### 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE STANDARD TEXT

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Model building and model testing

Science is a method – a process of forming hypotheses, making predictions and testing the predictions against the facts. Sometimes a hypothesis will emerge from inference: looking at the world and making a generalization about it. Sometimes it will emerge from a process of deduction: thinking about the world in a systematic way. Usually deduction involves trying to separate what is essential about a problem from its irrelevant details. When we do this, we have created a simplified version of reality, or a model of reality. Thus, building models necessarily entails making assumptions that are unrealistic – otherwise they wouldn’t be simplifying.

A map does something similar; only those details relevant to the map’s purpose are included. The details that are left out don’t matter if the map is useful. Similarly, if a model makes good predictions, then those aspects of reality that are ignored don’t matter. Therefore, it’s inappropriate to judge the usefulness of a model by the realism of its assumptions; the only relevant test is the accuracy of the model’s predictions.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Examples of economic models

The production possibility frontier (PPF) Let’s begin with a simple two-person economy where things are produced. We can imagine the situation faced by the

fictional $18^{\text {th}}$-century shipwrecked sailor, Robinson Crusoe. Crusoe on his island has to divide his time between two activities, fishing and gathering coconuts. Devoting more time to fishing implies less time for coconuts; the opportunity cost of one more fish is the number of coconuts forgone.

Next, Crusoe meets Friday, who also fishes and gathers coconuts. Friday is less productive at both tasks, but especially at gathering coconuts; when it comes to fishing he is only slightly worse than Crusoe. Having met, should they continue to work in isolation? Since Crusoe is more productive in everything, could it be in his best interests to continue to go it alone?

It turns out that specialization and exchange (trade) can benefit them both. It doesn’t matter that Crusoe is more productive (or has an ‘absolute advantage’) in producing both fish and coconuts. Crusoe should spend more time gathering coconuts (at which he is much better), and Friday should spend more time fishing (at which he is only a little worse). Such an arrangement will increase their total production of fish and coconuts.

To demonstrate this in a more interesting context, let’s replace individuals with countries. This allows us to see the gains from international trade. The model has two purposes: to illustrate some important concepts as simply as possible, while making predictions, in this case about the pattern of production and trade between two countries.

Our story will feature two countries (England and Canada), two industries (wheat and cloth) and one scarce resource, or ‘factor of production’, labour. This parallels the demonstration of comparative advantage by David Ricardo in 1817 , and for that reason is often called the Ricardian model of trade.

Comparative advantage and the gains from trade Suppose that one unit of labour can produce 5 bushels of wheat or 10 yards of cloth in England; whereas one unit of labour can produce 100 bushels of wheat or 50 yards of cloth in Canada. These data are shown in Table $2.1$ below.

Clearly, Canadian labour is more productive in both industries; so Canada has an absolute advantage in both. But the opportunity cost of producing cloth is lower in England than in Canada.

In particular, it takes one tenth of a unit of labour to produce 1 yard of cloth in England. But one tenth of a unit of labour could have produced half a bushel of wheat in England. Thus, the opportunity cost of a yard of cloth is half a bushel of wheat in England. Following the same logic, the opportunity cost of 1 yard of cloth in Canada is 2 bushels of wheat.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The individual|Positive and normative economics

Economic models can be used only to shed light on questions of fact. This is the subject matter of positive economics, which focuses on the way the world actually works; it can help us to determine whether positive statements, or statements

about fact, are true or false. For example, ‘an increase in the minimum wage will increase unemployment for young and unskilled workers’ is a positive statement. It may not be true, but it is still a positive statement in so far as it can be refuted or confirmed by appealing to the empirical evidence.

On the other hand, economic models can’t be used to shed light on how the world ought to be. This involves making value judgements, often involving questions of fairness or equity, and is the subject matter of normative economics. For example, the statement ‘there should be no homeless people in rich developed countries’ is a normative statement based on values – it cannot be tested by appealing to empirical evidence.

This distinction helps to explain why there is a public perception of widespread disagreement among economists. Economists, like other citizens, have different values; therefore they often disagree over normative issues. But on positive issues decided by economic analysis and empirical evidence, there is widespread consensus. For example, a 2011 survey of American economists found that 74 percent agreed with the statement ‘A minimum wage increases unemployment among young and unskilled workers.’ 95 percent agreed that ‘Tariffs and import quotas usually reduce general economic welfare’. . (We set out a model of the minimum wage in the next chapter and look at tariffs in Chapter 10.)

Positive economics occupies most of economists’ time and effort. On normative issues, economists have no more expertise than anyone else and so they can offer no scientific answers to those questions. For example, what constitutes a fair or equitable distribution of income or wealth is a matter of individual judgement. What economic policy should do to improve equity is ultimately something that society’s political institutions will have to decide.

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。