### 经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|ECO211

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|The Other Data in the Determination of the Surplus

Let us now briefly see how classical authors determine the other circumstances required to determine the amount and the rate of profit: quantities produced, production methods, rates of land rent.

We start with the quantities produced. The composition of production (an issue that did not arise in the corn economy example) is explained, for the part relative to the composition of consumption, as dependent on the historical development of consumption habits; the size and the composition of the production of capital goods are explained on the basis of the technical needs for reintegration of the capital stock and of society’s propensity to accumulate; both consumption habits, and the propensity to accumulate, are considered historically variable and depending on the specific circumstances of the period. The aggregate level of production is considered to depend on the stage reached by the accumulation of capital, that is, on the past share of the surplus allocated to reinvestment rather than to consumption; and also, in the classical authors not accepting Say’s Law (see below Sect. 1.9.2), on the factors determining fluctuations and crises, on which more later.

An important difference of these views from the later marginal approach is that one does not find in the classical authors the idea of a labour demand curve, establishing a univocal connection between real wage and labour employment and allowing a simultaneous determination of real wages and labour employment and hence level of aggregate production. ${ }^{19}$ The effects of, for example, a change of the real wage rate on the composition of consumption, or on savings, or on employment, are considered sufficiently historically variable as to suggest a different method of analysis: in a first stage the effects of a change of the real wage on prices, on land rents and on profits are studied by taking the quantities produced as unchanged; this study is strictly analytical-deductive (see below); the results of this study can then be used in a second, more inductive stage of the analysis to try and estimate the probable effects on the quantities produced according to the specificities of the case. ${ }^{20}$ Thus for example in Marx a rise of real wages definitely reduces the average rate of profit (the deductive, certain conclusion), but its effects on the quantities produced are to be determined according to historical circumstances, because sometimes a moderate increase in wages can stimulate aggregate production and employment owing to the workers’ greater demand for consumption goods, at other times it can result in a discouragement to investment and to employment if perceived by capitalists as signalling a dangerous social strength of workers, capable of endangering the continuation of the capitalists’ class domination.

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Technology

The production technology adopted is explained by the classical authors as dependent on the stage reached by technical progress, and on the demand for natural resources, as we will see when we come to the determination of land rent. Initially for simplicity I neglect land rent.

The stage reached by technical progress determines the known alternative production methods for each commodity. The real wage, by determining costs, determines the relative convenience of these alternative methods, and this relative convenience determines the choice of production method on the basis of cost minimization; since real wages in general change only slowly, generally little attention is given to how their changes affect adopted methods. Great importance is given to the tendency to an increased division of labour, viewed as also affected by the extent of the market. According to Adam Smith:

) This great increase of the quantity of work which, in consequence of the division of labour, the same number of people are capable of performing, is owing to three different circumstances; first, to the increase of dexterity in every particular workman; secondly, to the saving of the time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another; and lastly, to the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many (WN, I, i, $5 ; 1975$, p. 7 ).

The indivisibilities generally associated with machines require a minimum size of production in order for certain innovations to be profitable, so enlargements of markcts help the introduction of morc modcrn tcchnologics.

Although not given great relevance by classical authors, the choice among alternative production methods for the same good and how it can be influenced by income distribution are issues that the approach must be able to tackle; modern analyses have greatly clarified the issues, let us illustrate the modern approach starting from the simplest case, the corn economy.

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Technology

）由于分工而使同样数量的人能够完成的工作量的这种大幅度增加，是由于三种不同的情况造成的；第一，提高每个特定工人的灵巧度；其次，节省从一种工作转移到另一种工作时通常会浪费的时间；最后，发明了大量的机器，这些机器方便并减少了劳动，使一个人能够完成许多人的工作（WN，I，i，5;1975，页。7）。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。