经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考| General Remarks

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微观经济学是主流经济学的一个分支,研究个人和企业在做出有关稀缺资源分配的决策时的行为以及这些个人和企业之间的相互作用。

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我们提供的微观经济学Microeconomics及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考| General Remarks

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|General Remarks

The chapter on the theory of comparative advantage has revealed that the problem of scarcity can be alleviated, if individuals are willing to specialize according to their comparative advantages and then find a way to allocate goods and services that is mutually beneficial. I have further argued that this process cannot be expected to unfold without an adequate institutional “frame” within which specialization and exchange can take place. A market is one such institution; it is the most important institution that fosters specialization and exchange and is the foundation on which modern capitalist societies are built. Informally speaking, a market is a framework that allows potential buyers and sellers to exchange goods, services, and information.

In order to make these transactions possible, a market relies on private property rights and contract law. Property rights define individual spheres of control over objects and they allow individuals to determine in which ways these objects shall be used and thus create a distinction between “mine” and “yours.” Without such a distinction, it would be impossible to establish markets and trade, because it would be unclear who has the right to control and use these objects. Property rights can be absolute, giving the owner of an object the freedom to use it in any way he/she wants, but in most societies there are socially agreed-upon restrictions on the use of one’s property. Restrictions may occur, if some uses impede on the well-being of others or are in conflict with moral values.

An important example of objects for which many countries have constrained the rights of the owner is the ownership of land, which is called real estate or immovable property. Land development, types of uses and the architecture of buildings are subject to constraints and regulations, and some countries limit individual rights even further by preventing them from using real estate in the way most preferred by the owner (for example, by construing the right to abandon one’s buildings). Therefore, it is more adequate to think of property rights as those user rights that society leaves to the formal owner. The technical term for these rights is residual control rights.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Taxonomy of Markets

The remainder of this book will take the existence of property rights and contract law as given and develop a taxonomy of different markets. Table $3.1$ gives an overview of the most important market structures. It is common to distinguish supply and demand according to the number of buyers and sellers on a market. It is also customary to distinguish between one buyer or seller, a few buyers or sellers, and many buyers or sellers. This taxonomy defines nine prototypical market structures, each one with its own distinctive, functional logic. First of all, one should focus on the three market structures that will be analyzed in greater detail in the following chapters: polypoly, oligopoly, and monopoly.

A polypoly has many buyers and sellers of a homogenous good or service. Goods or services from different suppliers are called homogenous, if the potential buyers are not willing or able to distinguish between them and, therefore, consider them as perfectly interchangeable. The term “many” has a specific meaning in this context, as well. It refers to a situation where each buyer or seller considers his/her influence in the market so negligible that he/she does not have any influence on the market price. The buyers and sellers are therefore price takers, and the market is also called perfectly competitive. A market with perfect competition is the workhorse model for a lot of problems analyzed by economists, ranging from the determination of market prices to the effects of taxes and to the determinants of international trade. In addition, this market is relatively easy to analyze, which is why our analysis of market economies starts with this case. Examples for markets that approximate perfect competition are:

  • Some agrarian resources, like wheat, approximate perfect competition, because an international commodities market exists for these approximately homogenous resources, which implies a large number of producers (farmers) and buyers.
  • The stock exchange is, in principle, also a good example for a competitive market, but one has to be cautious, because of institutional investors who can, generally, influence prices.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Determinants of Supply and Demand

In order to be able to create these theories, one has to distinguish between the demand of a single individual (one’s demand of apricots) and market demand (the demand of all individuals, who buy apricots in Switzerland). On that note, one also has to distinguish between the supply of a single firm (the supply of apricots in one’s local grocery store) and market supply (the supply of all firms selling apricots in Switzerland).

Given that this chapter is a primer in competitive markets, it will motivate supply and demand heuristically by means of plausibility considerations. A fullsized microeconomic theory of markets replaces these plausibility considerations by a decision-theoretic foundation, which traditionally assumes that individuals can rank alternatives according to their preferences and determine demand and supply by choosing the most highly ranked alternative available. This kind of decisiontheoretic foundation of supply and demand is, from a scientific point of view, preferable. However, it comes at the cost of added complexity, so it makes sense to skip it during our first passage through the logic of competitive markets. We will develop the underlying decision theory in Chaps. 7,8 and 10 and 11 .

Demand One can start this endeavor with the analysis a single customer’s demand for a given good. Assume that there are $n$ goods in total among which a customer, $j$, can choose. $n$ is a natural number larger than 1 , and the goods are numbered $1,2, \ldots, n$

  • It is reasonable to assume that the quantity of the good $i$ (kilos of apricots), $x_{i}^{j}$, demanded by customer $j$ most likely depends on the price of the good, $p_{i}$ (CHF per kilo), as well as on the prices of other goods $p_{1}, p_{2}, \ldots, p_{i-1}, p_{i+1}, \ldots, p_{n}$ (for example, the price for a kilo of pears, as well as the price for a kilo of bread).
  • In addition to prices, other factors will also likely influence demand. A prominent candidate is the customer’s income or wealth, $b^{j}$ (for budget, which is the amount of money the customer can spend on purchases).
经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考| General Remarks

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|General Remarks

比较优势理论一章表明,如果个人愿意根据自己的比较优势进行专业化,然后找到一种互惠互利的商品和服务配置方式,稀缺性问题就可以得到缓解。我进一步论证说,如果没有适当的制度“框架”,专业化和交流可以在其中发生,就不能期望这个过程会展开。市场就是这样一种机构;它是促进专业化和交流的最重要机构,是现代资本主义社会赖以建立的基础。通俗地说,市场是一个允许潜在买家和卖家交换商品、服务和信息的框架。

为了使这些交易成为可能,市场依赖于私有产权和合同法。财产权定义了个人对物品的控制范围,它们允许个人决定以何种方式使用这些物品,从而区分“我的”和“你的”。没有这样的区分,就不可能建立市场和贸易,因为谁有权控制​​和使用这些物品就不清楚了。财产权可以是绝对的,赋予物品的所有者以他/她想要的任何方式使用它的自由,但在大多数社会中,对个人财产的使用存在社会认可的限制。如果某些用途妨碍他人的福祉或与道德价值观相冲突,则可能会受到限制。

许多国家限制所有者权利的对象的一个​​重要例子是土地所有权,称为房地产或不动产。土地开放弃自己的建筑物)。因此,将财产权视为社会留给正式所有者的使用权更为恰当。这些权利的技术术语是剩余控制权。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Taxonomy of Markets

本书的其余部分将以财产权和合同法的存在为前提,并对不同市场进行分类。桌子3.1概述了最重要的市场结构。根据市场上买卖双方的数量来区分供需是很常见的。区分一个买家或卖家、少数买家或卖家以及许多买家或卖家也是习惯性的。这个分类定义了九种典型的市场结构,每一种都有自己独特的功能逻辑。首先,我们应该关注三种市场结构,这将在接下来的章节中更详细地分析:多头垄断、寡头垄断和垄断。

多头垄断有许多同质商品或服务的买家和卖家。来自不同供应商的商品或服务被称为同质,如果潜在购买者不愿意或不能区分它们,因此认为它们是完全可互换的。在这种情况下,术语“许多”也具有特定含义。它指的是每个买方或卖方都认为他/她对市场的影响微不足道,以至于他/她对市场价格没有任何影响。因此买卖双方都是价格接受者,市场也称为完全竞争市场。完全竞争的市场是经济学家分析的许多问题的主力模型,从市场价格的确定到税收的影响,再到国际贸易的决定因素。此外,这个市场比较容易分析,这也是我们对市场经济的分析从这个案例开始的原因。近似完全竞争的市场示例如下:

  • 一些农业资源,如小麦,近似完全竞争,因为这些近似同质的资源存在一个国际商品市场,这意味着大量的生产者(农民)和购买者。
  • 原则上,证券交易所也是竞争市场的一个很好的例子,但必须谨慎,因为机构投资者通常可以影响价格。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Determinants of Supply and Demand

为了能够创建这些理论,必须区分单个个人的需求(个人对杏子的需求)和市场需求(在瑞士购买杏子的所有个人的需求)。在这一点上,还必须区分单个公司的供应(当地杂货店的杏子供应)和市场供应(在瑞士销售杏子的所有公司的供应)。

鉴于本章是竞争市场的入门读物,它将通过合理性考虑启发式地激发供需。一个完整的市场微观经济学理论用决策理论基础取代了这些合理性考虑,传统上假设个人可以根据自己的偏好对替代品进行排名,并通过选择排名最高的可用替代品来确定需求和供应。这种供求关系的决策理论基础,从科学的角度看是可取的。然而,它是以增加复杂性为代价的,所以在我们第一次通过竞争市场的逻辑时跳过它是有意义的。我们将在章节中发展基本的决策理论。7,8 和 10 和 11 。

需求一可以从分析单个客户对给定商品的需求开始这一努力。假设有n商品总数,其中一个客户,j, 可选。n是大于 1 的自然数,商品有编号1,2,…,n

  • 假设商品的数量是合理的一世(公斤杏子),X一世j, 客户要求j很可能取决于商品的价格,p一世(每公斤瑞士法郎),以及其他商品的价格p1,p2,…,p一世−1,p一世+1,…,pn(例如,一公斤梨的价格,以及一公斤面包的价格)。
  • 除了价格,其他因素也可能影响需求。一个突出的候选人是客户的收入或财富,bj(对于预算,这是客户可以花在购买上的金额)。
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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

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随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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