会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|PACC6001

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE TWO-STAGE PROCESS

Earlier in this chapter, Figure 3.3 was used to contrast the general features of $\mathrm{ABC}$ systems with traditional costing systems. It was pointed out that $A B C$ systems differ from traditional systems by having a greater number of cost centres in the first stage, and a greater number, and variety, of cost drivers/ allocation bases in the second stage of the two-stage allocation process. We shall now look at $\mathrm{ABC}$ systems in more detail.

You will see from Figure 3.3 that another major distinguishing feature of $\mathrm{ABC}$ is that overheads are assigned to each major activity, rather than departments, which normally represent cost centres with traditional systems. Activities consist of the aggregation of many different tasks, events or units of work that cause the consumption of resources. They tend to consist of verbs associated with objects. Typical production support activities include schedule production, setup machines, move materials, purchase materials, inspect items and process supplier records. When costs are accumulated by activities they are known as activity cost centres or activity cost pools. Production process activities include machine products and assembly products. Thus, within the production process, activity cost centres are sometimes identical to the cost centres used by traditional cost systems. Generally with $\mathrm{ABC}$ systems cost centres are often decomposed into many different activity centres.

We shall now use Example 3.1 for the Enterprise Company to compute the product costs for an $\mathrm{ABC}$ system. The computations are shown in Exhibit 3.2. ABC systems normally decompose production cost centres into many different activity centres, but to keep things simple we shall assume that the three production centres (i.e. the two machine centres and the assembly centre) established for the traditional costing system have also been identified as activity centres with the $\mathrm{ABC}$ system. Therefore, the production activity cost centres shown in Exhibit 3.2 are identical to the cost centres used by the traditional cost system shown in Exhibit 3.1. However, we shall assume that three activity centres have been established for each of the two support functions. For materials procurement the following activity centres have been established.

会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|EXTRACTING RELEVANT COSTS FOR DECISION-MAKING

The cost computations relating to the Enterprise Company for products $\mathrm{A}$ and $\mathrm{B}$ represent the costs that should be generated for meeting inventory valuation and profit measurement requirements. For decision-making, non-manufacturing costs should also be taken into account. In addition, some of the costs that have been assigned to the products may not be relevant for certain decisions. For example, if you look at the overhead analysis sheet in Exhibit 3.1, you will see that property taxes, depreciation of machinery and insurance of buildings and machinery have been assigned to cost centres, and thus included in the costs assigned to products for both traditional and $\mathrm{ABC}$ systems. If these costs are unaffected by a decision to discontinue a product they should not be assigned to products when undertaking product discontinuation reviews. However, if cost information is used to determine selling prices, such costs may need to be assigned to products to ensure that the selling price of a customer’s order covers a fair share of all organizational costs. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the costs incorporated in the overhead analysis are suitably coded so that different overhead rates can be extracted for different combinations of cost. This will enable relevant cost information to be extracted from the database for meeting different requirements. For an illustration of this approach you should refer to the answer to Review problem 3.23 .

Our objective in this chapter has not been to focus on the cost information that should be extracted from the costing system for meeting decision-making requirements. Instead, it is to provide you with an understanding of how cost systems assign costs to cost objects. In Chapter 9, we shall concentrate on the cost information that should be extracted for decision-making. Also, only the basic principles of $\mathrm{ABC}$ have been introduced. A more theoretical approach to $\mathrm{ABC}$ will be presented in Chapter 10 with an emphasis being given to how cost information generated from an $\mathrm{ABC}$ system can be used for decision-making.

Our discussion in this chapter has assumed that the actual overheads for an accounting period have been allocated to the products. However, the use of actual figures can be problematic. This is because the product cost calculations would have to be delayed until the end of the accounting period, since the overhead rate calculations cannot be obtained before this date. However, information on product costs is required more quickly if it is to be used for monthly profit calculations and inventory valuations or as a basis for setting selling prices. One may argue that the timing problem can be resolved by calculating actual overhead rates at more frequent intervals, say on a monthly basis, but the difficulty here is that a large amount of overhead expenditure is fixed in the short term whereas activity will vary from month to month, giving large fluctuations in the overhead rates. Furthermore, customers will only buy if they know the price they are being charged; a ‘market’ price could be quoted but this should still be checked against a predicted cost.

管理会计代考

有限元方法代写

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MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。