经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|How the Economy as a Whole Works

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Microeconomics and Macroeconomics

Since roughly the 1930 s, the field of economics has been divided into two broad subfields. Microeconomics is the study of how households and firms make decisions and how they interact in specific markets. Macroeconomics is the study of economy-wide phenomena. The Nobel Prize winning economist Ragnar Frisch is credited with being the first to use the two terms (along with the term ‘econometrics’ incidentally), and the Cambridge economist Joan Robinson, an associate of Keynes, was one of the first to define macroeconomics, referring to it as ‘the theory of output as a whole’.

Microeconomics might involve the study of the effects of a congestion tax on the use of cars in a city centre, the impact of foreign competition on the European car industry, or the effects of attending university on a person’s lifetime earnings. A macroeconomist might study the effects of borrowing by national governments, the changes over time in an economy’s rate of unemployment or alternative policies to raise growth in national living standards.

Microeconomics and macroeconomics are closely intertwined. Because changes in the overall economy arise from the decisions of millions of individuals, it is impossible to understand macroeconomic developments without considering the associated microeconomic decisions. For example, a macroeconomist might study the effect of a cut in income tax on the overall production of goods and services in

an economy. To analyze this issue, they must consider how the tax cut affects the decisions of households concerning how much to spend on goods and services.

Despite the inherent link between microeconomics and macroeconomics, the two fields are distinct. Because microeconomics and macroeconomics address different questions, they sometimes take quite different approaches and are often taught in separate courses.

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|An Economy’s Standard of Living Is Related to Its Ability to Produce

A key concept in macroeconomics is economic growth – the increase in the number of goods and services produced in an economy over a period of time, usually expressed over a quarter and annually. One measure of the economic well-being of a nation is given by gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (per head) of the population, which can be seen as being the average income per head of the population. If you look at GDP per capita figures, it becomes clear that many advanced economies have a relatively high income per capita, whereas in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, average incomes are much lower and, in some cases, significantly lower. For example, in 2017, the GDP per capita of Benin in West Africa was reported by the World Bank as being $\$ 860$. In comparison, the GDP per capita of Germany was$\$44,470$. Put another way, average incomes in Benin are around $1.93$ per cent of those in Germany.

Not surprisingly, this large variation in average income is reflected in various other measures of the quality of life and standard of living. Citizens of high-income countries typically have better nutrition, better health care and longer life expectancy than citizens of low-income countries, as well as more TV sets, more gadgets and more cars.

Changes in the standard of living over time are also large. Between 2010 and 2016, economic growth, measured as the percentage growth rate of GDP, in Bangladesh averaged around $6.3$ per cent per year and in China about $8.0$ per cent a year, but in Brazil the economy only grew by around $1.35$ per cent over the same time period, and in the period 2014-16, the economy of Brazil actually shrank in size by around 3 per cent (source: World Bank).

Variation in living standards is attributable to differences in countries’ productivity – that is, the amount of goods and services produced by a worker (or other factor of production) per time period. In nations where workers can produce a large quantity of goods and services per unit of time, many people enjoy a high standard of living; in nations where workers are less productive, people endure a more meagre existence. Similarly, the growth rate of a nation’s productivity determines the growth rate of its average income.

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Prices Rise When the Government Prints Too Much Money

In Zimbabwe in March 2007 inflation was reported to be running at 2,200 per cent. That meant that a good priced at the equivalent of $Z \$ 2.99$in March 2006 would be priced at$Z \$68.77$ just a year later. In February 2008 , inflation was estimated at 165,000 per cent. Five months later it was reported as $2,200,000$ per cent. In July 2008 , the government issued a $Z \$ 100$billion note. At that time, it was just about enough to buy a loaf of bread. Estimates for inflation in Zimbabwe in July 2008 put the rate of growth of prices at$231,000,000$per cent. In January 2009 , the government issued$Z \$10,20,50$ and 100 trillion dollar notes – a trillion is 1 followed by 12 zeros. This episode is one of history’s most spectacular examples of inflation, an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy. It is not the only example of inflation that is out of control, however. Weimar Germany in the early 1920 s, the Balkans in the mid-1990s and, more recently, Venezuela in 2018, all experienced hyperinflation. In Venezuela, inflation was reported by Steve Hanke of Johns Hopkins University in the United States as being over 4,000 per cent.

High inflation is a problem because it imposes various costs on society; keeping inflation at a low level is a goal of economic policymakers around the world. In almost all cases of high or persistent inflation, a causal factor is the growth in the quantity of money. When a government creates large quantities of the nation’s money, without any corresponding increase in output or productivity, the value of the money falls. In the period outlined above, the Zimbabwean government was issuing money in ever higher denominations. It is generally accepted that there is a relationship between the growth in the quantity of money and the rate of growth of prices.

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MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。