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市场经济是一种经济体系,其中有两种力量,即供应和需求,指导商品和服务的生产。市场经济不受中央当局(如政府)控制,而是基于自愿交换。

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  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Markets, morality, and human flourishing in the ordoliberal tradition

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Introduction and setting the stage

This volume aims at carving out the relationship between economic and normative thinking in different kinds of market economies. The present chapter is devoted to demonstrating this intricate interplay with regard to the school of German ordoliberalism. We highlight the normative and moral aspects of thinking about markets practised in the ordoliberal tradition in three ways. First, we draw on the historical genesis of the ordoliberal framework during the days of National Socialism and their practical implementation in Germany after the Second World War. Second, we describe ordoliberal thinking about the role of culture, social norms, and values for economic outcomes. Finally, we also link the latter aspects to current research in ‘contextual economics.’
The chapter’s set-up is as follows. After having given a (very) brief description of the main tenets of ordoliberalism, we use Section $4.3$ to inquire into the historical emergence of ordoliberal ideas and thus review the role of the ordoliberal economists’ experience during the Nazi dictatorship. We highlight the way in which the concept of freedom, and thus their self-conception as a liberal school of thought, gains importance for the ordoliberals during the dark days of National Socialism. In addition, we show how practical experiences led them to integrate mechanisms for the preservation of liberty into their frameworks for the successful ordering of social and economic structures. Section $4.4$ deals with the time immediately following the Second World War and the implementation of ordoliberal ideas into practical policies: the emergence of the social market economy. This chapter shows how the ordoliberals attempted to adapt their vision of a well-ordered society to the particular problems and societal demands present in Germany at the time. We show how their responding to the particular circumstances resulted in an open-minded, nondogmatic form of liberalism that does not understand itself as a fixed set of dogmas. Finally, Section $4.5$ highlights another aspect where values, worldviews, and practices converge in the ordoliberal account, namely the conviction that many of the social problems experienced in modern societies are ultimately not economic, but reside in the area that ‘lies beyond supply and demand’, as Wilhelm Röpke (Röpke 1958 [2009]: 131) put it. With this conviction in mind, the nature of ordoliberal proposals for policy reform, as well as the contemporary understanding of ordoliberalism as a contextual approach to economics, becomes understandable. Section $4.6$ concludes.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|A (very) brief introduction to ordoliberalism

For this project, ordoliberalism stands as a representation of a typical school of thought for the ‘coordinated market tradition’ prevalent in Germany. With all its peculiarities, ordoliberalism is commonly regarded as the German variety of neoliberalism (Riha 1986; Barry 1989; Kolev 2015; Gray 2009; Biebricher 2017). Ordoliberalism mostly dates back to an interdisciplinary research group of economists and legal scholars, the so-called Freiburger Schule (Freiburg School). It was founded at the University of Freiburg in the 1930 s by the economist Walter Eucken (1881-1950) and two jurists, Franz Böhm (1895-1977) and Hans Grobmann-Doerth (1894-1944). As the name implies, ordoliberalism emphasizes above all the necessity of basic principles for the establishment of an economic order, which must be created and maintained by the state as a legal framework in order to guarantee a free, prosperous, and humane society. Considering this to be the main characteristic of ordoliberalism and as a contrast to other liberal currents, further important scholars beyond the Freiburg School are: Alexander Riistow (1885-1963), Wilhelm Röpke (1899–1966), Alfred Müller-Arnack (1901-1978), and Ludwig Erhard (1897-1977).

While ordoliberalism as such had a rather little impact on the progress of economics as a scientific discipline in Germany after the Second World War, it neverthcless cxcrted considerablc influcnce on policymaking (cf. Hessc 2010). It is particularly interesting to see that ordoliberal teachings were frequently ‘merged’ with and engrossed by other, sometimes quite different, approaches to political economy. Among these, Karl Schiller’s’ ‘Globalsteuerung’, which tried to harmonize the concerns of ordoliberalism with the Keynesian approach, is probably most prominent, even though the combination of ‘Ordnungspolitik’ and ‘Prozesspolitik’ must ultimately be seen as not having gained solid ground in Germany (cf. Hagemann 2017). But Helmut Kohl’s chancellorship, too, around the time of Gemman Unification was – at least as far as his rhetoric is concerned – very much influenced by the ordoliberal creed. ${ }^{2}$ In more recent times, ordoliberally inspired arguments have helped legitimize Agenda 2010 , one of the most comprehensive welfare state reforms ever undertaken in an industrialized country striving to embed social assistance, unemployment insurance, and activating labour market policies in a rules-based approach (Hien 2013). This illustrates the ordoliberal grounding of what is often referred to as ‘the third way’: a project of renewal for Furopean Social Democracy initiated by the British Prime Minister Tony Blair and German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder in 1999 (cf. Blair and Schröder 1999). It sought to combine the advantages of a competitive market order with an efficient and functional welfare state by grounding the latter in a set of rules in order to ensure their compatibility. Lastly, the decisive ordoliberal underpinnings of the German take on monetary policy have also become visible during the Euro-crisis, of which Chapter 9 in this volume gives a brief account.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The emergence of ordoliberalism during the dark days of National Socialism

As we have shown elsewhere (Fritz et al. 2021), ordoliberalism’s roots are somewhat atypical for a self-styled ‘liberal’ approach to economics. While the single greatest influence in terms of economic thinking can be seen in the Younger German Historical School (Schefold 1995 and Häuser 1994) – hardly a contender in the competition for the most ‘liberal’ approach to political economy – the philosophical underpinnings of liberal thought also do not centre on the ‘usual suspects’ of liberal philosophy. Classics such as Locke or Hume are all but neglected in most of the ordoliberals’ accounts, ${ }^{4}$ while their philosophical roots can clearly be identified with phenomenology ${ }^{5}$ and (neo-) Kantian approaches (Klump and Wörsdorfer 2009). If one adds to that the frequent and overly explicit delimitation to ‘laissez faire-liberalism’, other liberal economists and Adam Smith (Horn 2019), one might actually be tempted to ask whether ordoliberalism is indeed a liberal school of thought without liberal roots (Fritz et al. 2021). We answer the question about the ordoliberals’ nonaffiliation with liberalism in the negative, but point to the formative effect of the experiences of the ordoliberals during the time of the Nazi dictatorship. As such, ordoliberalism’s founding and the search for rules for a harmonious and peaceful coexistence that is so characteristic of the ordoliberal approach both have their origin in highly normative and moral issues: the rejection of and fight against the Nazi dictatorship.

The issue can be illustrated with the ordoliberals’ publication history: their early writing was clearly centred on narrow economic questions such as business cycle (Röpke 1929), trade theory (Rüstow 1925), or detailed descriptions of various business segments (Eucken 1914 and 1921), very much in the tradition of the German Historical School. However, their scope and aim changed in the $1930 \mathrm{~s}$ and $40 \mathrm{~s}$ and increasingly linked economic questions to matters of political organization and social philosophy. ${ }^{6}$ In addition, the very concept of ‘freedom’ and clear statements about the desirability of its maintenance can only be found from this period onwards. The practical experiences with a very concrete loss of freedom lead to a deeper reflection about the prerequisites of an economic and social order that will reliably prevent such restraints in the future. The achievement of this aim requires extending the realm of analysis from merely economic topics to broader issues as is evident from the titles of their publications at the time: ‘The Social Crisis of Our Time’ (Röpke 1947a), ‘Civitas Humana’ (Röpke 1944 [1979]), ‘Changes in State-Structures and the Crisis of Capitalism’ (Eucken 1926), or ‘Freedom and Domination: A Historical Critique of Civilization’ (Rüstow 1980). These titles do not sound like titles of economics textbooks, and that is certainly not what they were.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Markets, morality, and human flourishing in the ordoliberal tradition

市场经济学代考

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Introduction and setting the stage

本书旨在阐明不同类型市场经济中的经济思维与规范思维之间的关系。本章致力于展示这种与德国秩序自由主义学派有关的错综复杂的相互作用。我们以三种方式强调在秩序自由主义传统中实践市场的规范和道德方面的思考。首先,我们借鉴了国家社会主义时期秩序自由主义框架的历史起源及其在二战后在德国的实际实施。其次,我们描述了关于文化、社会规范和经济成果价值观的作用的秩序自由主义思维。最后,我们还将后一个方面与当前的“语境经济学”研究联系起来。
本章的设置如下。在对秩序自由主义的主要原则进行了(非常)简短的描述之后,我们使用第4.3探究秩序自由主义思想的历史出现,从而回顾秩序自由主义经济学家在纳粹独裁统治期间的经验所起的作用。我们强调了在国家社会主义的黑暗时期,自由概念以及他们作为自由派思想的自我概念对秩序自由主义者的重要性。此外,我们展示了实践经验如何引导他们将保护自由的机制整合到他们的框架中,以成功地整理社会和经济结构。部分4.4涉及第二次世界大战之后的时间以及将秩序自由主义思想付诸实践的政策:社会市场经济的出现。本章展示了秩序自由主义者如何试图使他们对有序社会的愿景适应当时德国存在的特定问题和社会需求。我们展示了他们对特定环境的反应如何导致一种思想开放、非教条的自由主义形式,这种自由主义并不将自己理解为一套固定的教条。最后,部分4.5强调了价值观、世界观和实践在秩序自由主义账户中汇合的另一个方面,即相信现代社会经历的许多社会问题最终都不是经济问题,而是存在于“超出供需”的领域,正如威廉Röpke (Röpke 1958 [2009]: 131) 说的。考虑到这一信念,关于政策改革的秩序自由主义提议的性质,以及当代对秩序自由主义作为经济学语境方法的理解,就变得可以理解了。部分4.6结束。

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|A (very) brief introduction to ordoliberalism

对于这个项目,秩序自由主义代表了德国盛行的“协调市场传统”的典型思想流派。凭借其所有特点,秩序自由主义通常被认为是德国的新自由主义变体(Riha 1986;Barry 1989;Kolev 2015;Gray 2009;Biebricher 2017)。秩序自由主义主要可以追溯到一个由经济学家和法律学者组成的跨学科研究小组,即所谓的弗莱堡学派(Freiburg School)。它于 1930 年代由经济学家 Walter Eucken (1881-1950) 和两位法学家 Franz Böhm (1895-1977) 和 Hans Grobmann-Doerth (1894-1944) 在弗莱堡大学创立。顾名思义,秩序自由主义首先强调建立经济秩序的基本原则的必要性,它必须由国家创建和维护,作为一个法律框架,以保证一个自由、繁荣和人道的社会。考虑到这是秩序自由主义的主要特征,并且与其他自由主义潮流形成对比,弗莱堡学派以外的其他重要学者有:亚历山大·里斯托(1885-1963)、威廉·罗普克(1899-1966)、阿尔弗雷德·穆勒-阿纳克(1901- 1978)和路德维希·艾哈德(1897-1977)。

虽然秩序自由主义本身对二战后德国作为一门科学学科的经济学进步影响甚微,但它却对政策制定产生了相当大的影响(参见 Hessc 2010)。特别有趣的是,秩序自由主义的教义经常“融合”并被其他政治经济学方法所吸引,有时甚至是完全不同的方法。其中,卡尔·席勒(Karl Schiller)的《全球战略》(Globalsteuerung)试图将秩序自由主义的关切与凯恩斯主义的方法相协调,可能最为突出,尽管最终必须将“秩序政治”和“政治政治”的结合视为没有获得坚实的基础在德国(参见 Hagemann 2017)。但是赫尔穆特·科尔的总理职位,2最近,受秩序自由主义启发的论点帮助使 2010 年议程合法化,这是工业化国家有史以来最全面的福利国家改革之一,努力将社会援助、失业保险和激活劳动力市场政策纳入基于规则的方法(Hien 2013)。这说明了通常被称为“第三种方式”的秩序自由主义基础:由英国首相托尼·布莱尔和德国总理格哈德·施罗德于 1999 年发起的复兴社会民主党的项目(参见布莱尔和施罗德,1999 年)。它试图将竞争性市场秩序的优势与有效和有效的福利国家结合起来,将后者建立在一套规则中,以确保它们的兼容性。最后,

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The emergence of ordoliberalism during the dark days of National Socialism

正如我们在其他地方所展示的(Fritz et al. 2021),秩序自由主义的根源对于自封的“自由主义”经济学方法来说有些不典型。虽然在经济思想方面最大的影响可以在年轻的德国历史学派(Schefold 1995 和 Häuser 1994)中看到——在政治经济学最“自由”方法的竞争中几乎没有竞争者——自由主义思想的哲学基础也不以自由主义哲学的“常见嫌疑人”为中心。在大多数秩序自由主义者的叙述中,洛克或休谟等经典著作几乎都被忽视了,4而它们的哲学根源可以清楚地与现象学确定5和(新)康德方法(Klump 和 Wörsdorfer 2009)。如果再加上对“自由放任自由主义”、其他自由主义经济学家和亚当·斯密(Horn 2019)的频繁且过于明确的界定,人们实际上可能会想问,秩序自由主义是否确实是一门没有自由主义根源的自由主义学派(弗里茨等人,2021)。我们从否定的角度回答了秩序自由主义者与自由主义无关的问题,但指出了纳粹独裁时期秩序自由主义者的经历的形成性影响。因此,秩序自由主义的创立和对和谐与和平共处规则的探索是秩序自由主义方法的特点,两者都源于高度规范和道德的问题:拒绝和反对纳粹独裁。

这个问题可以用秩序自由主义者的出版历史来说明:他们的早期著作显然集中在狭隘的经济问题上,例如商业周期 (Röpke 1929)、贸易理论 (Rüstow 1925) 或对各种业务部门的详细描述 (Eucken 1914 和 1921) ),非常符合德国历史学派的传统。但是,他们的范围和目标在1930 s和40 s并且越来越多地将经济问题与政治组织和社会哲学问题联系起来。6此外,只有从这一时期开始,才能找到“自由”的概念和关于维护其可取性的明确陈述。非常具体地丧失自由的实际经验导致对经济和社会秩序的先决条件进行更深入的思考,这种先决条件将在未来可靠地防止这种限制。实现这一目标需要将分析领域从单纯的经济主题扩展到更广泛的问题,这从他们当时的出版物标题中可以看出:“我们时代的社会危机”(Röpke 1947a)、“人类文明”(Röpke 1944 [1979]),“国家结构的变化和资本主义的危机”(Eucken 1926),或“自由与统治:对文明的历史批判”(Rüstow 1980)。这些标题听起来不像经济学教科书的标题,

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考 请认准statistics-lab™

统计代写请认准statistics-lab™. statistics-lab™为您的留学生涯保驾护航。

金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构,多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务,包括但不限于Essay代写,Assignment代写,Dissertation代写,Report代写,小组作业代写,Proposal代写,Paper代写,Presentation代写,计算机作业代写,论文修改和润色,网课代做,exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中,本科,研究生等海外留学全阶段,辐射金融,经济学,会计学,审计学,管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者,也有海外名校硕博留学生,每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力,专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创,100%专业,100%准时,100%满意。

随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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