### 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|AEM4070

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写金融统计Financial Statistics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写金融统计Financial Statistics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写金融统计Financial Statistics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|Some aspects of regulation in the US

In the US, early regulation which dates back to the early 1800 s was almost exclusively at the state level. The objectives were (see [103], [106]) raising revenue through taxes, protecting domestic insurers against competition from foreign and alien insurers, and protecting the public against insolvency and inequitable treatment by insurers.

The industrial revolution promoted the growth of large monopolistic companies, which in turn fostered the enactment of several federal antitrust laws and acts. The insurance business was initially exempted from these federal laws. Then it was declared subject to federal regulation, and finally – according to McCarranFerguson Act of 1945 – regulation at the state level. The extent of this regulation differs by line of business and by state.

As each state is granted the authority to regulate the insurance industry within its jurisdiction, any insurance company must be authorized by the state insurance department before it may conduct business there. These licensing requirements include satisfying the minimum capital and surplus requirements for all the lines of business which the company wishes to sell within that jurisdiction. On an ongoing basis, it must comply with the rate-making and financial reporting laws in that state. Thus, a company operating in more than one state must adhere to the

specific laws of each particular state.
Each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia and the four territories of the US has its own insurance department. Each department is headed by an insurance commissioner. Through the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC), this group of 55 commissioners exchanges information and coordinates regulatory activities. By the beginning of the 21 st century, there were over 5000 insurance companies operating in the US, about 3000 of which were propertyliability insurers (see [105], p. 32). This large number of firms masks the high degree of concentration in certain lines of business and geographical locations.

## 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|Measures for harmonization of solvency regulation

Experts have long recognized 34 that there probably will never be “absolute” criterion for solvency: each choice will contain subjective elements. The efforts undertaken in different countries to harmonize the requirements of insurance solvency regulation has given rise to a large diversity of approaches.

Early studies aimed at improving insurance regulation in the European Community have been performed by C. Campagne (see [34] and [35]). He proposed a technique ${ }^{35}$ which used basic ratios selected for the European Economic Community (EEC) minimum solvency margins; it was innovative for the late $1950 \mathrm{~s}$. In particular, in the non-life insurance, he suggested using the ratio of the total claim amount to the total earned premium of a company in a financial year.

Later on, largely as a result of the activities of the Finnish Solvency Working Party and the British Solvency Working Party ${ }^{36}$, the Directive [60] was developed and implemented as a law. It is currently in force in the European Union.

Article 16 af the Directive [60] establishes solvency requirements in terms of the required solvency margin. It shall be determined on the basis either of the annual amount of premiums or contributions, or of the average burden of claims for the past three financial years. However, if the insurance organization mainly works with only one or more of the risks of credit, storms, hail or frosts, the last seven rather than three financial years should be taken as a reference period.

## 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|Critical analysis of the algorithm

Let us critically examine the algorithm incorporated in Directive [60]. If the risk and the related claim payments remain stationary for a number of years, there are obvious advantages. In particular, this algorithm smooths out purely accidental peaks in the values of total claim payments for the last three, or seven, financial years. In addition, it aims to balance the value of the average payment made over the past three, or seven, years with the value of total premiums collected in the past year.

It may happen that this algorithm performs smoothing in some cases when claim payments are non-stationary, for instance when in a series of years similar to one another there is a year with unusually large or unusually low risk and, accordingly, unusually large or unusually small total claim payments. So, we can expect that the averaging in the range of three, or seven, past years will contribute to the adaptability and stability of the algorithm to small changes in the underlying assumptions about the course of the insurance business.

But even with all these merits, this algorithm works poorly under certain adverse circumstances. Clarification of which circumstances are defined to be

adverse requires a more careful study of both the insurance risk and economic scenarios that model them.

Let us digress from our theme, to provide a good example of how this can happen, referring to the history of ancient Egypt. The total area of modern Egypt is $997738 \mathrm{~km}^{2}$. Only $36000 \mathrm{~km}^{2}$ (i.e., less than $4 \%$ ) are inhabited and suitable for agriculture. It is a narrow strip with a width of just a few kilometers around the Nile River, excluding the Nile Delta and the oases. It was the Nile which fertilized Egyptian soil by floods; “Egypt is a gift of the Nile” wrote Herodotus.

## 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|Measures for harmonization of solvency regulation

C. Campagne 进行了旨在改善欧洲共同体保险监管的早期研究（见 [34] 和 [35]）。他提出了一种技术35使用为欧洲经济共同体 (EEC) 最低偿付能力保证金选择的基本比率；这是最近的创新1950 s. 特别是在非人寿保险方面，他建议使用总索赔额与公司在一个财政年度的总已赚保费的比率。

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。