经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON1901D

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微观经济学是主流经济学的一个分支,研究个人和企业在做出有关稀缺资源分配的决策时的行为以及这些个人和企业之间的相互作用。

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我们提供的微观经济学Microeconomics及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON1901D

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Morality and Corporate Social Responsibility

In the realistic case that the institutional structure of a state is imperfect, in the sense that it does not always provide incentives for (Pareto-)efficient behavior, the question is how the people within society do or should deal with these inefficiencies. An example of this is when property rights are imperfectly enforced because of high transaction costs. The better part of everyday transactions is, for example, formally but not materially protected by property rights, because it would be too costly to enforce them. If a customer buys a bottle of orange juice at a kiosk and the retail clerk refuses to give back the change, the opportunity costs of calling the police, verifying the tort (which is difficult, if the retail clerk refuses to confess), etc. are likely prohibitive. Alternatively, on that subject, it is equally unlikely that the retail clerk can do much to prevent the customer from saying thank you and walking away with the bottle of juice without paying for it. Property rights cannot explain the fact that the overwhelming number of these transactions take place smoothly and efficiently.

There must be other mechanisms at work, and I will briefly discuss two of them. First, the interaction may not be singular but rather repeated and, if there is always a probability that the customer and the retail clerk will meet again in the future, it would be rather shortsighted to sacrifice future trades for the (relatively small) present gain. Repeated interactions can, therefore, be used to build up a reputation as a reliable trading partner, which can stabilize transactions, even in situations where formal property rights cannot be protected by the state. Second, the trading partner may have an intrinsic motivation to play fair. There is broad, scientific consensus by now that individuals are, for good evolutionary reasons, not always selfish, but have the ability and also (sometimes) the desire to act morally. The marginal willingness to keep one’s promises, to pay one’s bills, etc., however, depends very much on the perception of the situational context. If people have the feeling that-by and large-society gives everyone his or her fair share, their willingness to cooperate, to act fairly and to voluntarily follow certain moral standards of behavior is much larger than in a situation that is considered unfair from the beginning. Social norms and the intrinsic desire to act morally are then substitutes for formal property-rights enforcement. The more porous the system of property-rights enforcement is, the more important moral behavior becomes.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Four Boundary Cases

Coming back to the variations of the bakery example from the last subchapter, the distinctive difference between the two types of environmental interdependencies (sewage and air pollution) was the physical “reach” of the interdependency-causing activity. In the sewage-case, there was only one person, the fisherman, who was affected by the interdependency with the bakery whereas, in the air-pollution case, the bakery influenced all the residents. These differences in the number of people, who are influenced by economic activities, are an important element in the classification of goods and services and in developing an understanding of the functioning of markets.

The implicit assumption behind the model of competitive markets discussed in Chap. 4 was that the interdependency is bilateral. A typical example for a bilateral interdependency is an apple. Either one or the other person can eat anple (one cannot eat the same apple twice), so Ann’s decision to sell an apple to Bill has no direct physical consequences for third parties. The same was true in the sewage example. However, the bilateralism of the interdependency was a result of the fact that only one fisherman made his living from the lake. If two fishermen had have cast their nets into the lake, the interdependency would have been trilateral, because the emissions by the factory would have reduced the catches of both fishermen. In the air-pollution example, the reach of the interdependency was even larger, covering all residents of the area. This observation motivates the following definition.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Choice Sets and Preferences

In order to develop a decision theory, one needs two conceptual ingredients. First, a set of alternatives from which an individual can choose. Call it a choice set and denote it by $X=\left{x^{1}, x^{2}, \ldots, x^{n}\right}$, in which $x^{i}, i=1, \ldots, n$ is one of the possible alternatives and assume, for simplicity, that the total number of alternatives $n$ is finite. The idea of a choice set is very general. If one goes to a café, one’s choice set is a subset of all of the items on the menu. This implies that an alternative can be a list of individual items, like “one cup of tea, two scones, and one portion of orange jam.” Mathematically speaking, this type of list is called a tuple. If $x^{i}$ is the above-mentioned alternative, it could be denoted as $x^{i}={$ quantity of tea, number of scones, quantity of orange jam $}={1,2,1}$. If one goes to vote, one’s choice set is the set of all admissible parties or candidates, and if one is deciding what to do after high school, one’s choice set is the set of all potential professions.

Second, the individual may prefer some alternatives to others, which is an expression of her taste or preferences. Assume that she is able to make pairwise comparisons of all the alternatives in $X$ to make statements like, “I prefer alternative $x^{i}$ to alternative $x^{j}, “$ or “I am indifferent between alternative $x^{j}$ and alternative $x^{j} . “$ In order to have a lean notation, economists use the following symbols for these statements: “I prefer alternative $x^{i}$ to alternative $x^{j}$ ” is denoted by ” $x^{i}>x^{j “}$ and “I am indifferent between alternative $x^{i}$ and alternative $x^{j “}$ by ” $x^{i} \sim x^{j}$.”

It is important to understand the exact meaning of the terminology. Mathematically speaking, one takes two arbitrary elements of $X, x^{j}$ and $x^{j}$, and compares them to each other. This comparison is called a binary relation on $X$. The strict preference relation, ” $>, “$ and the indifference relation, ” $\sim$,” can therefore be denoted as a subset of the Cartesian product of $X, X \times X$. (I am slightly abusing the notation by using the symbols as names for both the relation and for indicating the binary comparison of alternatives.)

Here is an example: Assume that Ann can choose between an apple, $x^{1}$, an orange, $x^{2}$, and a cherry, $x^{3}$. In this case, the choice set is equal to $X=\left{x^{1}, x^{2}, x^{3}\right}$ and the Cartesian product is the set of all ordered pairs $X \times$ $X=\left{\left(x^{1}, x^{1}\right),\left(x^{1}, x^{2}\right),\left(x^{1}, x^{3}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^{1}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^{2}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^{3}\right),\left(x^{3}, x^{1}\right),\left(x^{3}, x^{2}\right),\right.$, $\left.\left(x^{3}, x^{3}\right)\right}$. Assume that Ann prefers apples to oranges and is indifferent between oranges and cherries, $x^{1}>x^{2}, x^{2} \sim x^{3}$. If one reads a pair $\left(x^{i}, x^{j}\right)$ as ” $x^{i}$ stands in relation $R$ to $x^{j}$,” one can represent her preferences, ” $>$,” by the subset of pairs $\left{\left(x^{1}, x^{2}\right)\right}$ and her preferences, ” $\sim$,” by the subset of pairs $\left{\left(x^{1}, x^{1}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^{2}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^{3}\right),\left(x^{3}, x^{3}\right)\right}$. Note that the pairs $\left(x^{i}, x^{i}\right)$ are elements of the subset, because Ann is indifferent between an alternative and itself. This property is not self-evident from a purely mathematical point of view and, therefore, sometimes stated as an assumption of the preference relation that is known as reflexivity.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON1901D

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Morality and Corporate Social Responsibility

在一个国家的制度结构不完善的现实情况下,从某种意义上说,它并不总是为(帕累托)有效率的行为提供激励,问题是社会中的人们如何做或应该如何处理这些低效率。这方面的一个例子是,由于交易成本高,产权执行不完善。例如,日常交易中较好的部分是形式上但不受财产权保护,因为执行它们的成本太高。如果顾客在售货亭买了一瓶橙汁,而零售店员拒绝归还找零,那么报警、核实侵权行为的机会成本(如果零售店员拒绝认罪,这很困难)等。可能令人望而却步。或者,在那个主题上,零售店员也不太可能做很多事情来阻止顾客说谢谢,然后不付钱就拿着一瓶果汁走开。产权无法解释绝大多数此类交易顺利且高效地进行的事实。

肯定还有其他机制在起作用,我将简要讨论其中的两个。首先,互动可能不是单一的,而是重复的,如果客户和零售店员将来总是有可能再次见面,那么为了(相对较小的)当前收益而牺牲未来的交易是相当短视的. 因此,重复的互动可以用来建立作为可靠贸易伙伴的声誉,这可以稳定交易,即使在正式产权不受国家保护的情况下也是如此。其次,贸易伙伴可能具有公平竞争的内在动机。现在有广泛的科学共识,出于良好的进化原因,个人并不总是自私的,但有能力并且(有时)也有道德行为的愿望。然而,遵守承诺、支付账单等的边际意愿在很大程度上取决于对情境背景的感知。如果人们有这样的感觉,总的来说,大社会给予每个人他或她公平的份额,那么他们合作、公平行事和自愿遵守某些道德行为标准的意愿要比在被认为不公平的情况下大得多。开始。社会规范和道德行为的内在愿望就可以替代正式的产权执法。产权执法制度越漏洞,道德行为就越重要。他们合作、公平行事和自愿遵守某些道德行为标准的意愿比在从一开始就被认为不公平的情况下要大得多。社会规范和道德行为的内在愿望就可以替代正式的产权执法。产权执法制度越漏洞,道德行为就越重要。他们合作、公平行事和自愿遵守某些道德行为标准的意愿比在从一开始就被认为不公平的情况下要大得多。社会规范和道德行为的内在愿望就可以替代正式的产权执法。产权执法制度越漏洞,道德行为就越重要。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Four Boundary Cases

回到上一小节中面包店示例的变化,两种环境相互依赖(污水和空气污染)之间的显着差异是相互依赖活动的物理“范围”。在污水案例中,只有一个人,渔夫,受到与面包店相互依赖的影响,而在空气污染案例中,面包店影响了所有居民。这些受经济活动影响的人数差异是商品和服务分类以及了解市场运作的重要因素。

第 1 章讨论的竞争市场模型背后的隐含假设。四是相互依赖是双边的。双边相互依赖的一个典型例子是苹果。一个人或另一个人都可以吃苹果(一个人不能吃同一个苹果两次),所以安将苹果卖给比尔的决定对第三方没有直接的身体后果。污水的例子也是如此。然而,相互依存的双边主义是由于只有一名渔民以湖为生的事实。如果两名渔民将网撒入湖中,则相互依赖将是三方的,因为工厂的排放会减少两名渔民的渔获量。在空气污染的例子中,相互依存的范围更大,覆盖了该地区的所有居民。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Choice Sets and Preferences

为了发展一种决策理论,需要两个概念成分。首先,一组可供个人选择的备选方案。称其为选择集并表示为X=\left{x^{1}, x^{2}, \ldots, x^{n}\right}X=\left{x^{1}, x^{2}, \ldots, x^{n}\right}, 其中X一世,一世=1,…,n是可能的备选方案之一,为简单起见,假设备选方案的总数n是有限的。选择集的概念非常笼统。如果一个人去咖啡馆,一个人的选择集是菜单上所有项目的子集。这意味着替代方案可以是单个项目的列表,例如“一杯茶、两个烤饼和一份橙酱”。从数学上讲,这种类型的列表称为元组。如果X一世是上述替代方案,可以表示为X一世=$q在一个n吨一世吨是○F吨和一个,n在米b和r○FsC○n和s,q在一个n吨一世吨是○F○r一个nG和j一个米$=1,2,1. 如果一个人去投票,一个人的选择集是所有可接受的政党或候选人的集合,如果一个人决定高中毕业后做什么,一个人的选择集是所有潜在职业的集合。

其次,个人可能更喜欢一些替代品,这是她品味或偏好的表达。假设她能够对所有备选方案进行成对比较X做出诸如“我更喜欢另类X一世替代Xj,“或“我对替代品无动于衷Xj和替代Xj.“为了获得精益符号,经济学家在这些陈述中使用以下符号:“我更喜欢替代X一世替代Xj” 表示为 ”X一世>Xj“和“我对替代品无动于衷X一世和替代Xj“经过 ”X一世∼Xj.”

理解术语的确切含义很重要。从数学上讲,一个取两个任意元素X,Xj和Xj, 并将它们相互比较。这种比较称为二元关系X. 严格的偏好关系,”>,“和无差异关系,”∼,”因此可以表示为笛卡尔积的一个子集X,X×X. (我通过使用符号作为关系名称和指示替代项的二进制比较来稍微滥用符号。)

下面是一个例子:假设 Ann 可以选择一个苹果,X1, 一个橙子,X2,还有一颗樱桃,X3. 在这种情况下,选择集等于X=\left{x^{1}, x^{2}, x^{3}\right}X=\left{x^{1}, x^{2}, x^{3}\right}笛卡尔积是所有有序对的集合X× X=\left{\left(x^{1}, x^{1}\right),\left(x^{1}, x^{2}\right),\left(x^{1}, x^{3}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^{1}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^{2}\right),\left(x^ {2}, x^{3}\right),\left(x^{3}, x^{1}\right),\left(x^{3}, x^{2}\right),\右.$, $\left.\left(x^{3}, x^{3}\right)\right}X=\left{\left(x^{1}, x^{1}\right),\left(x^{1}, x^{2}\right),\left(x^{1}, x^{3}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^{1}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^{2}\right),\left(x^ {2}, x^{3}\right),\left(x^{3}, x^{1}\right),\left(x^{3}, x^{2}\right),\右.$, $\left.\left(x^{3}, x^{3}\right)\right}. 假设安更喜欢苹果而不是橙子,并且对橙子和樱桃无动于衷,X1>X2,X2∼X3. 如果一个人读到一对(X一世,Xj)作为 ”X一世有关系R至Xj,“一个可以代表她的喜好,”>,” 通过对的子集\left{\left(x^{1}, x^{2}\right)\right}\left{\left(x^{1}, x^{2}\right)\right}和她的喜好,”∼,” 通过对的子集\left{\left(x^{1}, x^{1}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^{2}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^ {3}\right),\left(x^{3}, x^{3}\right)\right}\left{\left(x^{1}, x^{1}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^{2}\right),\left(x^{2}, x^ {3}\right),\left(x^{3}, x^{3}\right)\right}. 请注意,对(X一世,X一世)是子集的元素,因为 Ann 对备选方案和自身无动于衷。从纯数学的角度来看,这个属性并不是不言而喻的,因此,有时将其表述为偏好关系的假设,即自反性。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考 请认准statistics-lab™

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

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随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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