### 数学代写|数论代写Number theory代考|MAST90136

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• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 数学代写|数论代写Number theory代考|OTHER RESULTS, AND SOME OPEN QUESTIONS

It is known that $\pi$ is irrational: we shall prove this in the next chapter. It is not hard to see that at least one of the numbers $\pi+e$ and $\pi e$ must be irrational (in fact, at least one must be transcendental – see Chapter 3 ); although, most likely, both are irrational, this has not been proved for either one individually. As a consequence of a difficult result due to Gelfond and Schneider (Theorem $5.18$ ) we know that $e^{\pi}$ is irrational; however it is still unknown whether or not $\pi^{e}$ is irrational. It can also be shown that various numbers such as, for

example, $e^{\sqrt{2}}$ and $2^{\sqrt{2}}$ are irrational. However, the irrationality of $\pi^{\sqrt{2}}$ and $2^{e}$, and that of the Euler-Mascheroni constant
$$\gamma=\lim {n \rightarrow \infty}\left(1+\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{3}+\cdots+\frac{1}{n}-\log n\right)=0.57721 \cdots$$ remain undecided. Another problem which has attracted much attention is to investigate the irrationality of the numbers $\zeta(n)$. Here $n \geq 2$ is an integer and $\zeta$ is the Riemann zeta function defined by $$\zeta(s)=\sum{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{k^{s}}=1+\frac{1}{2^{s}}+\frac{1}{3^{s}}+\frac{1}{4^{s}}+\cdots$$
for $s>1$. By methods of complex integration we can show that if $n$ is even then $\zeta(n)$ is a rational number times $\pi^{n}$, and this is known to be irrational. On the other hand, it is much harder to find out anything of interest about $\zeta(n)$ for odd $n$. In 1978 the French mathematician $\mathrm{R}$. Apéry sensationally proved that $\zeta(3)$ is irrational. His complicated argument had the appearance of being completely unmotivated, and all of the techniques he had used would have been available two centuries earlier: for these reasons, few people believed that the proof could possibly be correct. Nevertheless it was found possible eventually to confirm all of Apéry’s assertions and thereby establish what has been called “a proof that Euler missed”. A brief (but not easy!) account of Apéry’s work is given in [66].

## 数学代写|数论代写Number theory代考|SOME ELEMENTARY NUMBER THEORY

This section contains some basic number-theoretic definitions and results which you ought to know. Proofs in this section are abbreviated or omitted, and you should be able to supply proofs for yourself. If necessary, this material can be found in any work on elementary number theory. The most popular of the classic texts are regularly revised, thereby offering a proven exposition together with additions which bring the content and presentation up to date. From a very crowded field we mention Hardy and Wright [28], [29], Niven and Zuckerman $[45],[46]$ and Baker [10].

Lemma 1.10. The division algorithm. If $a$ and $b$ are integers with $b>0$, then there exist integers $q$ and $r$ such that $a=b q+r$ and $0 \leq r<b$.

Using the division algorithm recursively gives the Euclidean algorithm for computing the greatest common divisor of two integers, not both zero.

Lemma 1.11. The Bézout property. If $a$ and $b$ are integers, not both zero, and $g$ is the greatest common divisor of $a$ and $b$, then there exist integers $x$ and $y$ such that $a x+b y=g$.

Given specific $a$ and $b$, you should know how to use the Euclidean algorithm to find $g, x$ and $y$.

Lemma 1.12. If a and $m$ have no common factor and $a \mid m n$, then $a \mid n$.
Definition 1.4. Let $m$ be a positive integer. We say that integers a and b are congruent modulo $m$, written $a \equiv b(\bmod m)$, if $m \mid a-b$.

To “reduce an integer $a$ modulo $m$ ” means to find an integer $b$ such that $a \equiv b(\bmod m)$ and $b$ lies in a “suitable” range, usually $0 \leq b<m$. That this can always be done is a consequence of the division algorithm. Although congruence notation is just another way of expressing a divisibility relation, and in that sense “nothing new”, it is very useful because congruence shares many of the basic properties of equality.

## 数学代写|数论代写Number theory代考|IRRATIONALITY OF e r

In the actual details of the final proof, Hermite’s method is (at least for the earlier results) not too difficult. However, the motivation behind the proof can be obscure. Therefore, instead of giving the proofs straight away, we shall start by trying to explain the aims and ideas behind a relatively simple case. We wish to generalise results of Chapter 1 by showing that if $r$ is rational then $e^{r}$ is irrational, with the obvious exception that $e^{0}=1$.

As usual we seek a proof by contradiction: take $r=a / b$ with $a \neq 0$, and suppose that $e^{r}=p / q$. Following the method of Theorem $1.9$, we try to obtain a contradiction by constructing an integer that lies between 0 and 1 . Hermite’s idea, which originated in his study of approximations to $e^{x}$, was to consider the definite integral
$$\int_{0}^{r} f(x) e^{x} d x$$
and to identify a function $f$ which will give us what we want. Integrating by parts yields
$$\int_{0}^{r} f(x) e^{x} d x=\left(f(r) e^{r}-f(0)\right)-\int_{0}^{r} f^{\prime}(x) e^{x} d x$$
and since the integral on the right-hand side has very much the same form as that on the left, we may apply the same procedure repeatedly to obtain
$$\int_{0}^{r} f(x) e^{x} d x=\left(f(r)-f^{\prime}(r)+f^{\prime \prime}(r)-\cdots\right) e^{r}-\left(f(0)-f^{\prime}(0)+f^{\prime \prime}(0)-\cdots\right)$$
Here the right-hand side purports to contain two infinite series and therefore must be treated with caution, but if we choose $f$ to be a polynomial, then the sums will actually involve a finite number of terms only, and we shall have no

convergence problems. We write
$$F(x)=f(x)-f^{\prime}(x)+f^{\prime \prime}(x)-f^{\prime \prime \prime}(x)+\cdots,$$
so that
$$\int_{0}^{r} f(x) e^{x} d x=F(r) e^{r}-F(0),$$
and the next step is to make some sort of evaluation of the right-hand side.

## 数学代写|数论代写Number theory代考|OTHER RESULTS, AND SOME OPEN QUESTIONS

C=林n→∞(1+12+13+⋯+1n−日志⁡n)=0.57721⋯仍未决定。另一个备受关注的问题是调查数字的不合理性G(n). 这里n≥2是一个整数并且G是由定义的黎曼 zeta 函数

G(s)=∑ķ=1∞1ķs=1+12s+13s+14s+⋯

## 数学代写|数论代写Number theory代考|IRRATIONALITY OF e r

∫0rF(X)和XdX

∫0rF(X)和XdX=(F(r)和r−F(0))−∫0rF′(X)和XdX

∫0rF(X)和XdX=(F(r)−F′(r)+F′′(r)−⋯)和r−(F(0)−F′(0)+F′′(0)−⋯)

F(X)=F(X)−F′(X)+F′′(X)−F′′′(X)+⋯,

∫0rF(X)和XdX=F(r)和r−F(0),

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