### 统计代写|复杂网络代写complex networks代考| Non-hierarchical

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写复杂网络complex networks方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写复杂网络complex networks方面经验极为丰富，各种代写复杂网络complex networks相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等楖率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|复杂网络代写complex networks代考|Non-hierarchical

The non-hierarchical methods approach the problem from a different perspective. In principle, they intend to calculate a full distance matrix for the nodes of the network. This can then be treated by conventional techniques.

One of the earliest approaches to community detection is due to Eriksen et al. $[41,42]$. They study a diffusion process on a network and analyze the decay of the modes of the following diffusive system with discrete time:

2622 Standard Approaches to Network Structure: Block Modeling
$$\rho_{i}(t+1)-\rho_{i}(t)=\sum_{j}\left(T_{i j}-\delta_{i j}\right) \rho_{j}(t)$$
Here $T_{i j}$ represents the adjacency matrix of the network such that $T_{i j}=1 / k_{j}$ for $A_{i j}=1$ and zero otherwise. Hence $T_{i j}$ represents the probability of a random walker to go from $j$ to $i$. The decay of a random initial configuration $\rho(t=0)$ toward the steady state is characterized by the eigenmodes of the transition matrix $T_{i j}$. The eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigenvalues can then be used to define a distance between nodes which helps in identifying communities. To do this, the eigenvectors belonging to the largest non-trivial positive eigenvalues are plotted against each other. This diffusion approach is very similar in spirit to other algorithms based on the idea of using flow simulations for community detection as suggested by van Dongen [43] under the name of “Markov clustering” (MCL).

The method presented by Zhou [44-46] first converts the sparse adjacency matrix of the graph into a full distance matrix by calculating the average time a Brownian particle needs to move from node $i$ to $j$. Then this distance matrix is clustered using ordinary hierarchical clustering algorithms. This approach is based on the observation that a random walker has shorter traveling time between two nodes if many (short) alternative paths exist.

Another spectral approach has been taken by Muños and Donetti [47]. They work with the Laplacian matrix of the network. The Laplacian is defined as
$$L_{i j}=k_{i} \delta_{i j}-A_{i j} .$$
Otherwise, the method proposed is similar to Ref. [41]. Plotting the nontrivial eigenvectors against each other gives a low-dimensional representation of a distance measure of the network on top of which a conventional clustering procedure then needs to operate.

Though these methods are able to recover known community structures with good accuracy, they suffer from being less intuitive. Communities found can only be interpreted with respect to the particular system under study, be it a diffusive system or the eigen vectors of the Laplacian matrix. Problematic is also that there is no local variant of these methods, i.e., there is no way to find the community around a given node using spectral methods.

## 统计代写|复杂网络代写complex networks代考|Optimization Based

A different approach which is reminiscent of the parametric clustering procedures known in computer science is the idea of searching for partitions with maximum modularity $Q$ using combinatorial optimization techniques [48]. This approach has been adopted by Guimera et al. in Refs. [2, 49] or Massen et al. $[50]$ using simulated annealing [51] or Duch and Arenas using extremal optimization [52].

Though this approach will be the preferred one for the remainder of this book, a number of issues remain. For the hierarchical algorithms, a community was to be understood as whatever the algorithm outputs. Now, it is not the algorithm that defines what a community is, but the quality function, i.e., the modularity $Q$ in this case. Also, the modularity $Q$ as defined by Newman [23] is parameter free and an understanding for hierarchical and overlapping structures needs to be developed.

## 统计代写|复杂网络代写complex networks代考|Conclusion

Block structure in networks is a very common and well-studied phenomenon. The concepts of structural and regular equivalence as well as the types of blocks defined for generalized block modeling are well defined but appear too rigid to be of practical use for large and noisy data sets. Diagonal block models or modular structures have received particular attention in the literature and have developed into an almost independent concept of cohesive subgroups or communities. The comparison of many different community definitions from various fields has shown that the concept of module or community in a network is only vaguely defined. The diversity of algorithms published is only a consequence of this vague definition. None of the algorithms could be called “ideal” in the sense that it combines the features of computational efficiency, accuracy, flexibility and adaptability with regard to the network and easy interpretation of the results. More importantly, none of the above-cited publications allows an estimation to which degree the community structure found is a reality of the network or a product of the clustering process itself. The following chapters are addressing these issues and present a framework in which community detection is viewed again as a special case of a general procedure for detecting block structure in networks.

## 统计代写|复杂网络代写complex networks代考|Non-hierarchical

2622 网络结构的标准方法：块建模
ρ一世(吨+1)−ρ一世(吨)=∑j(吨一世j−d一世j)ρj(吨)

Zhou[44-46]提出的方法首先通过计算布朗粒子从节点移动所需的平均时间，将图的稀疏邻接矩阵转换为全距离矩阵一世到j. 然后使用普通的层次聚类算法对这个距离矩阵进行聚类。这种方法基于以下观察：如果存在许多（短）替代路径，则随机游走者在两个节点之间的旅行时间更短。

Muños 和 Donetti [47] 采用了另一种光谱方法。他们使用网络的拉普拉斯矩阵。拉普拉斯算子定义为

## 广义线性模型代考

statistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。