of the three countries concerned, France scores 68 , the United States 40 , and Germany (Federal Republic) 35 (Table 2.1). These scores indicate that, indeed, in France the acceptance of differences in power is higher than in the two other countries.

The study by van Oudenhoven et al. (2014) finds that French respondents are the only ones who mention generosity among the ten most important virtues (see Table 2.2). Generosity appears to be the most important one. This could indicate that according to the French the better-off have to be generous to their fellow citizens, a character trait, which could be important for the elite to show.

The ideal type of the hierarchical market economy explicitly singles out a group of persons, the elite, from the rest of the population. The other two types do not at first hand make a distinction between the different groups in society. Since the French elite is formed by design, one would expect that, due to their privileged position, members of the elite would also have different values and that the virtues they select as important would be different from those of the population at large. One would not expect such a difference between the social classes in the other two countries. If such differences are present there too, then we expect them to be less significant than in France.

In order to investigate these differences, we created social economic classes with data from the WVS based on the highest level of education attained by respondents. There are eight levels of education ranging from no education to a universitylevel degree. The answers to questions about which qualities are to be encouraged in children are used as indicators for preferred character traits. These questions read as follows: ‘Here is a list of qualities that children can be encouraged to learn at home. Which, if any, do you consider to be especially important?

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Time preference

Transactions on free markets are often between anonymous persons and are one-time events. Due to these characteristics of market transactions, the agents regard the transaction as such and do not consider the consequences for the future. This is less so for transactions that take place between people who know each other or who belong to the same network. Then, they are more likely to consider the consequences of their behaviour for their future position in the network. In accordance with this, firms in a network society appear to strive to increase the firm’s values for all stakeholders, whereas in free market societies, shareholder value is more prominent. With this goes managers’ preferences for continuity of the firm versus short-term profits. In sum, differences in time preference are likely to be a distinguishing cultural value between different types of market economies.

Hofstede’s Long Term Orientation measures the relative importance attached to the future over the present. This dimension was not part of Hofstede’s original analysis but has been added after the Chinese Connection Group found a dimension that they first called Confucianism. A high score on Long-Term Orientation means that the country’s inhabitants attach a high value to future consequences. Germany is very much at the high end of the scale, scoring 83 , and the United States, scoring 26 , at the low end with France in between (see Table 2.1). The score for the United States suggests that US inhabitants are oriented towards the short term, a finding that is in accordance with studies on firm managers’ goals (see, e.g., Hofstede et al. 2002)

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Uncertainty and risk

Hofstede (2001: Ch. 4) 发展了不确定性避免的文化维度，它衡量一个国家的居民对不确定性的态度。一个国家在这个维度上的得分越高，该国人民就越厌恶不确定性。这个维度的范围从 8（新加坡）到希腊的 112。它的平均值是 65 ，对应于德国的得分。法国得分较高，为 86，美国得分较低，为 46（表 2.1，第 2 行）。排名说明，在这个文化维度上，三个国家之间的差异是相当大的。美国居民比德国和法国居民更容易接受不确定性。

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The attitude towards concentration of power

van Oudenhoven 等人的研究。(2014) 发现，法国受访者是唯一提到十项最重要美​​德中的慷慨的人（见表 2.2）。慷慨似乎是最重要的。这可能表明，根据法国人的说法，富裕的人必须对他们的同胞慷慨，这是一种性格特征，这对于精英们来说可能很重要。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。