经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE ANTI-TEXT

如果你也在 怎样代写微观经济学Microeconomics这个学科遇到相关的难题,请随时右上角联系我们的24/7代写客服。

微观经济学是主流经济学的一个分支,研究个人和企业在做出有关稀缺资源分配的决策时的行为以及这些个人和企业之间的相互作用。

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富,各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

我们提供的微观经济学Microeconomics及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE ANTI-TEXT

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The inherent tension with macroeconomics

As we mentioned one seminal book in economics, Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations, let’s mention another: John Maynard Keynes’s The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. Published in 1936 during the Great Depression, it attempted to explain how unemployment

could persist, and what governments could do about it. In doing this, Keynes became the founding father of macroeconomics. This is the study of large aggregates, and explains such things as unemployment, inflation, exchange rates and interest rates; whereas microeconomics deals with smaller units, such as individual markets.

Keynes’s message is the opposite of Smith’s. Whereas Smith emphasized that a capitalist market economy can be self-regulating and efficient, Keynes emphasized that it was inherently prone to cycles of boom and bust – and those periods of bust are terribly inefficient. Whereas Smith emphasized that rational decision-making leads to an efficient outcome, Keynes emphasized that people’s behaviour, particularly regarding business investment, is driven by waves of spontaneous optimism and pessimism and (implicitly) fuelled by greed, fear and the herd instinct.
When it comes to macroeconomics, Keynes’s thinking still dominates. It is generally accepted that the government must intervene in the economy to prevent both recessions and overblown expansions, and that it must regulate some sectors. Yet, when it comes to textbook microeconomics, the thinking of Adam Smith dominates. It’s an uneasy coexistence.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Scarcity and unlimited wants? Reconsidering the economic problem

According to the texts, the ‘economic problem’ is making choices that allocate our scarce resources in the best way given our unlimited wants. Difficult trade-offs are inevitable. But this view of the economic problem can be challenged in several ways.

Economists in the ‘post-Keynesian’ school reject scarcity as a fundamental truth. In their view, economies typically have unemployed resources. If those resources could be put to work, more of everything could be produced. We could have our cake and eat it too; there would be no opportunity cost if all the resources being put to work had been involuntarily unemployed. As Canadian economist Marc Lavoie writes, ¿… since full employment of resources is not assumed, the discussion of their efficient allocation is not a major issue. Rather, what is emphasized among post-Keynesian economists is the degree to which these resources are utilized. ${ }^{74}$

Post-Keynesians aren’t the only ones who reject scarcity as a basic economic condition. For example, Emily Northrop questions whether the texts’ assertion that people’s wants are insatiable is true. She notes that some people manage to resist consumerism and choose different lifestyles embodying simplicity, balance or connection (to the earth and to others). The fact that some are able to do this suggests unlimited wants aren’t innate. As she points out, the texts ignore the ‘cultural and economic institutions that nurture human wants’, such as advertising. Their assertion of insatiability effectively legitimates and promotes consumerism. ${ }^{5}$

Northrop also points out that the notion of unlimited wants puts all wants on an equal footing: one person’s want for a subsistence diet is no more important than a millionaire’s want for precious jewellery. This equality of wants reflects the market value system that no goods are intrinsically more worthy than others – just as no preferences are more worthy than others. This is clearly a value judgement and one that many people reject. Yet economics, which unquestioningly adopts this approach, claims to be an objective social science that avoids making value judgements!

If we accept this view of unlimited wants, the economic problem can never be solved once and for all. But if we reject the view that all wants have equal merit, the economic problem can be redefined in a way that has a solution. Northrop cites John Maynard Keynes’s view that the economic problem is the ‘struggle for subsistence’ and that it could be solved if everyone’s basic needs were met. Keynes distinguished between two kinds of needs: those which are ‘absolute in the sense that we feel them whatever the situation of our fellow human beings may be, and those which are relative’, which depend only on what others have and may indeed be unlimited. However, for Keynes, absolute needs took priority and he foresaw the possibility of the economic problem being solved (in the then developed countries at least) within a century of the time that he was writing. ${ }^{6}$

This definition of the economic problem clearly requires a value judgement about which needs get moral weight, just as the one in the text does. But Keynes’s definition puts equity and the distribution of income front and centre. It contrasts with the textbook approach of treating equity as a political issue outside the scope of economic analysis.

In general, we could think of economics as being about ‘how societies organize themselves to support human life and its flourishing’ – or about how they fail to do so. Such a ‘provisioning’ definition of economics encompasses both markets and families, both money and care’, as Julie Nelson puts it. ${ }^{7}$

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The individual versus the corporation

Marglin argues that the textbook focus on individuals is problematic. John Kenneth Galbraith went further. He thought the textbook focus on individuals was a source of grave error and bias because in the real world the individual is not the agent that matters most. The corporation is.

By having the wrong focus, economics is able to deny the importance of power and political interests.

Textbooks assume that rational individuals with stable preferences, uninfluenced by advertising, allocate their spending to maximize their own happiness. This suggests that individuals, through their spending, exercise ultimate control over both what is produced and how it is produced. Of course, entrepreneurs and corporate managers actually make those decisions. But (so the conventional argument goes) they are governed by their anticipations of market response – they cannot survive if customers don’t buy. Thus, even large corporations are subordinate to the market.
Further, textbooks assume that the state is subordinate to individuals through the ballot box. At the very least, government is assumed to be neutral, intervening to correct market failure as best it can, and to redistribute income to make market outcomes more equitable.

But this idealized world is so far removed from the real world that it is little more than a myth, or ‘perhaps even a fraud’. ${ }^{\prime 1}$ The power of the largest corporations rivals that of the state; indeed, they often hijack the state’s power for their own purposes. In reality, we see the management of the consumer by corporations; and we see the subordination of the state to corporate interests.

Galbraith saw economic life as a bipolar phenomenon. In one part of the economy there are vast numbers of small-scale businesses, where the market is paramount and the state is remote. This is the part featured in economic instruction and in political speeches, even as it fast disappears. ‘For the small retailer, Wal-Mart awaits. For the family farm, there are the massive grain and fruit enterprises and the modern large-scale meat producers’.12

The other part of the American economy consists of a few hundred enormously powerful corporations. What they need in research and development, or environmental policy, or public works, or emergency financial support, becomes public policy. Government policy is influenced in widely accepted ways. “Between public and private bureaucracies between GM and the Department of Transportation, General Dynamics and the Pentagon – there is a deeply symbiotic relationship. Each of these organizations can do much for the other. There is even, between them, a large and continuous interchange of executive personnel’. 13

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE ANTI-TEXT

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The inherent tension with macroeconomics

正如我们提到的一本经济学开创性著作,亚当·斯密的《国富论》,让我们再提一提:约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯的《就业、利息和货币通论》。它于 1936 年在大萧条时期出版,试图解释失业是如何

可能会持续下去,以及政府可以做些什么。通过这样做,凯恩斯成为宏观经济学的奠基人。这是对大集合的研究,并解释了失业、通货膨胀、汇率和利率等问题;而微观经济学则处理较小的单位,例如个别市场。

凯恩斯的信息与史密斯的相反。史密斯强调资本主义市场经济可以自我调节和高效,而凯恩斯强调它天生就容易出现繁荣和萧条的周期——而那些萧条时期效率极低。史密斯强调理性决策会带来有效的结果,而凯恩斯强调人们的行为,尤其是在商业投资方面,是由自发的乐观和悲观情绪驱动的,并且(隐含地)受到贪婪、恐惧和从众本能的推动。
谈到宏观经济学,凯恩斯的思想仍然占主导地位。人们普遍认为,政府必须干预经济以防止经济衰退和过度扩张,并且必须对某些部门进行监管。然而,当谈到教科书的微观经济学时,亚当·斯密的思想占主导地位。这是一种不安的共存。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Scarcity and unlimited wants? Reconsidering the economic problem

根据文本,“经济问题”是根据我们无限的需求做出以最佳方式分配我们稀缺资源的选择。艰难的取舍是不可避免的。但这种对经济问题的看法可能会在几个方面受到挑战。

“后凯恩斯主义”学派的经济学家拒绝将稀缺性作为一个基本事实。在他们看来,经济体通常有失业资源。如果这些资源可以投入使用,那么可以生产更多的东西。我们可以吃蛋糕,也可以吃;如果所有投入工作的资源都非自愿地失业,就不会有机会成本。正如加拿大经济学家马克·拉沃(Marc Lavoie)所写,¿…… 由于没有假设资源充分利用,因此讨论资源的有效分配不是主要问题。相反,后凯恩斯主义经济学家强调的是这些资源的利用程度。74

后凯恩斯主义者并不是唯一拒绝将稀缺作为基本经济条件的人。例如,艾米莉·诺斯罗普质疑文本中关于人们的需求是无法满足的断言是否属实。她指出,有些人设法抵制消费主义,选择体现简单、平衡或联系(与地球和其他人)的不同生活方式。有些人能够做到这一点的事实表明,无限的欲望并不是与生俱来的。正如她所指出的,这些文本忽略了“培养人类需求的文化和经济制度”,例如广告。他们对永不满足的主张有效地合法化并促进了消费主义。5

诺斯罗普还指出,无限需求的概念将所有需求放在了平等的基础上:一个人对维持生计的饮食的需求并不比百万富翁对珍贵珠宝的需求重要。这种需求平等反映了市场价值体系,即没有商品在本质上比其他商品更有价值——就像没有偏好比其他商品更有价值一样。这显然是一种价值判断,被许多人拒绝。然而,毫无疑问地采用这种方法的经济学却声称是一门避免做出价值判断的客观社会科学!

如果我们接受这种无限欲望的观点,经济问题就永远无法一劳永逸地解决。但是,如果我们拒绝所有需求都具有同等价值的观点,那么经济问题就可以以一种有解决方案的方式重新定义。诺斯罗普引用约翰梅纳德凯恩斯的观点,即经济问题是“生存斗争”,如果每个人的基本需求得到满足,它就可以解决。凯恩斯区分了两种需要:一种是“绝对的,即我们无论同胞的处境如何都能感觉到它们,另一种是相对的”,它们只取决于他人拥有的东西,而且可能确实是无限的. 然而,对于凯恩斯来说,6

经济问题的这种定义显然需要对哪些需求具有道德重要性进行价值判断,就像文本中的那样。但凯恩斯的定义将公平和收入分配放在首位和中心位置。它与将公平视为经济分析范围之外的政治问题的教科书方法形成对比。

一般来说,我们可以将经济学视为“社会如何组织起来以支持人类生活及其繁荣”——或者关于它们如何未能做到这一点。正如朱莉·纳尔逊所说,经济学的这种“供给”定义既包括市场也包括家庭,包括金钱和关怀。7

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The individual versus the corporation

Marglin 认为,教科书对个人的关注是有问题的。约翰·肯尼斯·加尔布雷思走得更远。他认为教科书对个人的关注是严重错误和偏见的根源,因为在现实世界中,个人并不是最重要的代理人。公司是。

由于关注点错误,经济学能够否认权力和政治利益的重要性。

教科书假定,偏好稳定、不受广告影响的理性个体分配支出以最大化自己的幸福。这表明个人通过他们的支出对生产的产品和生产方式进行最终控制。当然,企业家和企业经理实际上会做出这些决定。但是(按照传统的说法)他们受制于对市场反应的预期——如果客户不购买,他们就无法生存。因此,即使是大公司也服从于市场。
此外,教科书假设国家通过投票箱从属于个人。至少,政府被认为是中立的,尽可能地进行干预以纠正市场失灵,并重新分配收入以使市场结果更加公平。

但是这个理想化的世界与现实世界相去甚远,以至于它只不过是一个神话,或者“甚至可能是一个骗局”。′1大公司的权力可以与国家的权力相媲美;事实上,他们经常为了自己的目的劫持国家权力。实际上,我们看到的是企业对消费者的管理;我们看到国家从属于企业利益。

加尔布雷思将经济生活视为一种两极现象。在经济的某一部分,有大量的小企业,市场至上,国家偏远。这是经济指导和政治演讲中的特色部分,即使它很快消失了。’对于小型零售商,沃尔玛等待着。对于家庭农场来说,有大量的粮食和水果企业和现代大型肉类生产商。12

美国经济的另一部分由数百家强大的公司组成。他们在研发、环境政策、公共工程或紧急财政支持方面所需要的东西,都变成了公共政策。政府政策受到广泛接受的方式的影响。“通用汽车与交通部、通用动力公司和五角大楼之间的公共和私人官僚机构之间​​存在着深刻的共生关系。这些组织中的每一个都可以为对方做很多事情。在他们之间,甚至还有大量的、持续不断的行政人员交流”。13

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考 请认准statistics-lab™

统计代写请认准statistics-lab™. statistics-lab™为您的留学生涯保驾护航。

金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构,多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务,包括但不限于Essay代写,Assignment代写,Dissertation代写,Report代写,小组作业代写,Proposal代写,Paper代写,Presentation代写,计算机作业代写,论文修改和润色,网课代做,exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中,本科,研究生等海外留学全阶段,辐射金融,经济学,会计学,审计学,管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者,也有海外名校硕博留学生,每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力,专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创,100%专业,100%准时,100%满意。

随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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