金融代写|利率理论代写portfolio theory代考|FNCE463

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我们提供的利率理论portfolio theory及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
金融代写|利率理论代写portfolio theory代考|FNCE463

金融代写|利率理论代写portfolio theory代考|Asset Allocation and Asset Class Portfolio Responsibilities

The job of a portfolio manager is to help clients meet their wealth accumulation and spending needs. Many clients expect to preserve the real value of the original principal and spend only the real return. Some have well-defined cash inflows and outflows. Virtually all clients want their portfolio managers to maximize the value of their savings and protect from falling short of their needs.

The asset allocation problem requires portfolio managers to select the weights of asset classes, such as equities, bonds, and cash, through time to meet their clients’ monetary needs. Asset allocation determines a large portion of the level and pattern of investment performance. The remainder is determined by the individual asset class vehicle(s) and their underlying holdings. The goals of asset allocation are to manage variability, provide for cash flow needs, and generate asset growth-in other words, risk and return, either absolute or relative to a target or benchmark. Clients are diversified in most situations by holding investments in several reasonably uncorrelated assets. Derivative instruments may help with this process. Asset allocation may also be a source of excess performance, with the portfolio manager actively adjusting weights to take advantage of perceived under- and overvaluations in the market.
Many portfolio managers do not make asset allocation decisions. Instead, they are hired to run a pool of money in a single asset class, or style within an asset class. They may have a narrowly defined benchmark and limited latitude to select securities outside of a prespecified universe-such as a small-cap value manager or distressed-high-yield-bond manager. In most cases, the strategy or style is independent of clients-the portfolio manager follows his or her investment process regardless of clients’ broader wealth and spending needs. In fewer cases, portfolios are customized to clients’ needs. For example, immunized fixed income portfolios involve customized duration matching and equity completeness funds are customized to provide dynamic, specialized sector and style characteristics.

金融代写|利率理论代写portfolio theory代考|Representative Investment Problems

Client relationships are typically defined by formal documents with stated investment objectives that include return goals, income needs, and risk parameters. Objectives and related guidelines are determined by the client type and individual situation and preferences.

More and more individual investors are seeking the support of professional portfolio managers. Retail mutual funds began growing rapidly in the bull market of the 1980s. There are now more mutual funds than stocks on the New York Stock Exchange, and hundreds of Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs), all directed by portfolio managers. In many cases these managers are charged with individual asset class management, although the number of hybrid funds, requiring management of asset class weights, has grown rapidly since 2009. Currently popular horizon-based funds, which ended 2017 with $\$ 1.1$ trillion in assets, are made up of multiple asset classes whose weights change through time in a prespecified fashion. Such funds require two levels of allocation-one determining the asset class weights and the other the fund or security weights within the individual asset classes.

The high-net-worth business has grown rapidly, with the level of service tied to client asset levels. Clients with more than $\$ 5$ million in assets typically receive face-toface advice on asset allocation and manager selection that is supplemented by other money-related services. Smaller clients receive a lower level of service through online questionnaires and phone conversations.

A defined benefit (DB) pension plan represents a pool of money set aside by a company, government institution, or union to pay workers a stipend in retirement determined by prespecified wage-based formulas. A DB plan is characterized by a schedule of forecast future cash flows whose shape is determined by the sponsor’s employee demographics. The present value of this stream of payments, or liability, varies with interest rates. A portfolio manager’s goal is to set both asset allocation and funding policies to meet these cash flow needs at the lowest possible cost and lowest risk of falling short of the required outflows. Plans frequently hire pension consultants ${ }^{6}$ to help them with in-house asset allocation, or in some cases hire external DB asset allocation managers. Accounting standards require U.S. corporations to include on their financial statements the effect of changes in liability present values relative to changes in the market values of the assets held to offset them. This requires close management of the relationship between assets and liabilities, and many companies are replacing their DB plans with alternative forms of employee retirement programs to avoid the inherent risk.

金融代写|利率理论代写portfolio theory代考|FNCE463


金融代写|利率理论代写portfolio theory代考|Asset Allocation and Asset Class Portfolio Responsibilities



金融代写|利率理论代写portfolio theory代考|Representative Investment Problems


越来越多的个人投资者正在寻求专业投资组合经理的支持。零售共同基金在 1980 年代的牛市中开始迅速增长。现在,纽约证券交易所的共同基金数量超过了股票数量,还有数百个交易所交易基金 (ETF),全部由投资组合经理管理。尽管自 2009 年以来,需要管理资产类别权重的混合基金数量迅速增长,但在许多情况下,这些基金经理负责管理单个资产类别。目前流行的基于水平的基金,截至 2017 年$1.1万亿资产,由多个资产类别组成,其权重以预先指定的方式随时间变化。此类基金需要两个级别的分配——一个确定资产类别的权重,另一个确定单个资产类别中的基金或证券权重。


固定收益 (DB) 养老金计划代表公司、政府机构或工会拨出的资金池,用于向工人支付由预先指定的基于工资的公式确定的退休津贴。DB 计划的特点是预测未来现金流的时间表,其形状由发起人的员工人口统计决定。这种支付流或负债的现值随利率而变化。投资组合经理的目标是制定资产配置和融资政策,以尽可能低的成本和最低的未达到所需流出量的风险来满足这些现金流需求。计划经常聘请养老金顾问6帮助他们进行内部资产配置,或者在某些情况下聘请外部 DB 资产配置经理。会计准则要求美国公司在其财务报表中包含负债现值变化相对于所持有资产的市场价值变化的影响以抵消它们。这需要密切管理资产和负债之间的关系,许多公司正在用替代形式的员工退休计划取代他们的 DB 计划,以避免固有风险。

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术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。



有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。





随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。


多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。


MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。



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