• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

When I teach a course on basic financial modeling, I always ask my students for their definitions of the term financial model. Most of them come up with longwinded descriptions using terms like forecast and cash flow and hypothetical outcomes. But I don’t think the definition needs to be that complicated. A financial model is a tool (typically built in Excel) that displays possible solutions to a realworld financial problem. And financial modeling is the task of creating a financial model.

You may have thought that a financial model was basically just an Excel spreadsheet, but as you probably already know, not every spreadsheet is a financial model. People can and do use Excel for all kinds of purposes. So, what makes a financial model distinct from a garden-variety spreadsheet? In contrast to a basic spreadsheet, a financial model
s) Is more structured. A financial model contains a set of variable assumptions – inputs, outputs, calculations, and scenarios. It often includes a set of standard financial forecasts – such as a profit-and-loss statement, a balance sheet, and a cash flow statement – which are based on those assumptions.

) Is dynamic. A financial model contains inputs that, when changed, impact the calculations and, therefore, the results. A financial model always has built-in flexibility to display different outcomes or final calculations based on changing a few key inputs.
Uses relationships between several variables. When the user changes any of the input assumptions, a chain reaction often occurs. For example, changing the growth rate will change the sales volume; when the sales volume changes, the revenue, sales commissions, and other variable expenses will change.
) Shows forecasts. Financial models are almost always looking into the future. Financial modelers often want to know what their financial projections will look like down the road. For example, if you continue growing at the same rate, what will your cash flow be in five years?
) Contains scenarios (hypothetical outcomes). Because a model is looking forward instead of backward, a well-built financial model can be easily used to perform scenario and sensitivity analysis. What would happen if interest rates went up? How much can we discount before we start making a loss?
More broadly, a financial model is a structure (usually in Excel) that contains inputs and outputs, and is flexible and dynamic.

## 商科代写|商业建模代写Business Modeling代考|Looking at Examples of Financial Models

When you then consider the benefits that a financial model can bring, it’s difficult not to get carried away thinking of the application potential of a financial model! When you understand the principles of financial models, you can begin to look at the most common scenarios in which a model would be implemented.

There are a variety of categories of financial models:

) Project finance models: When a large infrastructure project is being assessed for viability, the project finance model helps determine the capital and structure of the project.
Pricing models: These models are built for the purpose of determining the price that can or should be charged for a product.
Integrated financial statement models (also known as a three-way financial model): The purpose of this kind of model is to forecast the financial position of the company as a whole.
Valuation models: Valuation models value assets or businesses for the purpose of joint ventures, refinancing, contract bids, acquisitions, or other kinds of transactions or “deals.” (The people who build these kinds of models are often known as deals modelers.)
) Reporting models: These models summarize the history of revenue, expenses, or financial statements.
You’ll see some overlap between each type of model category. For example, many reporting models also contain integrated financial statements, or a project finance model may be used for valuation purposes, but most models can be classified predominately as one model type. Modelers often specialize in one or two of these model categories.

In this section, I show you some examples of scenarios and places in which these categories of financial models can come in handy, along with the functions and characteristics of each.

Building valuation models requires a specialized knowledge of valuation theory (using the different techniques of valuing an asset), as well as modeling skills. If you’re a casual financial modeler, you probably won’t be required to create from scratch a fully functioning valuation model. But you should at least have an idea of what types of valuation financial models are out there.

Here are three common types of valuation financial models you may encounter:

Mergers and acquisitions (M\&A): These models are built to simulate the effect of two companies merging or one company taking over the other. M\&A models are normally undertaken in a tightly controlled environment. Due to its confidential nature, an M\&A model has fewer players than other kinds of models. The project moves quickly because time frames are tight. The few modelers working on an M\&A model do so in a concentrated period of time, often working long hours to achieve a complex and detailed model.
) Leveraged buyout (LBO): These models are built to facilitate the purchase of a company or asset with large amounts of debt to finance the deal, called a leveraged buyout. The entity acquiring the “target” company or asset usually finances the deal with some equity, using the target’s assets as security – in the same way that many home loan mortgages work. LBOs are a popular method of acquisition because they allow the entity to make large purchases without committing a lot of cash. Modeling is an important part of the LBO deal because of its complexity and the high stakes involved.
Discounted cash flow (DCF): These models calculate the cash expected to be received from the business or asset a company is considering purchasing, and then discounts that cash flow back into today’s dollars to see whether the opportunity is worth pursuing. Valuing the future cash flows expected from an acquisition is the most common modeling method of valuation. Intrinsic to the DCF methodology is the concept of the time value of money – in other words, that cash received today is worth a lot more than the same amount of cash received in future years. For an example of how to calculate DCF, turn to Chapter $11 .$

## 商业建模代考

s) 更加结构化。财务模型包含一组可变假设——输入、输出、计算和情景。它通常包括一组基于这些假设的标准财务预测——例如损益表、资产负债表和现金流量表。

) 是动态的。财务模型包含的输入在更改时会影响计算并因此影响结果。财务模型始终具有内置的灵活性，可以根据更改一些关键输入来显示不同的结果或最终计算。

) 显示预测。财务模型几乎总是着眼于未来。财务建模师经常想知道他们的财务预测在未来会是什么样子。例如，如果您继续以相同的速度增长，五年后您的现金流量将是多少？
) 包含场景（假设结果）。因为模型是向前看的而不是向后看的，所以可以很容易地使用构建良好的财务模型来执行情景和敏感性分析。如果利率上升会发生什么？在我们开始亏损之前，我们可以打折多少？

## 商科代写|商业建模代写Business Modeling代考|Looking at Examples of Financial Models

) 项目融资模型：在评估大型基础设施项目的可行性时，项目融资模型有助于确定项目的资本和结构。

) 报告模型：这些模型总结了收入、支出或财务报表的历史记录。

) 杠杆收购 (LBO)：这些模型旨在促进购买有大量债务的公司或资产来为交易融资，称为杠杆收购。收购“目标”公司或资产的实体通常以一些股权为交易提供资金，使用目标的资产作为担保——这与许多住房贷款抵押贷款的运作方式相同。杠杆收购是一种流行的收购方法，因为它们允许实体在不投入大量现金的情况下进行大宗采购。由于其复杂性和所涉及的高风险，建模是 LBO 交易的重要组成部分。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。