### 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON 3516

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|THE “BRISBANE CLUB” MODEL

What differentiates our contribution to the study of the Fourth Industrial Revolution from others is the mode of analysis it applies. We make use of a model of the economy which was specifically designed to account for the effects technology has at all levels of analysis: from the micro-scale of everyday life to the macro-scale of the socioeconomic system as a whole. With this model we can “place” the various mega-technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution within it and then project their likely interaction with the broader socioeconomic system.

This model was developed in the early twenty-first century at the University of Queensland through the contributions of Jason Potts, Kurt Dopfer, John Foster, and Stan Metcalfe as well as Ulrich Witt and Peter Earl in particular, hence it is known as the “Brisbane Club” model. This model conceives of the economy as a complex evolving system formed by individuals acting on the basis of their socioeconomic environment and psychology, enabled by the technologies available to them. It incorporates elements of behavioural and psychological economics (Earl, $1983,1984,1986,2017$ ), institutional economics where it focusses on the rules governing socioeconomic interaction (Dopfer, Foster and Potts, 2004; Dopfer and Potts, 2008), and evolutionary economics (Metcalfe, 1998; Witt, 2008). It is also strongly influenced by the literature on complex systems and emergence within them (Potts, 2000; Foster, 2005; Foster and Metcalfe, 2012).

We will introduce the Brisbane Club model of socioeconomic systems at some length so that we may apply it in later chapters to analysing the mega-technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. We will first introduce the argument that we can best understand socioeconomic evolution as a process of structural evolution in the formation of socioeconomic networks. We will then introduce the Brisbane Club model of how those networks form out of the interaction between individual psychologies and the socioeconomic environment, and then discuss the various factors influencing the evolution of those networks through the change of individual behaviour. We will then introduce the micro-meso-macro perspective by which we switch between microscopic and macroscopic analysis of socioeconomic systems. We will finally summarise how we will use this model to analyse the various mega-technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. For the interested reader, a technical appendix contains a sketch of the formal properties of this model.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Society and economy as complex evolving networks

The core proposition around which the Brisbane Club model of socioeconomic systems is built is that the economy is a complex evolving system formed by individuals acting on the basis of their psychology and socioeconomic environment enabled by technology. These systems are appropriately thought of as network structures where individuals form connections whenever they decide to transfer or exchange goods and services, mediums of exchange, or information. Anytime you interact with someone in a socioeconomic context, you form a connection in socioeconomic networks. Buy a cup of coffee, a connection comes into existence between you and the vendor. Exchange your labour for wages, a connection comes into existence between you and your employer. Strike a multi-milliondollar investment contract with another company, a connection comes into existence between yourself and your counterpart in that company.

That of course sounds like a natural way to model socioeconomic systems, but for various historical reasons, traditional economics is not “done” in this way. The tendency for economic analysis (as Philip Mirowski argued in 1989) is to imagine that the economy is something like an electromagnetic field, which is a complete network (all connections that can be made are made) where socioeconomic interactions are akin to electromagnetic flows settling down to an equilibrium. This perspective was immensely useful for understanding the interaction of price dynamics across many markets – changes in one market leading to changes in another and so on. The problem with it, however, as Jason Potts argued in his seminal New Evolutionary Microeconomics $(2000)$ was that it is difficult to make sense of structural evolution with such a model. If a system is fully connected there aren’t any new connections to be made. The alternative Potts offered was to recognise that the network structure of the economy is incomplete and therefore interesting: new connections can be made, existing connections can be transferred, and the structure of the economy can evolve.

Potts’s argument was to stimulate a decade of thought at the University of Queensland under the leadership of Professor John Foster at the School of Economics. Various thinkers from across the world concentrated on the School, becoming the “Brisbane Club,” and contributed elements to the view offered by its emerging model. This model integrated insights from psychological, institutional, and evolutionary economics, while keeping traditional analysis as a special case. To analyse the mega-technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution we will make use of the model as synthesised and formalised in two technical documents written by one of the present authors over the course of his doctoral research (MarkeyTowler, 2016, 2018a).

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Formation of socioeconomic systems: environment

Socioeconomies are complex evolving network structures formed by the behaviour of individuals acting on the basis of their psychology and socioeconomic environment enabled by technology. To understand their formation, thus their evolution, we need to understand how human psychology interacts with the socioeconomic environment to determine behaviour. Such a perspective as allows us to understand how socioeconomic structure emerges from human behaviour was contributed to the Brisbane Club by Peter Earl in particular.

The core proposition of the Brisbane Club model of psychology, which is at the core of its model of socioeconomic systems, is that the mind, much like the brain from which it emerges, is a network structure. The model built on this proposition draws, in particular, on the neuropsychological perspective offered by Friedrich Hayek (1952), the philosophical perspective of Kenneth Boulding (1956), and Kelly (1963), but also the cognitivist perspective offered by Herbert Simon (1968). The nodes in mental networks represent objects and events that exist in our environment and higher order categorisations thereof – people, goods, services, money, their attributes, actions, speech, needs, wants. The connections within these networks represent our knowledge of the world, our “worldview” or “personal construction” of reality, in the form of the relationships we construe between objects and events in the environment and higher-order categorisations of them. Mental networks take on the aspect of classificatory schema (Piaget, 1923; Luria, 1973; Hayek, 1952) as well as cognitive systems for analysing the relation of such categorisations (Newell, 1990) and expectations of the course of events such as are categorised thereby (Kelly, 1963). They are in constant state of evolution through the incorporation of new connections, the strengthening of those which exist by their use and the fading of those which aren’t used (Edelman, 1987). The psychological process which transforms the socioeconomic environment into behaviour is constrained to operate within this network, and operates upon it to cause its evolution.

The socioeconomic environment, which is both external and internal to the individual (in the style of Simon, 1956) contains information (in the Shannonian, $1948 \mathrm{a}, 1948 \mathrm{~b}$ sense) which must be transformed into perrepts of the objects and events and classifications thereof in the environment. This is the role of perception,which transforms information in any given environment into percepts of the objects and events in the environment along with classifications thereof. Perception, we might say, provides us with the interface between the world and our personal knowledge of it (Merleau-Ponty, 1945,1948 ; Polanyi, 1958).

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Society and economy as complex evolving networks

Potts 的论点是激发昆士兰大学在经济学院约翰·福斯特教授的领导下的十年思考。来自世界各地的各种思想家集中在学校，成为“布里斯班俱乐部”，并为其新兴模式提供的观点贡献了元素。该模型整合了心理学、制度和进化经济学的见解，同时将传统分析作为一个特例。为了分析第四次工业革命的巨型技术，我们将利用本文作者之一在博士研究过程中编写的两份技术文件中综合和形式化的模型（MarkeyTowler，2016，2018a）。

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