经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON 2506

如果你也在 怎样代写微观经济学Microeconomics这个学科遇到相关的难题,请随时右上角联系我们的24/7代写客服。

微观经济学是主流经济学的一个分支,研究个人和企业在做出有关稀缺资源分配的决策时的行为以及这些个人和企业之间的相互作用。

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富,各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

我们提供的微观经济学Microeconomics及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON 2506

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Equilibrium

Have you ever thought about how it is possible that the baker knows that you will buy a bagel when you go to the city? When you enter his store, the bagel is just there, ready for you to buy and eat it. How come? How could the baker have known, even though you never ordered the bagel in advance? If this example seems a little bit underwhelming, to put it mildly, then you better think twice. The great miracle of the market mechanism is that millions and billions of people are making decisions in an apparently uncoordinated, decentralized way and, despite this fact, there is a great deal of order in market outcomes. How is this possible?

Well, the first hint is that decisions are, of course, not uncoordinated. They are coordinated by market prices that shape individual incentives to buy and sell (and,more generally, to act), so decisions in a market economy are decentralized, but not uncoordinated. The question then becomes: to what extent are prices able to coordinate individual behavior and what does this imply for the functioning of markets?

Economists put a lot of emphasis on the idea of equilibrium. To motivate a formal definition, look at the following example: assume that, at a given market price, demand exceeds supply, i.e., customers want to buy more than suppliers are willing to sell. A situation like this has an in-built tension, because some customers have to go home unsatisfied: the decentralized plans of the economic agents are mutually inconsistent. (One reaches the same conclusion in the opposite case of excessive supply.) Therefore, the only situation where all the plans of the economic agents are compatible is at a price where supply equals demand. This situation is called an equilibrium. It can be defined for the whole economy with $n$ different goods and associated markets (general equilibrium), or for a single market for good $i$, leaving the rest of the economy out of the picture (partial equilibrium). For simplicity, and without significance for the results, suppose that all customers have identical budgets, $b$.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Equilibrium Analysis

As one says, the proof of the pudding is in the eating so, the next step is to see how useful the model of perfect competition is for gaining better understanding of the economy. The most important comparative-static exercises for the supply and demand side have already been covered. This subchapter will now put them together to show how they can be used to develop one’s intuition for the effects of external shocks or economic policy. The case studies below are intended to give one a basic idea of how to analyze economic problems by means of models. The purpose is not to develop a complete picture, which would be a very demanding task. Even the very simple model of demand and supply gives one a lot of mileage in understanding complex social phenomena.

Case Study: How Bad Weather in Brazil Affects the Swiss Coffee Market Coffee is an important agricultural product worldwide, and Brazil is the world’s largest coffee producer. In the days before the so-called second and third waves of coffee culture, coffee was essentially run down to a commodity of moderate quality and low prices. Low quality implied that the customers had low willingness to pay, and a low willingness to pay implied that farmers would have a low willingness to invest in quality. Assume that there is a world market for green coffee and that the situation in this market can be summarized by Fig. 4.10.

The supply of green coffee is shown by the upward-sloping supply function $y(p)$, which is determined by the coffee farmers from the different growing regions. On that note, the downward-sloping function, $x(p)$, is the demand for green coffee, which is determined by the coffee roasters, who buy green coffee, roast and package it, and sell it directly to the consumer or to national retailers. Assume that these supply and demand functions reflect the situation in an average year with average harvests. The equilibrium in this market is given by the intersection of the supply and demand curves, which implies a market price of $p^{}$ and a trade volume of $x^{}$.
Now, examine the effects of adverse weather conditions in a country, like Brazil, that is responsible for about one third of the world supply of green coffee. These weather conditions reduce the crop by a substantial amount compared to an average year. The effect of this reduction in supply is illustrated in Fig. 4.11: the world supply function for green coffee shifts leftward, because the quantity available at any given price is now smaller than in an average year. The demand function is unaffected by this change, because it is mainly determined by the demand function of the final customers, which leverages onto the demand function of the roasters.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Normative Properties of Competitive Markets

The definition of Pareto efficiency is very general and relies on a concept of individual well-being that this textbook has not formally introduced so far. While motivating individual and market demand, Chap. 4 made a vague point that it has something to do with individual preferences that we will formally introduce in Chap. 7. In order to see if one can say anything about the efficiency of equilibria on competitive markets, one has to derive a proximate measure for efficiency. Fortunately, this can be done.

In order to see how to do this, it makes sense to focus on a special example of a market, a market for some good in which the demand of a single customer is typically either zero or one, like refrigerators. The analysis is completely general, though, and extends to all products. Figure $5.1$ shows the demand function on the market for fridges.

Each point along the demand function can be associated with a specific individual in society and the individuals are ranked according to their willingness to pay for a fridge. This interpretation allows for a very powerful interpretation of the points along the demand function: they give us the customers’ maximum willingness to pay. Look at the individual who is “behind” the first unit of the good. The marketdemand function at this point signals a willingness to pay that is equal to $\mathrm{CHF} 2000$. How does one know? By analyzing the response of this customer to different prices. If the market price is below CHF 2000 , the customer is willing to buy, if it is above, she prefers to not buy. Thus, CHF 2000 is the critical price of the good where the customer is indifferent between buying and not buying, hence it is her willingness to pay.

Assume that the price of the good is equal to CHF 1200. In that case, the customer will buy one unit of the product. Is it possible to infer anything about the customer’s increase in well-being? Under a certain condition that will have to be scrutinized below, yes, because her willingness to pay would have been CHF 2000 and she pays only CHF 1200 , so a monetary measure for her increase in wellbeing is CHF 2000 – CHF $1200=$ CHF 800 . The same logic can be applied to all customers, whose willingness to pay exceeds the market price. (All other customers are neither better nor worse off, because they do not buy the good.) Therefore, the aggregate monetary surplus is given by the added differences between one’s maximum willingness to pay and one’s actual payment. It is equal to the triangular area $\mathrm{ABC}$ in Fig. 5.1. This area is called the consumer surplus.

In order to define this measure formally, one has to make use of the concept of an inverse function. Remember that a function, $f$, is a mapping from one set $A$ to some other set $B$ that links elements from $A$ with elements from $B$, so $f: A \rightarrow B$. Assume that the mapping is one-to-one such that, for every element $a$ in $A$ there is exactly one element $b$ in $B$ that is connected with the element in $A$ by $f, b=f(a)$ and vice versa. The function, $f$, answers the question as to which elements in $B$ are associated with the elements in $A$. One can also ask the opposite question: take an arbitrary element of $B$; which element of $A$ is associated with it? Given that the mapping is on-to-one, the answer is given by the inverse function that is usually denoted by $f^{-1}$ and which is a mapping from $B$ to $A$.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON 2506

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Equilibrium

你有没有想过,你去城里,面包师怎么可能知道你会买一个百吉饼?当你进入他的商店时,百吉饼就在那里,准备好让你买吃。怎么来的?即使您从未提前订购百吉饼,面包师怎么会知道?如果这个例子看起来有点平淡无奇,委婉地说,那么你最好三思而后行。市场机制的伟大奇迹在于,数以亿计的人在以一种明显不协调、分散的方式进行决策,尽管如此,市场结果还是有很大的秩序。这怎么可能?

嗯,第一个提示是,决策当然不是不协调的。它们由市场价格协调,形成个人买卖(以及更普遍地采取行动)的动机,因此市场经济中的决策是分散的,但并非不协调。那么问题就变成了:价格在多大程度上能够协调个人行为,这对市场运作意味着什么?

经济学家非常重视均衡的概念。为了激发一个正式的定义,请看以下示例:假设在给定的市场价格下,需求超过供应,即客户想要购买的东西比供应商愿意出售的要多。像这样的情况有一种内在的紧张,因为一些客户不得不回家不满意:经济主体的分散计划相互不一致。(在供给过剩的相反情况下,人们会得出相同的结论。)因此,所有经济主体的计划都兼容的唯一情况是在供给等于需求的价格下。这种情况称为平衡。它可以定义为整个经济体n不同的商品和相关的市场(一般均衡),或者对于单一的商品市场一世,将经济的其他部分排除在外(部分均衡)。为简单起见,并且对结果没有意义,假设所有客户都有相同的预算,b.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Equilibrium Analysis

正如有人所说,布丁的证据在于吃,所以下一步是看看完全竞争模型对更好地了解经济有多大用处。供需双方最重要的静态比较练习已经涵盖。这一小节现在将把它们放在一起,展示如何利用它们来培养人们对外部冲击或经济政策影响的直觉。下面的案例研究旨在让人们了解如何通过模型分析经济问题。目的不是要开发完整的图片,这将是一项非常艰巨的任务。即使是非常简单的供需模型,也能帮助人们理解复杂的社会现象。

案例研究:巴西的恶劣天气如何影响瑞士咖啡市场 咖啡是全球重要的农产品,巴西是世界上最大的咖啡生产国。在所谓的第二次和第三次咖啡文化浪潮之前的日子里,咖啡本质上是一种质量适中、价格低廉的商品。低质量意味着客户的支付意愿低,支付意愿低意味着农民对质量的投资意愿低。假设有一个生咖啡的世界市场,这个市场的情况可以用图 4.10 来概括。

生咖啡的供给由向上倾斜的供给函数表示是(p),这是由来自不同种植区的咖啡农决定的。在那一点上,向下倾斜的函数,X(p), 是对生咖啡的需求,由咖啡烘焙商决定,他们购买生咖啡、烘焙和包装,然后直接出售给消费者或全国零售商。假设这些供求函数反映了平均收成的平均年份的情况。这个市场的均衡由供给曲线和需求曲线的交点给出,这意味着市场价格为 $p^{ }一个nd一个吨r一个d和在○l在米和○Fx^{ }$。
现在,我们来看看巴西这样一个占世界生咖啡供应量约三分之一的国家的恶劣天气条件的影响。与平均年份相比,这些天气条件大大减少了作物的产量。这种供应减少的影响如图 4.11 所示:生咖啡的世界供应函数向左移动,因为在任何给定价格下可用的数量现在都小于平均年份。需求函数不受这种变化的影响,因为它主要由最终客户的需求函数决定,它利用了烘焙商的需求函数。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Normative Properties of Competitive Markets

帕累托效率的定义非常笼统,它依赖于个人幸福的概念,这本教科书迄今尚未正式引入。在激发个人和市场需求的同时,Chap。第 4 章模糊地指出它与个人偏好有关,我们将在第 1 章正式介绍。7. 为了看看是否可以对竞争市场上的均衡效率发表任何看法,必须推导出效率的近似度量。幸运的是,这是可以做到的。

为了了解如何做到这一点,有必要关注一个特殊的市场示例,即单个客户的需求通常为零或一的某种商品的市场,例如冰箱。不过,该分析是完全一般性的,并扩展到所有产品。数字5.1显示了冰箱市场上的需求函数。

需求函数中的每个点都可以与社会中的特定个体相关联,并且这些个体根据他们购买冰箱的意愿进行排名。这种解释允许对需求函数中的点进行非常有力的解释:它们为我们提供了客户最大的支付意愿。看看那些“落后”于商品第一单元的个人。此时的市场需求函数表明支付意愿等于CHF2000. 一个人怎么知道?通过分析该客户对不同价格的反应。如果市场价格低于2000瑞士法郎,客户愿意购买,如果高于,她宁愿不购买。因此,2000 瑞士法郎是商品的关键价格,顾客在购买和不购买之间无动于衷,因此是她的支付意愿。

假设商品的价格等于 1200 瑞士法郎。在这种情况下,客户将购买一单位的产品。是否有可能推断出客户幸福感的增加?在必须在下面仔细检查的特定条件下,是的,因为她的支付意愿是 2000 瑞士法郎,而她只支付 1200 瑞士法郎,因此她增加幸福感的货币衡量标准是 2000 瑞士法郎 – 瑞士法郎1200=800 瑞士法郎。相同的逻辑适用于所有支付意愿超过市场价格的客户。(所有其他顾客的情况既不好也不坏,因为他们不购买商品。)因此,总货币盈余是由一个人的最大支付意愿和一个人的实际支付之间的附加差值给出的。等于三角形面积一个乙C在图 5.1 中。这个区域称为消费者剩余。

为了正式定义这种度量,必须利用反函数的概念。记住一个函数,F, 是一个集合的映射一个到其他集合乙将元素从一个元素来自乙, 所以F:一个→乙. 假设映射是一对一的,这样,对于每个元素一个在一个只有一个元素b在乙与元素相关的一个经过F,b=F(一个)反之亦然。功能,F, 回答了哪些元素在乙与中的元素相关联一个. 也可以问相反的问题:取任意元素乙; 哪个元素一个与它有关吗?鉴于映射是一对一的,答案由通常表示为的反函数给出F−1这是一个映射乙至.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考 请认准statistics-lab™

统计代写请认准statistics-lab™. statistics-lab™为您的留学生涯保驾护航。

金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构,多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务,包括但不限于Essay代写,Assignment代写,Dissertation代写,Report代写,小组作业代写,Proposal代写,Paper代写,Presentation代写,计算机作业代写,论文修改和润色,网课代做,exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中,本科,研究生等海外留学全阶段,辐射金融,经济学,会计学,审计学,管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者,也有海外名校硕博留学生,每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力,专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创,100%专业,100%准时,100%满意。

随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

发表回复

您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。