### 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON106

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The Diferent Data When Determining

We now have the elements to grasp the radical difference between the classical or surplus approach, and the marginal or neoclassical approach.

The central difference is in the explanation of how the net product, net also of land rent, gets divided between wages on the one side, and on the other side income from the property of capital (profits in classical terminology, interest in marginalist terminology). The rent of land is explained on the basis of similar principles in the two approaches, ${ }^{46}$ so we can concentrate on the differences in the explanation of wages and profits (interest), by assuming land is free. In the classical approach capitalists are able to appropriate part of the product owing to their bargaining strength that derives from their control of the means of production and their capacity to resist more in case of conflict; the sociopolitical elements that determine the relative bargaining strength of labour and capital fix the real wage, and profits are determined as the residue. In the marginal approach the real wage rate and the rate of interest are determined by a symmetrical mechanism, that determines both simultaneously, through the tendency toward an equilibrium between supply and demand.

The root of the difference does not lie simply in whether the labour market is seen as competitive (with each individual acting separately from the others) or not competitive (with labourers and capitalists acting as two coalitions). It lies in the presence in the marginalist authors, and absence in the classical authors, of the conception of production as a cooperation of factors of production which are substitutable one for the other, so that technical choices and consumer choices activate factor substitution mechanisms which engender a decreasing demand curve for each factor.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The Role of Social and Political Elements

The presence in the marginalist authors, and absence in the classical authors, of the notion of a negative elasticity of labour employment with respect to real wages entails a different role of social and political elements in the two approaches, and a different conception of how competition in the labour market operates.

In the marginal approach a wage fixed by sociopolitical elements is an impediment to the free working of competition, which if left free to operate would produce a fully determinate level of the real wages. The marginalist conception itself of the ‘free working of competition’ in labour markets relies on this: without a significant positive effect of decreases of real wages upon employment, the marginalist conception of competition in the labour market, entailing an indefinite downward flexibility of wages as long as there is unemployment, would clearly be unacceptable: its operation would bring wages to zero (or anyway to implausibly low levels) whenever unemployment persisted, with a clear contradiction with observation.

In the classical approach the absence of the notion of a decreasing demand curve for labour would have entailed precisely such implausible results, if competition had been thought to operate as the marginalists conceive it: the little response of labour employment to changes in wages and the nearly universal presence of unemployment in capitalist economies would have entailed a prediction of a tendency of wages to zero, clearly incompatible with observation. It is understandable then that in the classical approach one does not find the view that wages will decrease as long as the demand for labour is less than its supply, and one finds instead a stress on custom, on the need to defend social status, on relative bargaining power, on collective behaviours, on fear of popular revolts, and the like, as the elements capable of determining real wages and their variations. The social customs and political elements that in the marginal approach are, if at all, superposed upon a self-sufficient mechanism and impede its autonomous working are, to the contrary, indispensable in a classical approach and are accordingly viewed as an obvious component of an economy based on wage labour. Hence for a classical economist social, political, institutional and historical considerations are an integral part of economic analysis. ${ }^{47}$

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MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。